2,159 results match your criteria tmao


Extract Decreases the Susceptibility to HFD-Induced Glycolipid Metabolism Disorder in Mice Exposed to Azithromycin in Early Life.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:774433. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: Studies have shown that gut microbe disorder in mice due to early-life antibiotic exposure promotes glycolipid metabolism disorder in adulthood. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear and there is not yet an effective intervention or treatment for this process.

Purpose: The study investigated whether early-life azithromycin (AZT) exposure in mice could promote high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glycolipid metabolism disorder in adulthood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

[Gut microbiota and its metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO): a novel regulator in coronary artery disease].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Nov;37(11):3745-3756

College of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a chronic disease but causes the highest mortality and morbidity among the cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Correlations between CAD and gut microbiota have been observed. This suggests that the gut microbiota could become a vital diagnostic marker of CAD, and restoring the gut habitat may become a promising strategy for CAD therapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

The gene expression and bioinformatic analysis of choline trimethylamine-lyase ) and its activating enzyme () for gut microbes and comparison with their TMA production levels.

Curr Res Microb Sci 2021 Dec 17;2:100043. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Veterns General Hospital, Hsinchu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Recent studies revealed that some intestinal microorganisms anaerobically convert choline to trimethylamine (TMA) by choline TMA-lyase (). TMA is further oxidized to trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO), by the liver enzyme flavin-dependent monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). TMA in the serum is correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other diseases in human. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Toll-Like Receptor 4: A Macrophage Cell Surface Receptor Is Activated By Trimethylamine-N-Oxide.

Cell J 2021 Oct 30;23(5):516-522. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Objective: Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is considered as a risk factor for atherosclerosis which further leads to inflammation during atherosclerosis. The exact mechanism(s) by which TMAO induces the inflammatory reactions remains to be determined. TMAO can cause the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that triggers activation of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Regulation of blood-brain barrier integrity by microbiome-associated methylamines and cognition by trimethylamine N-oxide.

Microbiome 2021 Nov 27;9(1):235. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: Communication between the gut microbiota and the brain is primarily mediated via soluble microbe-derived metabolites, but the details of this pathway remain poorly defined. Methylamines produced by microbial metabolism of dietary choline and L-carnitine have received attention due to their proposed association with vascular disease, but their effects upon the cerebrovascular circulation have hitherto not been studied.

Results: Here, we use an integrated in vitro/in vivo approach to show that physiologically relevant concentrations of the dietary methylamine trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) enhanced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and protected it from inflammatory insult, acting through the tight junction regulator annexin A1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Changes in Plasma Choline and the Betaine-to-Choline Ratio in Response to 6-Month Lifestyle Intervention Are Associated with the Changes of Lipid Profiles and Intestinal Microbiota: The ICAAN Study.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 10;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Division of Endocrine and Kidney Disease Research, Korea National Institute of Health, Cheongju 28159, Chungbuk, Korea.

Trimethylamine -oxide (TMAO) and its precursors, including choline, betaine, and L-carnitine, are gut microbiota-related metabolites associated with the risk of obesity. We aimed (1) to comprehensively examine whether the changes in plasma TMAO and its precursors induced by lifestyle intervention are associated with the improvements in plasma metabolic parameters; and (2) to identify the fecal microbiome profiles and nutrient intakes associated with these metabolites and metabolic index. Data from 40 participants (obese children and adolescents) having the plasma metabolites data related to the changes in BMI z-scores after 6-month lifestyle intervention were analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Adaptive Modelling of Mutated FMO3 Enzyme Could Unveil Unexplored Scenarios Linking Variant Haplotypes to TMAU Phenotypes.

Molecules 2021 Nov 22;26(22). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Division of Medical Biotechnologies and Preventive Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy.

Background: Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a rare genetic disease characterized by the accumulation of trimethylamine (TMA) and its subsequent excretion trough main body fluids, determining the characteristic fish odour in affected patients. We realized an experimental study to investigate the role of several coding variants in the causative gene , that were only considered as polymorphic or benign, even if the available literature on them did not functionally explain their ineffectiveness on the encoded enzyme.

