254,826 results match your criteria total children

Analysis of Pediatric Surgery Using the National Healthcare Insurance Service Database in Korea: How Many Pediatric Surgeons Do We Need in Korea?

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 10;36(18):e116. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: In the past, general surgeons (GSs) without a pediatric surgical subspecialty often performed surgery on children and, even now, GSs are performing many pediatric surgeries. We aimed to investigate the involvement of pediatric surgeons (PSs) and GSs in pediatric surgery, compare the outcomes of surgery in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and estimate the appropriate PS workforce in Korea.

Methods: We used surgical data from the National Health Insurance Service database that was collected from patients under the age of 19 years in hospitals nationwide from January 2002 to December 2017. Read More

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Sexual aggression against males: Differences between acts by males and females - Results from the German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD).

Child Abuse Negl 2021 May 8;117:105071. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute for Sex Research, Sexual Medicine and Forensic Psychiatry University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Current research examining sexual aggression against males is rare and representative studies often do not sufficiently differentiate between male and female affected persons, male and female offending person, as well as between different types of sexual aggression.

Objective: We investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression against males perpetrated by males and females distinguished by the type of sexual aggression and examined differences between sexual aggression against males committed by males and females in characteristics of the sexual aggression.

Participants And Setting: We examined representative self-report data collected in the German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD; n = 4,955). Read More

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Associations between blood heavy metal(loid)s and serum heme oxygenase-1 in pregnant women: Do their distribution patterns matter?

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;286:117249. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/ Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing, 100191, PR China; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, PR China.

The relationship between heavy metal(loid)s exposure and oxidative stress damage is a matter of research interest. Our study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the nine heavy metal(loid)s in blood of pregnant women, including four toxic heavy metal(loid)s [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg)] and five typical heavy metal(loid)s [manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se)] in blood. Blood samples of 348 women were collected and their concentrations in the serum (sr) and blood cells (bc) were measured, as well as serum heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (an oxidative stress marker). Read More

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Identifying the K-12 classrooms' indoor air quality factors that affect student academic performance.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 4;786:147498. Epub 2021 May 4.

Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools, College of Education and Humans Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 216 Mabel Lee Hall, Lincoln, NE, United States.

The objective of this study was to investigate associations between indoor air quality (IAQ) in K-12 classrooms and student academic performance. During the academic years 2015-2017, various IAQ factors in 220 classrooms in the US were measured seasonally, excluding summer. Measurements were taken during occupied and unoccupied times in several classrooms within each school. Read More

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Human exposure and health risk assessment of an increasingly used antibacterial alternative in personal care products: Chloroxylenol.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 5;786:147524. Epub 2021 May 5.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

The ban of some antibacterial ingredients, such as triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), in personal care products (PCPs) in some countries (but not in China) has resulted in the increasing use of antibacterial alternatives, such as chloroxylenol (PCMX). However, the underlying human health risks and environmental impacts of PCMX exposure are largely unknown. Thus, the distribution characteristics of PCMX in PCPs and susceptible populations and the major routes and health risks of human exposure to PCMX were investigated. Read More

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Effect of Age at Cochlear Implantation in Educational Placement and Peer Relationships.

Ear Hear 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

1Department of Otolaryngology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2These authors contributed equally to this work.

Objectives: The education and school life of children who have undergone cochlear implantation (CI) is very important and should be monitored continuously. This study assessed auditory performance in children with cochlear implants over time, along with educational placement and peer relationship, and compared the results based on the age at CI and the presence of additional disabilities.

Design: In total, 77 children who had undergone CI at the Hearing Center in Ajou University Hospital at less than 10 years old and who were presently attending school or had already graduated from school within 3 years were enrolled in this study. Read More

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February 2021

Cost-effectiveness evidence of mental health prevention and promotion interventions: A systematic review of economic evaluations.

PLoS Med 2021 May 11;18(5):e1003606. Epub 2021 May 11.

Deakin University, Deakin Health Economics, Institute for Health Transformation, School of Health and Social Development, Geelong, Australia.

Background: The prevention of mental disorders and promotion of mental health and well-being are growing fields. Whether mental health promotion and prevention interventions provide value for money in children, adolescents, adults, and older adults is unclear. The aim of the current study is to update 2 existing reviews of cost-effectiveness studies in this field in order to determine whether such interventions are cost-effective. Read More

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Validity of Automated Threshold Audiometry: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Ear Hear 2013 05 31. Epub 2013 May 31.

Department of Communication Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Objectives: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the validity (test-retest reliability and accuracy) of automated threshold audiometry compared with the gold standard of manual threshold audiometry was conducted.

Design: A systematic literature review was completed in peer-reviewed databases on automated compared with manual threshold audiometry. Subsequently a meta-analysis was conducted on the validity of automated audiometry. Read More

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Maintenance of an Immunogenic Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination in Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health Indiana University School of Medicine Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Comparative Effectiveness Research, Indianapolis, IN.

