128,696 results match your criteria tonic-clonic seizures


Characterizing the seizure onset zone and epileptic network using EEG-fMRI in a rat seizure model.

Neuroimage 2021 May 2:118133. Epub 2021 May 2.

Bioland Laboratory Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, China; Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Neuroelectrophysiological Laboratory, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Accurate epileptogenic zone (EZ) or seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization is crucial for epilepsy surgery optimization. Previous animal and human studies on epilepsy have reported that changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals induced by epileptic events could be used as diagnostic markers for EZ or SOZ localization. Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recording is gaining interest as a non-invasive tool for preoperative epilepsy evaluation. Read More

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Microglia provide structural resolution to injured dendrites after severe seizures.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(5):109080

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA; Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Although an imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition underlies seizures, clinical approaches that target these mechanisms are insufficient in containing seizures in patients with epilepsy, raising the need for alternative approaches. Brain-resident microglia contribute to the development and stability of neuronal structure and functional networks that are perturbed during seizures. However, the extent of microglial contributions in response to seizures in vivo remain to be elucidated. Read More

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Hyperactive behaviour in Angelman syndrome: the association with sleep problems and age of epilepsy onset.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

NevSom, Department of Rare Disorders, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Sleep problems are common in many neurodevelopmental disorders, but little is known about how sleep is related to behavioural symptoms in Angelman syndrome (AS) or other genetic disorders. Hyperactive behaviour, sleep problems and epilepsy seem to be more common in AS than in other genetic conditions associated with severe intellectual disability. We hypothesised that both more sleep problems and earlier onset of epileptic seizures would predict more symptoms of hyperactivity. Read More

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The molecular and phenotypic spectrum of CLCN4-related epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Berlin Free University, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: This study was undertaken to expand the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of CLCN4-related epilepsy and to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations.

Methods: We systematically reviewed the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of newly diagnosed and previously reported patients with CLCN4-related epilepsy. Three novel variants identified in four patients reported in this study were evaluated through in silico prediction and functional analysis by Western blot, immunofluorescence, and electrophysiological measurements. Read More

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Seizure freedom and plasma levels of newer generation antiseizure medications.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Neurology Service, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objectives: Contrary to older antiseizure medications (ASM), correlation between plasma levels and seizure freedom is not well defined for newer generation ASM. We assessed correlations between efficacy and newer generation ASM plasma levels in patients with epilepsy.

Materials And Methods: Plasma medication levels were measured over two years in consecutive patients taking lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, zonisamide, lacosamide, perampanel or pregabalin. Read More

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Electroencephalography of mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of delirium.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objective: Neurophysiological exploration of ICU delirium is limited. Here, we examined EEG characteristics of medical-surgical critically ill patients with new-onset altered consciousness state at high risk for ICU delirium.

Materials And Methods: Pre-planned analysis of non-neurological mechanically ventilated medical-surgical ICU subjects, who underwent a prospective multicenter randomized, controlled EEG study (NCT03129438, April 2017-November 2018). Read More

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Sensitivity of Uni- vs Bilateral Spike-Wave Discharges to Ethosuximide and Carbamazepine in the Fluid Percussion Injury Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurophysiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, United Statesgrid.266190.a.

Unilateral-onset spike-wave discharges (SWDs) following fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats have been used for nearly two decades as a model for complex partial seizures in human post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). This study determined if SWDs with a unilateral versus bilateral cortical onset differed. In this experiment, 2-month old rats received severe FPI (3 atm) or sham surgery, and were instrumented for chronic video-electrocorticography (ECoG) recording (up to 9 months). Read More

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Natural history study of adults with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome 2: Patient-reported outcomes study.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, Pisa, Italy.

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene disorder consisting of prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, distinctive craniofacial features, intellectual disability, and seizures. The condition is caused by a partial loss of material from the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3). Read More

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Increased branched-chain amino acids at baseline and hours before a spontaneous seizure in the human epileptic brain.

Epilepsia 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

The objective of this study was to monitor the extracellular brain chemistry dynamics at baseline and in relation to spontaneous seizures in human patients with refractory epilepsy. Thirty patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy underwent intracranial electroencephalography and concurrent brain microdialysis for up to 8 continuous days. Extracellular brain glutamate, glutamine, and the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine, and isoleucine were quantified in the dialysis samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

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Modeling seizures in the Human Phenotype Ontology according to contemporary ILAE concepts makes big phenotypic data tractable.

Epilepsia 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: The clinical features of epilepsy determine how it is defined, which in turn guides management. Therefore, consideration of the fundamental clinical entities that comprise an epilepsy is essential in the study of causes, trajectories, and treatment responses. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is used widely in clinical and research genetics for concise communication and modeling of clinical features, allowing extracted data to be harmonized using logical inference. Read More

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A 7-year old female with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, Duane retraction syndrome, and Marcus Gunn phenomenon due to a ZC4H2 gene mutation: a clinical presentation of the Wieacker-Wolff syndrome.

Ophthalmic Genet 2021 May 5:1-3. Epub 2021 May 5.

Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

: Duane retraction syndrome and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita have an incidence of approximately 1:1500-1:3000 live births. However, the association of these two entities with a Marcus-Gunn might be a rare and, until now, under-recognized clinical presentation of the Wieacker-Wolff Syndrome.: We report a 7-year-old female with dysmorphic features, global developmental delay, arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), and unilateral Marcus Gunn jaw winking. Read More

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Deep brain stimulation effects on learning, memory and glutamate and GABA receptor subunit gene expression in kindled rats.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2021 ;81(1):43-57

Department of Physiology , Faculty of Medical Sciences , Tarbiat Modares University , Tehran , Iran ; Institute for Brain Sciences and Cognition , Tarbiat Modares University , Tehran , Iran.

Epileptic seizures are accompanied by learning and memory impairments. In this study, the effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) on spatial learning and memory was assessed in kindled animals and followed for one month. Fully kindled rats received LFS at 4 times (immediately, 6 h, 24 h and 30 h following the final kindling stimulation). Read More

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January 2021

Experimental chronic sleep fragmentation alters seizure susceptibility and brain levels of interleukins 1β and 6.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2021 ;81(1):96-109

Laboratory of Neurophysiology , Institute of Medical Physiology "Richard Burian" , Belgrade University Faculty of Medicine , Belgrade , Serbia.

Brain hyperexcitability in sleep apnea is believed to be provoked by hypoxemia, but sleep fragmentation can also play a significant role. Sleep fragmentation can trigger inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep fragmentation on seizure susceptibility and brain cytokine profile. Read More

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January 2021

A Survey of Caregivers' Knowledge on Detection and Management of Pediatric Fever.

Cureus 2021 Mar 31;13(3):e14222. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Emergency Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, USA.

Introduction Fever is a common presenting symptom for children accounting for over 20% of visits to the emergency department (ED). The symptom of fever in children has been shown to create undue anxiety amongst caregivers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caregivers' detection and management of pediatric fevers to identify potential knowledge gaps in our patient population. Read More

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Seizure in isolated brain cryptococcoma: Case report and review of the literature.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 14;12:153. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biomedicine, Neurosciences and Advanced Diagnostic, Section of Neurosurgery, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection predominantly seen among immunosuppressed patients causing meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Rarely, cryptococcosis can affect immunologically competent hosts with the formation of localized CNS granulomatous reaction, known as cryptococcoma. Common symptoms of CNS cryptococcoma are headaches, consciousness or mental changes, focal deficits, and cranial nerve dysfunction. Read More

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Atypical electrophysiological and behavioral responses to diazepam in a leading mouse model of Down syndrome.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9521. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Mail Stop RBC 6090, Cleveland, OH, 44106-6090, USA.

Mounting evidence implicates dysfunctional GABAR-mediated neurotransmission as one of the underlying causes of learning and memory deficits observed in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome (DS). The specific origin and nature of such dysfunction is still under investigation, which is an issue with practical consequences to preclinical and clinical research, as well as to the care of individuals with DS and anxiety disorder or those experiencing seizures in emergency room settings. Here, we investigated the effects of GABAR positive allosteric modulation (PAM) by diazepam on brain activity, synaptic plasticity, and behavior in Ts65Dn mice. Read More

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One-Stage, Limited-Resection, Epilepsy Surgery for Bottom-of-Sulcus Dysplasia.

Neurology 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, The Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia,

Objective: To determine if one-stage, limited corticectomy controls seizures in patients with MRI-positive, bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia (BOSD).

Methods: We reviewed clinical, neuroimaging, electrocorticography (ECoG), operative and histopathology findings in consecutively operated patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy and MRI-positive BOSD, all of whom underwent corticectomy guided by MRI and ECoG.

Results: 38 patients with median age at surgery of 10. Read More

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Acute neurological consequences of novel psychoactive substance use: a retrospective review in a large UK hospital.

Clin Med (Lond) 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.

Background: Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are a growing public health concern. We aimed to identify the acute neurological consequences of NPS.

Method: We performed a retrospective case-note review of patients who presented to the emergency department after taking NPS. Read More

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Neuropsychological Evaluations in Limbic Encephalitis.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Epileptology, University Hospital Bonn (UKB), 53127 Bonn, Germany.

Limbic encephalitis (LE) can cause dynamic and permanent impairment of cognition and behavior. In clinical practice, the question arises as to which cognitive and behavioral domains are affected by LE and which assessment is suited to monitor the disease progress and the success of treatment. Current findings on cognition and behavior in LE are reviewed and discussed based on current guidelines and consensus papers. Read More

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Variant in A 3-Year-Old-An Expanding Spectrum?

Neurol Int 2021 Apr 29;13(2):184-189. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

"Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania.

Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a ubiquitous role in most aspects of normal brain functioning. Its indispensable position is paradoxically doubled by a high excitotoxic potential following disruption of its dynamic equilibrium. Several lines of evidence have suggested the involvement of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in learning, memory formation, and human cognition. Read More

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A Decision-Tree Approach to Assist in Forecasting the Outcomes of the Neonatal Brain Injury.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 30;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Dental and Nursing Medical Department, Faculty of Medicine, Lucian Blaga University Sibiu, 550169 Sibiu, Romania.