Methods: Mutational analysis of 26 TMAU patients was realized by Sanger sequencing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Adopting a Mediterranean-style eating pattern with low, but not moderate, unprocessed, lean red meat intake reduces fasting serum trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in adults who are overweight or obese.

Br J Nutr 2021 Nov 26:1-21. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA.

A Mediterranean-style eating pattern (MED-EP) may include moderate red meat intake. However, it is unknown if the pro-atherogenic metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is affected by the amount of red meat consumed with a MED-EP. The results presented are from a secondary, retrospective objective of an investigator-blinded, randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial (two 5-wk interventions separated by a 4-wk washout) to determine if a MED-EP with 200g unprocessed lean red meat/wk (MED-CONTROL) reduces circulating TMAO concentrations compared to a MED-EP with 500g unprocessed lean red meat/wk (MED-RED). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

The role of trimethylamine-N-Oxide in the development of Alzheimer's disease.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Neurophysiology Unit, Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Alzheimer's disease is associated with multiple risk factors and is the most common type of dementia. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota metabolite derived from dietary choline and carnitine, has recently been identified as a potential risk factor of Alzheimer's disease. It has been demonstrated that TMAO is associated with Alzheimer's disease through various pathophysiological pathways. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Are Eggs Good Again? A Precision Nutrition Perspective on the Effects of Eggs on Cardiovascular Risk, Taking into Account Plasma Lipid Profiles and TMAO.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Nov 18:108906. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA. Electronic address:

Although eggs are a nutrient dense food delivering high quality protein and micronutrients, given that eggs are also rich in cholesterol and choline, whether egg intake is contraindicated for individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. In this mini review, we provide a Precision Nutrition perspective, highlighting the importance of two factors: the effect of egg cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentrations in most people and in cholesterol hyper-absorbers, and the effect of egg choline on plasma concentrations of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbe-host co-metabolite independently associated with increased CVD risk. We discuss recent evidence from intervention studies showing that in most individuals egg intake does not have a deleterious effect on plasma lipid profiles, but also highlight that some individuals are cholesterol hyper-absorbers or individuals who are not able to maintain cholesterol homeostasis by suppressing endogenous cholesterol synthesis, and that for these individuals the intake of eggs and other dietary sources of cholesterol would be contraindicated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Stroke Recurrence Depends on Ischemic Stroke Subtypes.

Stroke 2021 Nov 19:STROKEAHA120031443. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital (J. Xu, A.C., J. Xue, A.W., L.D., J.J., X.M., H.L., L.Z., Y.W.).

Background And Purpose: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the role of TMAO in ischemic stroke remains unclear. As we know, ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous disease with variable pathogenesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Trimethylamine N-oxide promotes hyperlipidemia acute pancreatitis via inflammatory response.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Nov 18:1-7. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

School of Basic Medicine, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000, China.

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of gut microbiota, is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory response; however, the role of TMAO in hyperlipidemia acute pancreatitis (HAP) is not clear. In this study, HAP mice were used as an animal model to explore the effects and possible mechanism of TMAO on HAP, which may provide new ideas for the treatment of HAP. Results found that the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, nonestesterified fatty acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, α-amylase, TMAO, and flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 were significantly increased, the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin were significantly decreased, and there was an obvious pancreatic injury and inflammatory response in the model group. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Aggravates Kidney Injury via Activation of p38/MAPK Signaling and Upregulation of HuR.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Nov 17:1-11. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research (Ministry of Education), Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is an intestinal metabolic toxin, which is produced by gut flora via metabolizing high-choline foods. TMAO is known to increase the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism of TMAO aggravating kidney injury. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Serum trimethylamine-N-oxide and gut microbiome alterations are associated with cholesterol deposition in the liver of laying hens fed with rapeseed meal.

Anim Nutr 2021 Dec 14;7(4):1258-1270. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China, Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China.

