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A Health-Literacy Intervention for Early Childhood Obesity Prevention: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

Pediatrics 2021 May;147(5)

Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; and.

Background And Objectives: Children who become overweight by age 2 have greater risk of long-term obesity and health problems. The study aim was to assess the effectiveness of a primary care-based intervention on the prevalence of overweight at age 24 months.

Methods: In a cluster-randomized trial, sites were randomly assigned to the Greenlight intervention or an attention-control arm. Read More

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Summary measures of socioeconomic and area-based inequalities in fertility rates among adolescents: evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys 2000-2016.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 21;21(1):763. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

HaSET Maternal and Child Health Research Program, Shewarobit Field Office, Shewarobit, Ethiopia.

Background: One of the highest rates of adolescent pregnancies in the world is in sub-Saharan Africa. Most adolescent pregnancies in the region are unintended or unwanted, due to poor access to information and services on sexual and reproductive health for adolescents. Ethiopia has high adolescent fertility rates (AFR) with disparities across socioeconomic subgroups and regions. Read More

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A single-cell genomics pipeline for environmental microbial eukaryotes.

iScience 2021 Apr 10;24(4):102290. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Single-cell sequencing of environmental microorganisms is an essential component of the microbial ecology toolkit. However, large-scale targeted single-cell sequencing for the whole-genome recovery of uncultivated eukaryotes is lagging. The key challenges are low abundance in environmental communities, large complex genomes, and cell walls that are difficult to break. Read More

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Reliability of Serological Prestin Levels in Humans and its Relation to Otoacoustic Emissions, a Functional Measure of Outer Hair Cells.

Ear Hear 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT Connecticut Institute for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT.

Objectives: Serological biomarkers, common to many areas of medicine, have the potential to inform on the health of the human body and to give early warning of risk of compromised function or illness before symptoms are experienced. Serological measurement of prestin, a motor protein uniquely produced and expressed in outer hair cells, has recently been identified as a potential biomarker to inform on the health of the cochlea. Before any test can be introduced into the clinical toolkit, the reproducibility of the measurement when repeated in the same subject must be considered. Read More

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Independent evolution of the thioredoxin system in photosynthetic Paulinella species.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr;31(7):R328-R329

Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea. Electronic address:

Redox regulation allows phytoplankton to monitor and stabilize metabolic pathways under changing conditions. In plastids, the thioredoxin (TRX) system is linked to photosynthetic electron transport and fine tuning of metabolic pathways to fluctuating light levels. Expansion of the number of redox signal transmitters and their protein targets, as seen in plants, is believed to increase cell robustness. Read More

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The Early Youth Engagement in first episode psychosis (EYE-2) study: pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a team-based motivational engagement intervention to improve engagement.

Trials 2021 Apr 12;22(1):272. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Population Health Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) services improve health outcomes for young people with psychosis in the medium-long term, but 25% of young people disengage in the first 12 months with costs to their mental health, families, society and the NHS. This study will evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and implementation of a team-based motivational Early Youth Engagement (EYE-2) intervention.

Method: The study design is a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) with economic evaluation, comparing the EYE-2 intervention + standardised EIP service to standardised EIP service alone, with randomisation at the team level. Read More

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Predicting failure before it happens: A 5-year, 1042 participant prospective study.

Med Teach 2021 Apr 12:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Aston Medical School, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Purpose Of The Article: Students who fail assessments are at risk of negative consequences, including emotional distress and cessation of studies. Identifying students at risk of failure before they experience difficulties may considerably improve their outcomes.

Methods: Using a prospective design, we collected simple measures of engagement (formative assessment scores, compliance with routine administrative tasks, and attendance) over the first 6 weeks of Year 1. Read More

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Complexity and sophistication of Early Middle Paleolithic flint tools revealed through use-wear analysis of tools from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel.

J Hum Evol 2021 May 5;154:102955. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, 3498838 Haifa, Israel.

