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Model-Based Estimation of Iohexol Plasma Clearance for Pragmatic Renal Function Determination in the Renal Transplantation Setting.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Iohexol plasma clearance-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination provides an accurate method for renal function evaluation. This technique is increasingly advocated for clinical situations that dictate highly accurate renal function assessment, as an alternative to conventional serum creatinine-based methods with limited accuracy or poor feasibility. In the renal transplantation setting, this particularly applies to living renal transplant donor eligibility screening, renal transplant function monitoring and research purposes. Read More

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In Vivo and Ex Vivo Patient-Derived Tumor Xenograft Models of Lymphoma for Drug Discovery.

Curr Protoc 2021 Apr;1(4):e96

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

In the hemato-oncology field, remarkable scientific progress has been achieved, primarily propelled by the discovery of new technologies, improvement in genomics, and novel in vitro and in vivo models. The establishment of multiple cell line collections and the development of instrumental mouse models enhanced our ability to discover effective therapeutics. However, cancer models that faithfully mimic individual cancers are still imperfect. Read More

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Teaching Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium using Population-Level Punnett Squares: Facilitating Calculation for Students with Math Anxiety.

CBE Life Sci Educ 2021 Jun;20(2):ar22

Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602.

Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium and its accompanying equations are widely taught in introductory biology courses, but high math anxiety and low math proficiency have been suggested as two barriers to student success. Population-level Punnett squares have been presented as a potential tool for HW equilibrium, but actual data from classrooms have not yet validated their use. We used a quasi-experimental design to test the effectiveness of Punnett squares over 2 days of instruction in an introductory biology course. Read More

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Geographically Indexed Referral Databases to Address Social Needs in the Emergency Department.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Mar 4;22(2):218-224. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Unmet health-related social needs (HRSN) are among the drivers of disparities in morbidity and mortality during public health emergencies such as the novel coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Although emergency departments (ED) see a high volume of patients with HRSN, ED providers have limited time to complete detailed assessments of patients' HRSN and are not always able to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information to patients on available community resources. Electronic, geographically indexed resource database systems have the potential to provide an efficient way for emergency physicians to rapidly identify community resources in settings where immediate social work consultation is not accessible. Read More

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Bedside Ultrasound Conducted in Kids with distal upper Limb fractures in the Emergency Department (BUCKLED): a protocol for an open-label non-inferiority diagnostic randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 14;22(1):282. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Children frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with forearm injuries and often have x-rays to determine if there is a fracture. Bedside ultrasound, also known as point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), is an alternative diagnostic test used to rapidly diagnose a fracture at the time of examination, without exposing children to ionising radiation. Prospective studies have demonstrated high agreement between POCUS and x-ray findings. Read More

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The Use of Personality Assessment in Mentoring and to Aid in Self-reflection in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Programs.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (Tornetta), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (Resad), and Pediatric Orthopaedics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (Kogan).

Personality plays an important role in performance in medical education and mentorship. Personality assessment can aid in the ability to identify strengths and areas for development by understanding how one's personality influences their learning and interpersonal relationships. We sought to evaluate personality assessment as an effective tool in mentoring during orthopaedic residency in this prospective, cross-sectional study from two orthopaedic surgery residency programs using the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI). Read More

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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lamotrigine, Lacosamide, and Levetiracetam in Dried Capillary Blood - Determination of Conversion Factors for Serum-Based Reference Ranges.

Ther Drug Monit 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

MVZ Labor Krone GbR, Bad Salzuflen, Germany Society for Epilepsy Research, Bielefeld, Germany Bethel Epilepsy Center, Mara Hospital, Bielefeld, Germany.

Background: Drug concentrations of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are routinely determined from blood serum or plasma at trough levels (prior to intake of morning dose). In capillary blood collection, blood is taken from the fingertip with the aid of a disposable tool and dried on absorbent material. The volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS™) technique offers several advantages over the use of filter paper cards. Read More

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Mobile application for monitoring behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in patients with moderate to severe dementia.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Brain and Mind Wellness Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Aim: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in patients with moderate-severe dementia and have negative impacts on both patients and caregivers. There is a lack of a tool for caregivers to monitor patients' BPSD by themselves. This study aimed to develop and validate a mobile application for caregivers to use in monitoring BPSD. Read More

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The Use of Electroencephalography in Patients with Sepsis: a Review of The Literature.