Sinapine derived from cruciferous plants could be converted into trimethylamine by intestinal microbiota. Its metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), is closely linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and fat deposition in mammals. Hens fed with rapeseed meal (RSM) suffered from fatty liver hemorrhage syndrome (FLHS). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is an Independent Predictor of Long-Term Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 29;8:728724. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Centre for Preclinical Research and Technology (CEPT), Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

To investigate the association of liver metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) with cardiovascular disease (CV)-related and all-cause mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Our prospective observational study enrolled 292 patients with ACS. Plasma concentrations of TMAO were measured during the hospitalization for ACS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

The Fibrotic Effects of TMAO on Human Renal Fibroblasts Is Mediated by NLRP3, Caspase-1 and the PERK/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 1;22(21). Epub 2021 Nov 1.

School of Medical Sciences, Campus USÖ, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a product of gut microbiota metabolism, has previously been shown to be implicated in chronic kidney disease. A high TMAO-containing diet has been found to cause tubulointerstitial renal fibrosis in mice. However, today there are no data linking specific molecular pathways with the effect of TMAO on human renal fibrosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Changes in Trimethylamine-N-oxide Levels in Obese Patients following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass or Sleeve Gastrectomy in a Korean Obesity Surgical Treatment Study (KOBESS).

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 29;10(21). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Surgery, Hanyang University College of Medicine, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04764, Korea.

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite, has been implicated as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular events related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis if TMAO is associated with the reduction of cardiovascular disease in the Korean obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. From a subgroup of a multicenter, nonrandomized, controlled trial, titled KOBESS, 38 obese patients, 18 with and 20 without T2DM, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Trimethylamine N-oxide promotes hyperoxaluria-induced calcium oxalate deposition and kidney injury by activating autophagy.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Nov 10. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Department of Nephrology, Center of Kidney and Urology, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China; Institute of Vegetative Physiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, 10117, Germany. Electronic address:

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the most common component of kidney stones. Oxidative stress, inflammation and autophagy-induced cell death are the major causes of CaOx crystal deposition and CaOx crystal deposition can further lead to kidney injury. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-derived metabolite, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, but the effect of TMAO on hyperoxaluria-induced CaOx crystal deposition and kidney injury remains unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

TMAO promotes apoptosis and oxidative stress of pancreatic acinar cells by mediating IRE1α-XBP-1 pathway.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2021 Nov-Dec;27(6):361-369

School of Basic Medicine, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China.

Background: Acute pancreatitis caused by hyperlipidemia is a severe life-threatening condition. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new therapeutic methods to treat this disease.

Methods: Cell viability was determined by the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Qing-Xue-Xiao-Zhi formula attenuates atherosclerosis by inhibiting macrophage lipid accumulation and inflammatory response via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway regulation.

Phytomedicine 2021 Dec 20;93:153812. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, 23 Backstreet of Art Gallery, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China.; Beijing Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine,23 Backstreet of Art Gallery, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China.. Electronic address:

Background: Atherosclerosis is a progressive chronic disease characterised by aberrant lipid metabolism and a maladaptive inflammatory response. As atherosclerosis-driven cardiovascular disease remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, more effective clinical therapies are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has demonstrated efficacy against atherosclerosis, with Qing-Xue-Xiao-Zhi formula (QXXZF) having been approved for clinical treatment of patients with atherosclerosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

GuanXinNing Tablet Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease via Improving Gut Microbiota, Host Metabolites, and Neuronal Apoptosis in Rabbits.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 28;2021:9253281. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Institute of Comparative Medicine, Experimental Animal Research Center, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China.

Based on accumulating evidence, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related to hypercholesterolemia, gut microbiota, and host metabolites. GuanXinNing Tablet (GXN) is an oral compound preparation composed of two Chinese herbs, Bge. and Hort. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage kidney disease receiving peritoneal dialysis.

Perit Dial Int 2021 Nov 1:8968608211051809. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut bacteria-derived metabolite of l-carnitine and choline. A high concentration of TMAO has been proven to relate to cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and chronic kidney disease progression. We aimed to investigate the relation between the value of serum TMAO and outcomes for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Attenuation of Circulating Trimethylamine N-Oxide Prevents the Progression of Cardiac and Renal Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:751380. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Nephrology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Chronic heart failure (HF) frequently causes progressive decline in kidney function, known as cardiorenal syndrome-2 (CRS2). Current treatment options for CRS2 remain unacceptably limited. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of gut microbiota, has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of both HF and chronic kidney disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Fecal Microbiome Composition Does Not Predict Diet-Induced TMAO Production in Healthy Adults.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 11 29;10(21):e021934. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences Lerner Research Institute Cleveland Clinic Cleveland OH.

