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Intrauterine immunizations trigger antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immunity in pigs and passive protection in suckling piglets.

Vaccine 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO), University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5E3, Canada; Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4, Canada. Electronic address:

We assessed whether vaccines administered to the uterus at breeding can lead to sufficient colostral antibodies to protect suckling piglets against Porcine Endemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV). An antigen from Lawsonia intracellularis, a disease that impacts weanling intestinal health, was also included because we have extensive knowledge on the pig immune response to this antigen. Gilts were mock-bred at 2nd estrus with killed sperm including an intrauterine (i. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of Pre-Season Antibodies against Influenza Virus on Risk of Influenza Infection among Health Care Personnel.

J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Biology and the Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: The association of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies with protection from influenza among healthcare personnel (HCP) with occupational exposure to influenza viruses has not been well-described.

Methods: The Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial was a cluster-randomized, multi-site study that compared medical masks to N95 respirators in preventing viral respiratory infections among HCP in outpatient healthcare settings for 5,180 participant-seasons. Serum HAI antibody titers before each influenza season and influenza virus infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction were studied over four study years. Read More

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September 2021

Management of inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Immunol Med 2021 Sep 16:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has had an enormous impact on public health, medical systems, economies, and social conditions. The pandemic has also greatly influenced medical care systems for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Establishment of a global registry system and accumulated experiences have led to consensus for IBD management under the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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September 2021

Poor neutralizing antibody responses in 106 patients with WM after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2; a prospective study.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to accelerated vaccine development within less than a year. Immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies are more susceptible to COVID-19 and at higher risk of severe complications and worse outcomes compared with general population. In this context, we evaluated the humoral response by determining the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) after vaccination with the BNT162b2 or AZD1222 vaccine. Read More

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September 2021

Establishment of a mouse- and egg-adapted strain for the evaluation of vaccine potency against H3N2 variant influenza virus in mice.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University.

Sporadic spreads of swine-origin influenza H3N2 variant (H3N2v) viruses were reported in humans, resulting in 437 human infections between 2011 and 2021 in the USA. Thus, an effective vaccine is needed to better control a potential pandemic for these antigenically distinct viruses from seasonal influenza. In this study, a candidate vaccine strain with efficient growth capacity in chicken embryos was established through serial blind passaging of A/Indiana/08/2011 (H3N2)v in mice and chicken embryos. Read More

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September 2021

Protective and immunostimulatory effects of in-feed preparations of an anticoccidial, a probiotic, a vitamin-selenium complex, and Ferulago angulata extract in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria species.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Sep 15;17(1):307. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.

Background: Two experiments were conducted to compare the growth-promoting (experiment 1), protective, and immunostimulatory effects (experiment 2) of salinomycin, probiotic, a vitamin-selenium complex, and Ferulago angulata hydroalcoholic extract (FAE) against coccidiosis in broilers. In each experiment, 350 1-day-old broiler chickens were equally divided in 7 groups: uninfected negative control (NC); infected positive control (PC); or PC supplemented with salinomycin (Sal); probiotic (Pro); a combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium (ECSe); 200 mg/kg of FAE (FAE200); or 400 mg/kg of FAE (FAE400). All these groups (except NC) were challenged via oral gavage with oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. Read More

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September 2021

Unmethylated CpG motif-containing genomic DNA fragments of bacillus calmette-guerin improves immune response towards a DNA vaccine for COVID-19.

Vaccine 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) and WHO Collaborating Center for Standardization and Evaluation of Biologicals, No.31 Huatuo Street, Daxing District, Beijing 102629, China. Electronic address:

The development of an effective vaccine to control the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of utmost importance. In this study, a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate, known as pSV10-SARS-CoV-2, expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was designed and tested in 39 BALB/c mice with BC01, an adjuvant derived from unmethylated CpG motif-containing DNA fragments from the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin genome. Mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 produced early neutralizing antibodies and developed stronger humoral and cellular immune responses compared to mice that received the DNA vaccine only. Read More

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September 2021

Production of full-length SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein from Escherichia coli optimized by native hydrophobic interaction chromatography hyphenated to multi-angle light scattering detection.

Talanta 2021 Dec 16;235:122691. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), 1190 Vienna, Austria; acib - Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology, 1190, Vienna, Austria.

The nucleocapsid protein (NP) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for several steps of the viral life cycle, and is abundantly expressed during infection, making it an ideal diagnostic target protein. This protein has a strong tendency for dimerization and interaction with nucleic acids. For the first time, high titers of NP were expressed in E. Read More

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December 2021

infections in mice: Immunological responses to contemporary genotypes found in the US.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):2461-2473

Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States.

is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes the human disease Q fever, which can manifest as an acute flu-like illness or a long-term chronic illness, such as endocarditis. Three genotypes (ST8, ST16, and ST20) of are commonly found in the contemporary US and are associated with specific animal hosts. Although all three genotypes have been isolated from humans with Q fever, studies comparing virulence between sequence types have been rare. Read More

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December 2021

Development and Immunogenicity of a Brazilian Glycoconjugate vaccine against Meningococcal W in a Pilot Scale.