J Transl Int Med 2021 Mar 5;9(1):12-16. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras, Achaia, Greece.

Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is the term used to define brain dysfunction related to infections that are principally located outside the central nervous system (CNS). A number of published studies report that electroencephalography (EEG) has been used in the evaluation of patients with sepsis, alone or usually in combination, to evoked potentials and neuroimaging. This was in an effort to assess if EEG can be a tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of the neurological status in sepsis patients. Read More

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Intra-mammary lymph nodes, an overlooked breast cancer prognostic tool?

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 13;19(1):114. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute-Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Due to the high variability of incidence and prevalence of intra-mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs), they might be overlooked during clinical and radiological examinations. Properly characterizing pathological IMLNs and detecting the factors that might influence their prevalence in different stages of breast cancer might aid in proper therapeutic decision-making and could be of possible prognostic value.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed for all breast cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Cairo University between 2013 and 2019. Read More

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Assessment of feasibility and acceptability of family-centered care implemented at a neonatal intensive care unit in India.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Apr 13;21(1):171. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Vridhi Project, New Delhi, India.

Background: A family-centered care (FCC) parent participation program that ensures an infant is not separated from parents against their will was developed for the caring of their small or sick newborn at a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Delhi, India. Healthcare provider sensitization training directed at psychosocial and tangible support and an audio-visual training tool for parent-attendants were developed that included: 1) handwashing, infection prevention, protocol for entry; 2) developmentally supportive care, breastfeeding, expression of breastmilk and assisted feeding; 3) kangaroo mother care; and 4) preparation for discharge and care at home. The study aimed to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the FCC model in a NICU in India. Read More

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Deep CNN-Based CAD System for COVID-19 Detection Using Multiple Lung CT Scans.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR.

Background: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the imminent collapse of healthcare systems following the excessive consumption of financial, hospital, and medicinal resources, the WHO changed the alert level on the COVID-19 pandemic from high to very high. Meanwhile, the world began to favor less expensive and more precise COVID-19 detection methods.

Objective: Machine vision-based COVID-19 detection methods especially Deep learning as a diagnostic technique in the early stages of the disease have found great importance during the pandemic. Read More

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Deletion of LBR N-terminal domains recapitulates Pelger-Huet anomaly phenotypes in mouse without disrupting X chromosome inactivation.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 12;4(1):478. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

EMBL-Rome, Epigenetics and Neurobiology Unit, Monterotondo (RM), Italy.

Mutations in the gene encoding Lamin B receptor (LBR), a nuclear-membrane protein with sterol reductase activity, have been linked to rare human disorders. Phenotypes range from a benign blood disorder, such as Pelger-Huet anomaly (PHA), affecting the morphology and chromatin organization of white blood cells, to embryonic lethality as for Greenberg dysplasia (GRBGD). Existing PHA mouse models do not fully recapitulate the human phenotypes, hindering efforts to understand the molecular etiology of this disorder. Read More

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Management of intractable oronasal bleeding using Sengstaken-Blakemore tubes in patients with facial trauma: a case series and technical notes.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2021 Mar 31;8(1):65-70. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Objective: Intractable massive oronasal bleeding can become a life-threatening condition. The success rate of conventional bleeding control methods other than transarterial embolization (TAE) is not expected to be high. We investigated the efficacy of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) balloon tamponade in patients with sustained and intractable oronasal bleeding secondary to facial injury. Read More

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Can Coupling Multiple Complementary Methods Improve the Spectroscopic Based Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Illnesses? A Proof of Principle Study Using Celiac Disease as the Model Illness.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Gastroenterology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

Spectroscopic methods are a promising approach for providing a point-of-care diagnostic method for gastrointestinal mucosa associated illnesses. Such a tool is desired to aid immediate decision making and to provide a faster pathway to appropriate treatment. In this pilot study, Raman, near-infrared, low frequency Raman, and autofluoresence spectroscopic methods were explored alone and in combination for the diagnosis of celiac disease. Read More

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Healthcare waste management assessment: Challenges for hospitals in COVID-19 pandemic times.