Background Trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO) is a small molecule derived from the metabolism of dietary nutrients by gut microbes and contributes to cardiovascular disease. Plasma TMAO increases following consumption of red meat. This metabolic change is thought to be partly because of the expansion of gut microbes able to use nutrients abundant in red meat. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Metabolic response of Mercenaria mercenaria under heat and hypoxia stress by widely targeted metabolomic approach.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 25:151172. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; CAS Engineering Laboratory for Marine Ranching, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

In the context of global climatic changes, marine organisms have been exposed to environmental stressors including heat and hypoxia. This calls for the design of multi-stressors to uncover the impact of oceanic factors on aquatic organisms. So far, little is known about the metabolic response of marine organisms, especially bivalves, to the combined effects of heat and hypoxia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Gut microbiota: a potential target for traditional Chinese medicine intervention in coronary heart disease.

Chin Med 2021 Oct 22;16(1):108. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, People's Republic of China.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common ischaemic heart disease whose pathological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Single target drugs, such as antiplatelet aggregation, coronary artery dilation and lipid-lowering medicines, can relieve some symptoms clinically but cannot effectively prevent and treat CHD. Accumulating evidence has revealed that alterations in GM composition, diversity, and richness are associated with the risk of CHD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

A Six-Day, Lifestyle-Based Immersion Program Mitigates Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Induces Shifts in Gut Microbiota, Specifically , , : A Pilot Study.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 29;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Rd, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence remains elevated globally. We have previously shown that a one-week lifestyle "immersion program" leads to clinical improvements and sustained improvements in quality of life in moderate to high atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk individuals. In a subsequent year of this similarly modeled immersion program, we again collected markers of cardiovascular health and, additionally, evaluated intestinal microbiome composition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Pathobiological Relationship of Excessive Dietary Intake of Choline/L-Carnitine: A TMAO Precursor-Associated Aggravation in Heart Failure in Sarcopenic Patients.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 29;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

The microecological environment of the gastrointestinal tract is altered if there is an imbalance between the gut microbiota phylases, resulting in a variety of diseases. Moreover, progressive age not only slows down physical activity but also reduces the fat metabolism pathway, which may lead to a reduction in the variety of bacterial strains and bacteroidetes' abundance, promoting firmicutes and proteobacteria growth. As a result, dysbiosis reduces physiological adaptability, boosts inflammatory markers, generates ROS, and induces the destruction of free radical macromolecules, leading to sarcopenia in older patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Nutrition Intervention for Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk in African Americans Using the 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Primary Prevention Guidelines.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 28;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Cook County Department of Public Health, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Introduction: The 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Prevention Guidelines emphasize reduction in dietary sodium, cholesterol, refined carbohydrates, saturated fat and sweetened beverages. We hypothesized that implementing this dietary pattern could reduce cardiovascular risk in a cohort of volunteers in an urban African American (AA) community church, during a 5-week ACC/AHA-styled nutrition intervention, assessed by measuring risk markers and adherence, called HEART-LENS (Helping Everyone Assess Risk Today Lenten Nutrition Study).

Methods: The study population consisted of 53 volunteers who committed to eat only home-delivered non-dairy vegetarian meals (average daily calories 1155, sodium 1285 mg, cholesterol 0 mg; 58% carbohydrate, 17% protein, 25% fat). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Cardiovascular Health and The Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem: The Impact of Cardiovascular Therapies on The Gut Microbiota.

Microorganisms 2021 Sep 23;9(10). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P. O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia.

It has become evident over the past several years that the intestinal microbial ecosystem plays a critical role in the development and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and other metabolic disorders, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. The intestinal microbiota ecosystem functions as a major virtual endocrine organ that interacts and responds to molecules' signals within the host. Several meta-organismal pathways are involved in the gut-host interaction, including trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021