Glycoconj J 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Laboratório de Tecnologia Bacteriana, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Bio-ManguinhosRio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Recent changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal have been reported and meningococcal group W (MenW) has become the third most prevalent group isolated in Brazil in the last 10 years. In this study we have developed a conjugate vaccine for MenW using a modified reductive amination conjugation method through a covalent linkage between periodate-oxidized MenW non-O-acetylated polysaccharide and hydrazide-activated monomeric tetanus toxoid. Process control of bulks was done by physicochemical analysis including polysaccharide and protein quantification, high performance liquid chromatography - size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. Read More

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September 2021

Tetravalent Influenza Vaccine Is Not Associated With Neuroaxonal Damage in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:718895. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler University Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Efficacy of vaccines and disease activity linked to immunization are major concerns among people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS).

Objective: To assess antibody responses to seasonal influenza antigens and vaccine-associated neuroaxonal damage utilizing serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) in pwMS receiving dimethyl fumarate (DMF).

Methods: In this prospective study, the 2020/2021 seasonal tetravalent influenza vaccine was administered to 20 pwMS treated with DMF and 15 healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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September 2021

Editorial: The First Monoclonal Antibody Vaccine to Prevent Malaria Heralds a New Era of Malaria Vaccines to the Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein (PfCSP).

Authors:
Dinah V Parums

Med Sci Monit 2021 Sep 13;27:e934676. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA.

Malaria affects more than 3 billion people in 95 countries, with an estimated mortality rate of 400,000 per year. The female Anopheles spp mosquito most commonly transmits malaria, and the main burden of disease is due to Plasmodium falciparum. The most abundant antigen on the sporozoite surface is the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). Read More

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September 2021

Prolonged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 persistence, attenuated immunologic response, and viral evolution in a solid organ transplant patient.

Am J Transplant 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Unlike immunocompetent hosts, the duration of viral persistence after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be prolonged in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we present a case of viral persistence for over 19 weeks in a patient with a history of solid organ transplant and explore the clinical, virologic, and immunologic course. Our patient still demonstrated viral persistence at 138 days with low polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold values and evidence of continuing viral sequence evolution indicative of ongoing virus replication. Read More

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September 2021

How do I… facilitate a rapid response to a public health emergency requiring plasma collection with a public-private partnership?

Transfusion 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Bloodworks Northwest, Seattle, Washington, USA.

In March 2020, there were no treatment options for COVID-19. Passive immune therapy including anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin (hIVIG) was a logical candidate for COVID-19 therapeutic trials, given past success treating emerging pathogens with endogenous neutralizing antibodies. We established a plasma collection protocol for persons recovered from COVID-19. Read More

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September 2021

Adenovirus transduction to express human ACE2 causes obesity-specific morbidity in mice, impeding studies on the effect of host nutritional status on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.

Virology 2021 Sep 3;563:98-106. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Tech, VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic has paralyzed the global economy and resulted in millions of deaths globally. People with co-morbidities like obesity, diabetes and hypertension are at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness. This is of overwhelming concern because 42% of Americans are obese, 30% are pre-diabetic and 9. Read More

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September 2021

A SARS-CoV-2 antibody broadly neutralizes SARS-related coronaviruses and variants by coordinated recognition of a virus-vulnerable site.

Immunity 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Virus Control, Center for Infectious Diseases Education and Research, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Potent neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies often target the spike protein receptor-binding site (RBS), but the variability of RBS epitopes hampers broad neutralization of multiple sarbecoviruses and drifted viruses. Here, using humanized mice, we identified an RBS antibody with a germline V gene that potently neutralized SARS-related coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants. X-ray crystallography revealed coordinated recognition by the heavy chain of non-RBS conserved sites and the light chain of RBS with a binding angle mimicking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Read More

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Impact of PCSK9 Immunization on Glycemic Indices in Diabetic Rats.

J Diabetes Res 2021 30;2021:4757170. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Methods: To prepare the anti-PCSK9 vaccine, a peptide construct called Immunogenic Fused PCSK9-Tetanus (IFPT) was linked to the surface of nanoliposome carriers. Healthy rats received four subcutaneous injections of the vaccine at biweekly intervals. Two weeks after the last vaccination, anti-PCSK9 antibody titers, PCSK9 targeting, and inhibition of PCSK9-low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) interaction were evaluated. Read More

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Poor Neutralizing Antibody Responses in 132 Patients with CLL, NHL and HL after Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2: A Prospective Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 6;13(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11528 Athens, Greece.

Emerging data suggest suboptimal antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies. We evaluated the humoral response following the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). An FDA-approved, ELISA-based methodology was implemented to evaluate the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 on day 1 of the first vaccine, and afterwards on day 22 and 50. Read More

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September 2021

Advancements in detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection for confronting COVID-19 pandemics.

Lab Invest 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Microbiology & Parasitology, MOE/NHC/CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, China.