Waste Manag Res 2021 Apr 12:734242X211010362. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Federal University of Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

With the spread of the new Coronavirus, there was an increase in the generation of contaminated waste. Thus, healthcare waste management (HCWM) became even a greater challenge in hospitals due to Coronavirus easily spread. In this context, it was necessary to create tools that could aid healthcare facilities in evaluating their HCWM. Read More

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Urinary biomarkers indicative of recovery from spinal cord injury: A pilot study.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 18;10:178-185. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

Current assessments of recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) focus on clinical outcome measures. These assessments bear an inherent risk of bias, emphasizing the need for more reliable prognostic biomarkers to measure SCI severity. This study evaluated fluid biomarkers as an objective tool to aid with prognosticating outcomes following SCI. Read More

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Identifying high-confidence capture Hi-C interactions using CHiCANE.

Nat Protoc 2021 Apr 9;16(4):2257-2285. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

The ability to identify regulatory interactions that mediate gene expression changes through distal elements, such as risk loci, is transforming our understanding of how genomes are spatially organized and regulated. Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) is a powerful tool to delineate such regulatory interactions. However, primary analysis and downstream interpretation of CHi-C profiles remains challenging and relies on disparate tools with ad-hoc input/output formats and specific assumptions for statistical modeling. Read More

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Quantitative determination and characterization of polyphenols from Cissus quadrangularis L. and dietary supplements using UHPLC-PDA-MS, LC-QToF and HPTLC.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Mar 23;199:114036. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS, 38677, USA; Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS, 38677, USA.

Stem and leaf of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae), indigenous to Asia and Africa, were used for medicinal and dietary purposes with limited information about the plant's phytochemistry. Stem and leaf samples were assessed for the simultaneous determination of polyphenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside, leachianol F, amurensin A, pallidol, resveratrol, and quadrangularin A), using UHPLC-PDA-MS. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas: a Nobel Prize award-winning precise genome editing technology for gene therapy and crop improvement.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Apr;22(4):253-284

Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA.

Since it was first recognized in bacteria and archaea as a mechanism for innate viral immunity in the early 2010s, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) has rapidly been developed into a robust, multifunctional genome editing tool with many uses. Following the discovery of the initial CRISPR/Cas-based system, the technology has been advanced to facilitate a multitude of different functions. These include development as a base editor, prime editor, epigenetic editor, and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activator (CRISPRa) gene regulators. Read More

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Digital image processing to detect subtle motion in stony coral.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7722. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195-2400, USA.

Coral reef ecosystems support significant biological activities and harbor huge diversity, but they are facing a severe crisis driven by anthropogenic activities and climate change. An important behavioral trait of the coral holobiont is coral motion, which may play an essential role in feeding, competition, reproduction, and thus survival and fitness. Therefore, characterizing coral behavior through motion analysis will aid our understanding of basic biological and physical coral functions. Read More

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The appropriate number of preoperative core needle biopsy specimens for analysis in breast cancer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25400

Department of Breast Surgery, General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University.

Abstract: Ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has been recognized as a crucial diagnostic tool for breast cancer. However, there is a lack of guidance for hospitals that are not equipped with adjunctive US. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and experience of freehanded CNB in the outpatient department, and to determine the minimum number of tissue strips required to obtain concordance for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and tumor grade with the excised specimen. Read More

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Online Decision Aids for Knee Arthroplasty: An Environmental Scan.