The Early Middle Paleolithic (EMP) is a less-studied phase of the Levantine Middle Paleolithic, attributable to the small number of sites discovered. Drawing on the dense archaeological accumulations at Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel, the present study seeks to trace EMP daily activities and behavioral patterns through the prism of use-wear analysis. The emergence of the laminar and Levallois technologies that form the EMP toolkit is investigated to reveal other dimensions of tool novelties. Read More

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Changes in Degree Centrality of Network Nodes in Different Frequency Bands in Parkinson's Disease With Depression and Without Depression.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:638554. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Depression induces an early onset of Parkinson's disease (PD), aggravates dyskinesia and cognitive impairment, and accelerates disease progression. However, it is very difficult to identify and diagnose PD with depression (PDD) in the early clinical stage. Few studies have suggested that the changes in neural networks are associated with PDD, while degree centrality (DC) has been documented to be effective in detecting brain network changes. Read More

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Evolution of Matrix Gla and Bone Gla Protein Genes in Jawed Vertebrates.

Front Genet 2021 10;12:620659. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

ISEM, CNRS, IRD, EPHE, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Matrix Gla protein (Mgp) and bone Gla protein (Bgp) are vitamin-K dependent proteins that bind calcium in their γ-carboxylated versions in mammals. They are recognized as positive (Bgp) or negative (Mgp and Bgp) regulators of biomineralization in a number of tissues, including skeletal tissues of bony vertebrates. The Mgp/Bgp gene family is poorly known in cartilaginous fishes, which precludes the understanding of the evolution of the biomineralization toolkit at the emergence of jawed vertebrates. Read More

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Parent-delivered interventions used at home to improve eating, drinking and swallowing in children with neurodisability: the FEEDS mixed-methods study.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Mar;25(22):1-208

Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Eating, drinking and swallowing difficulties are common in young children with neurodisability. These difficulties may lead to inadequate calorie intake, which affects a child's nutrition, growth and general physical health.

Objective: To examine which interventions are available that can be delivered at home by parents to improve eating, drinking and swallowing in young children with neurodisability and are suitable for investigation in pragmatic trials. Read More

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Ultrasound: an emerging modality for the dysphagia assessment toolkit?

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jun;29(3):213-218

Swiss University of Speech and Language Sciences SHLR, Rorschach, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: Videofluoroscopy (VFSS) and fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) are established instrumental techniques to support differential diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Whilst their value is undisputed, each tool is not without limitations. The COVID-19 pandemic has restricted access to VFSS and FEES leading clinicians to explore alternative or augmentative tools to support swallowing assessment. Read More

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Using Wearable Activity Trackers to Predict Type 2 Diabetes: Machine Learning-Based Cross-sectional Study of the UK Biobank Accelerometer Cohort.

JMIR Diabetes 2021 Mar 19;6(1):e23364. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Background: Between 2013 and 2015, the UK Biobank collected accelerometer traces from 103,712 volunteers aged between 40 and 69 years using wrist-worn triaxial accelerometers for 1 week. This data set has been used in the past to verify that individuals with chronic diseases exhibit reduced activity levels compared with healthy populations. However, the data set is likely to be noisy, as the devices were allocated to participants without a set of inclusion criteria, and the traces reflect free-living conditions. Read More

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A toolkit for the quantitative evaluation of chronic wounds evolution for early detection of non-healing wounds.

J Tissue Viability 2021 May 2;30(2):161-167. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

The Quantitative BioImaging (QuBI) Lab, University of Vic - Central University of Catalonia (UVic-UCC), C. de La Laura, 13, 08500, Vic, Spain.

Background: Chronic wounds resulting from a number of conditions do not heal properly and can pose serious health problems. Beyond clinician visual inspection, an objective evaluation of the wound is required to assess wound evolution and the effectiveness of therapies.

Aim: Our objective is to provide a methodology for the analysis of wound area vs. Read More

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Quantitative Assessment of Neuroinflammation, Myelinogenesis, Demyelination, and Nerve Fiber Regeneration in Immunostained Sciatic Nerves From Twitcher Mice With a Tissue Image Analysis Platform.