Neonatal brain injury or neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a significant morbidity and mortality factor in preterm and full-term newborns. NE has an incidence in the range of 2.5 to 3. Read More

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Impact of mobile health application on data collection and self-management of epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 1;119:107982. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Recent advances in mobile health have enabled health data collection, which includes seizure and medication tracking and epilepsy self-management. We developed a mobile epilepsy management application, integrated with a hospital electronic health record (EHR). In this prospective clinical trial, we assessed whether the mobile application provides quality healthcare data compared to conventional clinic visits, and enhances epilepsy self-management for patients with epilepsy. Read More

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Pediatric adverse reactions to antiseizure medications - An analysis of data from the Italian spontaneous reporting system (2001-2019).

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 1;119:107989. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: Spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a valuable supplement to clinical studies in informing about the safety of medications. This is especially relevant for pediatric populations, which are not often included in large-scale clinical trials.

Objectives: To evaluate patterns of pediatric ADRs to antiseizure medications (ASMs) reported to the Italian Spontaneous Reporting System (SRS) database during the period November 1, 2001─May 31, 2019. Read More

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Missense and truncating variants in CHD5 in a dominant neurodevelopmental disorder with intellectual disability, behavioral disturbances, and epilepsy.

Hum Genet 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, QC, H3T 1C5, Canada.

Located in the critical 1p36 microdeletion region, the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5 (CHD5) gene encodes a subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex required for neuronal development. Pathogenic variants in six of nine chromodomain (CHD) genes cause autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorders, while CHD5-related disorders are still unknown. Thanks to GeneMatcher and international collaborations, we assembled a cohort of 16 unrelated individuals harboring heterozygous CHD5 variants, all identified by exome sequencing. Read More

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An uncommon case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus successfully treated with enteral Brivaracetam.

Acta Biomed 2021 Apr 30;92(S1):e2021156. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neuroscience, Stroke Unit San Camillo Hospital, Rome.

Background And Aim Of The Work: We present a case of a woman affected by nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) caused by cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) who was successfully treated with Brivaracetam (BRV) administered via nasogastric tube (NGT).

Case Presentation: An 82-years old woman was referred for increasing blood pressure, severe headache and two focal motor seizures on postoperative day four after right CEA. CT scan showed edema of the right hemisphere with a midline shift of 5 mm. Read More

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A case of postpartum headache post dural puncture. Post Dural Puncture Headache or Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome - Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome?

Acta Biomed 2021 May 4;92(S1):e2021119. Epub 2021 May 4.

Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine Division, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome (RCVS) and Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) are two rare neurological conditions, clinically characterized by headache. In our case a diagnosis of PDPH was made though imaging showed signs of RCVS-PRES. We present a case of RCVS-PRES in a postpartum woman who presented headache as first symptom and only later experienced seizures. Read More

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Aβ-related Angiitis (ABRA)-A Rare Paraneoplastic Cause of Cerebral Vasculitis in a Young Patient: A Pathway From Unspecific Neurological Symptoms to Final Diagnosis.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):103-107. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, City of Cologne Municipal Hospitals, Medical Center Cologne-Merheim.

Introduction: Aβ-related angiitis (ABRA) is a very rare disease entity with combined features of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and primary angiitis of the CNS. However, the pathogenesis has not been conclusively described yet. Interestingly though, a possible paraneoplastic origin has been reported in the past. Read More

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Erythropoietin-Associated Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):98-100. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neuroscience, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY.

Introduction: This case demonstrates an underrecognized cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).

Case Report: We report a 51-year-old male with a history of essential hypertension without preexisting renal impairment who presented with 3 days of occipital headache and convulsive status epilepticus in the setting of refractory hypertension. He had been receiving outpatient human recombinant erythropoietin injections for virally mediated bone marrow suppression, which worsened his baseline hypertension. Read More

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Hyperammonemia in Patients With Status Epilepticus Treated With or Without Valproic Acid.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):80-82. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Hyperammonemia is a common side effect of valproic acid (VPA) and can occur after generalized seizures, but the clinical significance is unclear. The aim of this study was to better understand the clinical practice and utility of ammonia testing in status epilepticus (SE) treated with or without VPA.

Methods: Charts of adult patients with SE from St. Read More

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Risk factors for early-onset seizures after stroke: A systematicreview and meta-analysis of 18 observational studies.

Brain Behav 2021 May 4:e02142. Epub 2021 May 4.

Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Shaanxi, China.

Objectives: To systematically evaluate the risk factors of early-onset seizures after stroke, in order to better provide evidence-based results for early detection, identification, targeted prevention, and treatment of this disease.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, and WanFang databases were searched to collect relevant studies on the risk factors of early-onset seizures after stroke from January 2010 to January 2020. Meta-analysis of all included studies was performed by using RevMan version 5. Read More

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