JBJS Rev 2021 04 8;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe) (S.K., I.A.H., and M.S.), Institute of Academic Surgery (S.K., I.A.H., and M.S.), and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (S.K., I.A.H., and M.H.), Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Knee arthroplasty is a high-risk, resource-intensive procedure that should be reserved for patients in whom the benefit will outweigh the risks. The provision of high-quality, publicly available decision aids can help patients to balance the benefits against the harms of treatments and to assist informed decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the content and readability of freely available knee arthroplasty decision aids. Read More

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A Predictive Model of Antibody Binding in the Presence of IgG-Interacting Bacterial Surface Proteins.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:629103. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Many bacteria can interfere with how antibodies bind to their surfaces. This bacterial antibody targeting makes it challenging to predict the immunological function of bacteria-associated antibodies. The M and M-like proteins of group A streptococci (GAS) exhibit IgGFc-binding regions, which they use to reverse IgG binding orientation depending on the host environment. Read More

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J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Apr;52(1):320-326

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (), and the appearance of this disease in humans by computed tomography (CT) has been well described. Contrast-enhanced CT abdominal scans of cheetahs without evidence of hepatic disease ( = 5) were reviewed retrospectively to describe the normal appearance of cheetah livers as an aid to antemortem VOD diagnosis. Despite having no clinical signs, clinical pathology abnormalities, or hepatic biopsy histopathology supportive of VOD, all five cheetahs had at least one VOD consistent finding on CT. Read More

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A simple method for implanting free-floating microdevices into the nervous tissue.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Lunder Building Receiving, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114, UNITED STATES.

Objective: Free-floating implantable neural interfaces are an emerging powerful paradigm for mapping and modulation of brain activity. Minuscule wirelessly-powered devices have the potential to provide minimally-invasive interactions with neurons in chronic research and medical applications. However, these devices face a seemingly simple problem - how can they be placed into nervous tissue rapidly, efficiently and in an essentially arbitrary location?

Approach: We introduce a novel injection tool and describe a controlled injection approach that minimizes damage to the tissue. Read More

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Gastrointestinal jabberwocky to bioengineering design: using function diagrams to teach physiology.

Adv Physiol Educ 2021 Jun;45(2):264-268

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, California.

Function diagrams put the focus on physiology and physiological concepts rather than the associated anatomy. Function diagrams could potentially serve as an elaboration tool and memory aid (mnemonic) to improve learning and recall. The function diagram prototype of the gastrointestinal system can aid in the instruction of difficult gastrointestinal physiology topics using a sequential focus on fundamental gastrointestinal functions. Read More

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Utility of 3D printed abdominal aortic aneurysm phantoms: a systematic review.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Surgery, Austin Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: 3D printed (3DP) abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) phantoms are emerging in the literature as an adjunct for the visualization of complex anatomy, particularly for presurgical device selection and simulation. This is the first systematic review to provide a comprehensive overview of 3DP for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) planning and intervention, evaluating the readiness of current levels of technology for mainstream implementation.

Methods: A systematic literature search of PubMed and MEDLINE was performed as per PRISMA guidelines using the terms '3D Printing', 'AAA' OR 'EVAR' and related index terms, and further relevant articles were appraised via a snowballing approach. Read More

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Does implementation of a diagnostic pathway for acute aortic syndrome including D-dimer increase the usage of D-dimer and computed tomography?

CJEM 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Undergraduate Medicine, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Introduction: The Canadian clinical practice guidelines propose a novel diagnostic pathway incorporating a clinical decision tool and D-dimer to aid in risk stratifying patients for acute aortic syndrome. The objective of this study was to assess if implementation of a diagnostic pathway incorporating D-dimer would increase the usage of D-dimer and computed tomography (CT) in a tertiary care emergency department.

Methods: Prospective single centre before and after study-recruiting patients over a 6-week period from a tertiary care emergency department. Read More

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macroMS: Image-Guided Analysis of Random Objects by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Energy Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

Mass spectrometry imaging is well-suited to characterizing sample surfaces for their chemical content in a spatially resolved manner. However, when the surface contains small objects with significant empty spaces between them, more efficient approaches to sample acquisition are possible. Image-guided mass spectrometry (MS) enables high-throughput analysis of a diverse range of sample types, such as microbial colonies, liquid microdroplets, and others, by recognizing and analyzing selected location targets in an image. Read More

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