Toxicol Pathol 2021 06 11;49(4):950-962. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Research and Early Development, 10926BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

Scoring demyelination and regeneration in hematoxylin and eosin-stained nerves poses a challenge even for the trained pathologist. This article demonstrates how combinatorial multiplex immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative digital pathology bring new insights into the peripheral neuropathogenesis of the Twitcher mouse, a model of Krabbe disease. The goal of this investigational study was to integrate modern pathology tools to traditional anatomic pathology microscopy workflows, in order to generate quantitative data in a large number of samples, and aid the understanding of complex disease pathomechanisms. Read More

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Single Molecule Characterization of Amyloid Oligomers.

Molecules 2021 Feb 11;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China.

The misfolding and aggregation of polypeptide chains into β-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils is associated with a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence indicates that the oligomeric intermediates populated in the early stages of amyloid formation rather than the mature fibrils are responsible for the cytotoxicity and pathology and are potentially therapeutic targets. However, due to the low-populated, transient, and heterogeneous nature of amyloid oligomers, they are hard to characterize by conventional bulk methods. Read More

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February 2021

Validation of Segmented Brain Tumor from MRI Images Using 3D Printingthe.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Feb 1;22(2):523-530. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Research and Development, RTWO Healthcare Private LLP, Mahalakshmipuram, Bengaluru, 560086, India.

Background: Early diagnosis of a brain tumor is important for improving the treatment possibilities. Manually segmenting the tumor from the volumetric data is time-consuming, and the visualization of the tumor is rather challenging.

Methods: This paper proposes a user-guided brain tumour segmentation from MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) images developed using Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) and printing the segmented object using the 3D printer for tumour quantification. Read More

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February 2021

Integrative analysis of multi-omics data highlighted TP53 as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of survival in breast invasive carcinoma patients.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Feb 10;92:107457. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Institute of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The global incidence of breast invasive carcinoma (BRIC) has risen significantly in recent years, so it is important to identify the novel biomarkers for the early detection and treatment of BRIC. The role of the TP53 gene is well studied in the pathogenesis of BRIC but still, observations are conflicting. Therefore, this study was initiated to have a consolidated overview of TP53 contributions in the BRIC initiation and progression by analyzing its mutatome, expression variations, promoter methylation level, clinical outcome, and drug sensitivity analysis in BRIC using cBioPortal, UALCAN, KM plotter, and CCLE GDSC toolkit database. Read More

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February 2021

Preschool Communication: Early Identification of Concerns About Preschool Language Development and Social Participation.

Front Public Health 2020 22;8:546536. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, MHeNS School for Mental Health and NeuroScience, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Adverse communication development in preschool children is a risk factor influencing child health and well-being with a negative impact on social participation. Language and social skills develop and maintain human adaptability over the life course. However, the accuracy of detecting language problems in asymptomatic children in primary care needs to be improved. Read More

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January 2021

Prioritization of Pediatric Palliative Care Field-Advancement Activities in the United States: Results of a National Survey.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Division of Pediatric Palliative Care and Rebecca D. Considine Research Institute, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH, USA.

Background: The field of pediatric palliative care (PPC) continues to encounter challenges and opportunities to improving access to high-quality PPC services. In early 2019, a workshop identified 11 potential "next step" actions, and subsequently a national survey-based poll of members of the PPC community was conducted to prioritize these potential actions in terms of their "actionable importance."

Methods: Invitations to the survey were distributed in October 2019 to interdisciplinary PPC health care professionals via email to two major listservs, one hosted by the Section of Hospice and Palliative Medicine of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the other by the Center to Advance Palliative Care. Read More

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January 2021

Children are more forgiving of accidental harms across development.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 May 18;205:105081. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.

Forgiveness is a powerful feature of human social life, allowing for the restoration of positive cooperative relationships. Despite its importance, we know relatively little about how forgiveness develops during early life and the features that shape forgiveness decisions. Here, we investigated forgiveness behavior in children aged 5-10 years (N = 257) from the United States, varying transgressor intent and remorse in a behavioral task that pitted punishment against forgiveness. Read More

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Nanobody: a promising toolkit for molecular imaging and disease therapy.