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease because of splenic dysfunction. To mitigate this risk, patients are protected with prophylactic penicillin until completion of pneumococcal vaccination series. The objective of this study was to assess the maintenance of a protective immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in children with SCD. Read More

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Speed agility trends in children according to growth.

Ann Hum Biol 2021 May 11:1-26. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WV1 1SB, UK.

Background: Speed agility is considered as the whole assessment of speed of movement, agility and coordination. The 10x4m test has been broadly used to evaluate physical fitness and overall health in children of developmental ages. A myriad of studies have investigated the ecology of speed agility (SA). Read More

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Impacts of an egg intervention on nutrient adequacy among young Malawian children.

Matern Child Nutr 2021 May 11:e13196. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Eggs are a rich source of multiple nutrients that support child growth and development. Provision of eggs as a complementary food may improve dietary adequacy among young children at risk for undernutrition. Our objective was to test the impact of an egg intervention on the adequacy of total nutrient intakes and micronutrient density among 6- to 15-month-old Malawian children. Read More

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Effect of Early Childhood Cow's Milk Elimination Diet on Eating Behaviors, Nutrition, and Growth Status at age 2-6 years.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Health Sciences Turkey, Gülhane Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Ankara, Turkey, 06010.

Background:  To investigate the eating behavior, nutritional status, and growth of Caucasian children in ages 2-6 years who had a diet due to Cow's Milk Protein Allergy (CMA - [Ig E-mediated and/or non-Ig E-mediated]) in early childhood.

Methods:  In this cross-sectional, case-control study, the CME (Cow's Milk Elimination) group was constituted of children aged 0-2 who received a CME diet due to CMA, proved by an oral food challenge test and had reintroduced cow's milk for at least ≥ three months ago. The control group never had a restricted diet. Read More

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[Carrier screening model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy for women of reproductive age based on a pre-pregnancy birth defect control platform].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;38(5):485-487

Hangzhou Health Service Center for Children and Women, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310006, China.

Objective: To establish a screening model for females of reproductive age carrying Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) variants based on a current community health examination platform.

Methods: A total of 61 870 participants were recruited between October 2017 and October 2019. Serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured with a Roche Cobasc 701/702 using an enzymatic rate method. Read More

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Predictors of failed enema reduction in children with intussusception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To identify predictors of failed enema reduction in children with intussusception.

Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for all studies published over a 20-year time frame, prior to March 25, 2020. Original articles that reported predictors of failed enema reduction were included. Read More

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Does maternal iodine supplementation during the lactation have a positive impact on neurodevelopment of children? Three-year follow up of a randomized controlled trial.

Eur J Nutr 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4763, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine, for the first time, the neurodevelopmental outcomes in children whose mothers received different doses of iodine supplements during lactation.

Methods: We conducted a follow-up study on children whose mothers participated in a randomized clinical trial to receive placebo, 150 µg/day or 300 µg/day of iodine until 12 months postpartum. Child neurocognitive development was assessed at 36 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition. Read More

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Effect of an Internet-Delivered Stepped-Care Program vs In-Person Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 May;325(18):1863-1873

Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Importance: In most countries, young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder have limited access to specialist cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a first-line treatment.

Objective: To investigate whether internet-delivered CBT implemented in a stepped-care model is noninferior to in-person CBT for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Design, Setting And Participants: A randomized clinical noninferiority trial conducted at 2 specialist child and adolescent mental health clinics in Sweden. Read More

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Radiologic Findings in Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

Otol Neurotol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University Department of Radiology, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Pediatric sudden sensorineural hearing loss (pSSNHL) is a rare phenomenon. There is currently no consensus on the role of imaging in the work-up for this patient population. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) studies in determining the etiology of pSSNHL. Read More

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Risk Factors of Extensively Drug Resistant Typhoid Fever Among Children in Karachi: Case-Control Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 May 11;7(5):e27276. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Public Health, Community Medicine and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Extensively drug resistant typhoid fever (XDR-TF) has been responsible for an ongoing outbreak in Pakistan, which began in November 2016.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with XDR-TF.

Methods: This age- and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during May-October 2018 in Karachi. Read More

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Infantile orbital abscess: clinical presentation, microbiological profile, and management outcomes.

Orbit 2021 May 11:1-7. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orbit, Oculoplasty, Reconstructive and Aesthetics, Chennai, India.

: Orbital abscesses in children are not uncommon. Unless managed in a timely fashion, they can potentially lead to vision-threatening as well as life-threatening complications. The objective of this study is to report the clinical and microbiological profile and management outcomes in infants presenting with orbital abscesses. Read More

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COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: A Community-Based Research in Turkey.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 11:e14336. Epub 2021 May 11.