EJNMMI Res 2021 Jan 19;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Nanobodies are the recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain-only antibodies, with many unique properties such as small size, excellent solubility, superior stability, quick clearance from blood, and deep tissue penetration. As a result, nanobodies have become a promising tool for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases. As imaging tracers, nanobodies allow an early acquisition of high-quality images, provide a comprehensive evaluation of the disease, and subsequently enable a personalized precision therapy. Read More

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January 2021

Identification of key pathways and biomarkers in anaplastic thyroid cancer using an integrated analysis.

J BUON 2020 Nov-Dec;25(6):2690-2699

Department of Clinical Medicine, The Second Clinical Medical College, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Purpose: Thyroid carcinoma (THCA) is one of the most common endocrine tumours with high morbidity worldwide. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most fatal and has the poorest prognosis of the four THCA types, as it lacks effective treatments. Early screening of ATC is problematic and so identifying ATC biomarkers is increasingly crucial. Read More

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January 2021

Routine health management information system data in Ethiopia: consistency, trends, and challenges.

Glob Health Action 2021 Jan;14(1):1868961

Ministry of Health , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

: Ethiopia is investing in the routine Health Management Information System. Improved routine data are needed for decision-making in the health sector. : To analyse the quality of the routine Health Management Information System data and triangulate with other sources, such as the Demographic and Health Surveys. Read More

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January 2021

A Live Video Mind-Body Treatment to Prevent Persistent Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jan 14;10(1):e25746. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Integrated Brain Health Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Every year, approximately 42 million people sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, also known as concussion), with particularly high rates among college-aged individuals. A substantial proportion of these people (44%-64%) develop persistent symptoms that are challenging to treat, costly, and associated with significant disability. Anxiety has emerged as a risk factor for progression from acute to persistent mTBI symptoms. Read More

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January 2021

Evaluation of a Training Toolkit to Improve Clinicians' Skills for Dementia Advance Care Planning.

J Palliat Med 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

The Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Primary care clinicians care for most persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRDs), yet lack dementia-specific skills in advance care planning (ACP). To develop and evaluate a training toolkit for primary care clinicians to improve ACP communication for people with ADRD and their families. Clinical practice outcomes assessment and pre-post-training evaluation. Read More

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January 2021

Synaptic Properties and Plasticity Mechanisms of Invertebrate Tonic and Phasic Neurons.

Front Physiol 2020 16;11:611982. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Defining neuronal cell types and their associated biophysical and synaptic diversity has become an important goal in neuroscience as a mechanism to create comprehensive brain cell atlases in the post-genomic age. Beyond broad classification such as neurotransmitter expression, interneuron vs. pyramidal, sensory or motor, the field is still in the early stages of understanding closely related cell types. Read More

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December 2020

Design Strategy of Fluorescent Probes for Live Drug-Induced Acute Liver Injury Imaging.

Acc Chem Res 2021 01 31;54(2):403-415. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China.

Drug-induced acute liver injury (DIALI) is increasingly recognized as a significant cause of acute liver injury (ALI), which is characterized by a rapid loss of hepatocyte function in patients without pre-existing liver diseases. Evaluation of corresponding biomarkers, including alanine transaminase and aspartate amino transferase, is available as a diagnostic tool for hepatotoxicity. However, these blood tests have certain limitations: (1) they are generally not available for early estimation; (2) it is difficult to visualize and identify hepatotoxicity unambiguously in real-time; and (3) the biomarkers are not unique and are usually influenced by a variety of diseases, leading to potential false results. Read More

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January 2021

A Nutrition Intervention to Promote the Consumption of Pulse-Based Foods in Childcare Centers: Protocol for a Multimethod Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 Dec 24;9(12):e22775. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Background: Plant-based foods, including pulses (dry beans, lentils, chickpeas, and peas), have gained worldwide attention owing to their health and environmental benefits. Despite high production, the consumption of pulses is low in Canada. Behavior change interventions systematically designed to promote the consumption of pulse-based foods are scarce. Read More

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December 2020