Istanbul Medeniyet University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: The frequency of vaccine refusal and hesitation, which is associated with many factors, is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this study is to estimate the frequency of vaccine refusal against COVID-19 vaccines and to identify the underlying factors for refusal or hesitation.

Materials And Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a district of Istanbul between 25-30 December 2020. Read More

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How COVID-19 Has Globalized: Unknown Origin, Rapid Transmission, and the Immune System Nourishment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:119-147

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) profoundly influences T-cell immunity. The counts of total T cells and T-cell subsets, especially CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, are decreased in patients with COVID-19. Also, the function of these cells becomes less effective as the expression of immune inhibitory receptors, such as Tim3 and PD-1, increases over time during the disease. Read More

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January 2021

A Nutrition-Sensitive Agroecology Intervention in Rural Tanzania Increases Children's Dietary Diversity and Household Food Security But Does Not Change Child Anthropometry: Results from a Cluster-Randomized Trial.

J Nutr 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Background: There are urgent calls for the transformation of agriculture and food systems to address human and planetary health issues. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture and agroecology promise interconnected solutions to these challenges, but evidence of their impact has been limited.

Objectives: In a cluster-randomized trial (NCT02761876), we examined whether a nutrition-sensitive agroecology intervention in rural Tanzania could improve children's dietary diversity. Read More

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The effect of physical activity intervention and nutritional habits on anthropometric measures in elementary school children: the health oriented pedagogical project (HOPP).

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Overweight and obesity are a burden of the modern world that requires urgent action. Prevention has proven to be efficient in the fight against overweight and obesity. As many children gain excessive weight at an early age, intervention during school years are important. Read More

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The effects of the exposure to neurotoxic elements on Italian schoolchildren behavior.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9898. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Occupational Health, University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili, 1, 25123, Brescia, BS, Italy.

Neurodevelopmental disorders are constantly increasing on a global scale. Some elements like heavy metals are known to be neurotoxic. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the neurobehavioral effect of the exposure to trace elements including lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, arsenic and selenium and their interactions among 299 schoolchildren residing in the heavily polluted Taranto area in Italy. Read More

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The Risk of Multimorbidity Associated with Overweight and Obesity: Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey 2013.

J Obes Metab Syndr 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.

Background: An increase in body mass index (BMI) is strongly associated with the occurrence of multimorbidity, and overweight and obesity are contributing factors for the increase in morbidities. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of multimorbidity and associated factors in Brazilian adults with and without overweight or obesity.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study with data from the National Health Survey (2013) including individuals aged 18 years or older. Read More

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Preconception alcohol consumption and risk of miscarriage in over 4.5 million Chinese women aged 20-49 years.

BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Research Institute for Family Planning, Beijing, China

Objective: To assess the impact of preconception alcohol consumption on risk of miscarriage incidence, and further evaluate the association between maternal periconception drinking abstinence and miscarriage.

Methods: We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study in China between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2016. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in standard questionnaires. Read More

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Promotion of Meal Premiums in Child-Directed TV Advertising for Children's Fast-food Meals.

Pediatrics 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

The C. Everett Koop Institute.

Background: Fast-food intake is a modifiable obesity risk factor in early childhood, and child-directed fast-food marketing is common. Per self-regulatory guidelines regarding deception, premiums (ie, incentives or toy giveaways) in child-directed advertisements must be secondary to the advertised product.

Methods: Content analyses were performed of all child-directed fast-food television (TV) advertisements aired on four national US children's TV networks, February 1, 2019, through January 31, 2020, to assess the emphasis of premiums relative to food. Read More

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Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid serum concentrations across life stages in the USA: an analysis of NHANES 2011-2012.

BMJ Open 2021 May 10;11(5):e043301. Epub 2021 May 10.

Science and Technology, Pharmavite LLC, Mission Hills, California, USA.

Objective: To determine reference ranges of circulating long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a nationally representative population of Americans. To provide context, serum concentrations of LC omega-3 were compared with concentrations associated with consuming the recommended amount of EPA and DHA by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and the Omega-3 Index (EPA+DHA).

Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Read More

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Stratification of type 2 diabetes mellitus by age of diagnosis in the UK Biobank reveals subgroup-specific genetic associations and causal risk profiles.

Diabetes 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) might change with increasing age. Here, we used a stratification based on age of diagnosis, to gain insight in the genetics and causal risk factors of T2D across different age groups. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on T2D and T2D subgroups based on age of diagnosis (<50 years, 50-60, 60-70, and >70 years; total of 24,986 cases). Read More

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Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ*) into Brazilian Portuguese.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Divisão de Otorrinolaringologia, Departamento de Oftalmologia, Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea is a frequent entity in childhood that can lead to important consequences for the health and children's quality of live. Polysomnography is the gold-standard exam to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea, but it is expensive, complex, and poorly affordable in Brazil. The pediatric sleep questionnaire has shown to be a valuable screening test for obstructive sleep apnea. Read More

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