As one of the major approaches in combating the COVID-19 pandemics, the availability of specific and reliable assays for the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome and its proteins is essential to identify the infection in suspected populations, make diagnoses in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals, and determine clearance of the virus after the infection. For these purposes, use of the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for detection of the viral nucleic acid remains the most valuable in terms of its specificity, fast turn-around, high-throughput capacity, and reliability. It is critical to update the sequences of primers and probes to ensure the detection of newly emerged variants. Read More

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September 2021

Early post-infection treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected macaques with human convalescent plasma with high neutralizing activity reduces lung inflammation.

bioRxiv 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was a high level of optimism based on observational studies and small controlled trials that treating hospitalized patients with convalescent plasma from COVID-19 survivors (CCP) would be an important immunotherapy. However, as more data from controlled trials became available, the results became disappointing, with at best moderate evidence of efficacy when CCP with high titers of neutralizing antibodies was used early in infection. To better understand the potential therapeutic efficacy of CCP, and to further validate SARS-CoV-2 infection of macaques as a reliable animal model for testing such strategies, we inoculated 12 adult rhesus macaques with SARS-CoV-2 by intratracheal and intranasal routes. Read More

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September 2021

The Chemokine CCL5 Inhibits the Replication of Influenza A Virus Through SAMHD1 Modulation.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 13;11:549020. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Laboratory of Respiratory Viruses and Measles, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Influenza A virus (IAV) is the main etiological agent of acute respiratory tract infections. During IAV infection, interferon triggers the overexpression of restriction factors (RFs), the intracellular antiviral branch of the innate immune system. Conversely, severe influenza is associated with an unbalanced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Read More

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Detection of Anti-SARS-CoV-2-S2 IgG Is More Sensitive Than Anti-RBD IgG in Identifying Asymptomatic COVID-19 Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:724763. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Characterizing the serologic features of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is imperative to improve diagnostics and control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. In this study, we evaluated the antibody profiles in 272 plasma samples collected from 59 COVID-19 patients, consisting of 18 asymptomatic patients, 33 mildly ill patients and 8 severely ill patients. We measured the IgG against five viral structural proteins, different isotypes of immunoglobulins against the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) protein, and neutralizing antibodies. Read More

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September 2021

Serological Testing for COVID-19, Immunological Surveillance, and Exploration of Protective Antibodies.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:635701. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory, Center for Research in Energy and Materials, Campinas, Brazil.

Serological testing is a powerful tool in epidemiological studies for understanding viral circulation and assessing the effectiveness of virus control measures, as is the case of SARS-CoV-2, the pathogenic agent of COVID-19. Immunoassays can quantitatively reveal the concentration of antiviral antibodies. The assessment of antiviral antibody titers may provide information on virus exposure, and changes in IgG levels are also indicative of a reduction in viral circulation. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of the Delta variant on vaccine efficacy and response strategies.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Sep 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Division of Hepatitis and Enterovirus Virus Vaccines, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, China.

Introduction: The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a new wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in many countries. It is the most infectious variant of SARS-CoV-2 to date, and its high infectivity means that a higher proportion of the population needs to be vaccinated to reduce the disease burden, which poses a substantial public health challenge.

Areas Covered: The evolution of the Delta variant is reviewed, including an overview of the Delta Plus variant with a K417N mutation in the RBD, which may confer an improved immune evasion ability. Read More

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September 2021

[The condition of post-vaccination immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in population of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan].

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Jul;29(4):988-991

The I. K. Ahunbaev Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, 720020, Bishkek, the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.

The serologic epidemiological analysis of intensity of anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus post-vaccination population immunity in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan was carried out. The presence of immune defense was determined in 453 residents by detecting IgG to diphtheria and tetanus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using test system RIDASCREEN Diphtherie IgG and RIDASCREEN Tetanus IgG (Germany, R-Biopharm). It was established that the level of antibodies depends on the age of individuals. Read More

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Porcine Parvovirus 2 Is Predominantly Associated With Macrophages in Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex.

Front Vet Sci 2021 13;8:726884. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, United States.

Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality, manifested by pneumonia of multiple etiologies, where a variety of pathogens and environment and management practices play a role in the disease. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), influenza A virus (IAV), and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) are well-established pathogens in PRDC. Porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) has been identified in both healthy and clinically diseased pigs at a high prevalence worldwide. Read More

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Seroprevalence of Human Herpesvirus Infections in Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Key Populations in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Int J Microbiol 2021 25;2021:4608549. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections can significantly increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and accelerate disease progression. In the population at high risk of HIV infection, also termed as key populations (female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who inject drugs (PWID)), and their sexual partners, HHV infections can potentially compromise the efforts to prevent and control HIV infection. Here, we investigated the seroprevalence of HHV infections among HIV-infected key populations in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Read More

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Mori Cortex Radicis extract inhibits human norovirus surrogate in simulated digestive conditions.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Aug 29:1-6. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, 01369 Korea.

Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis globally, resulting in enormous health and societal costs. In this study, the antiviral activities of Mori Cortex Radicis (MCR) extract and its bioactive flavonoids, morusin and kuwanon G, were tested against murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate, using plaque assay. The antiviral activity was confirmed in simulated digestive conditions, including simulated saliva fluid (SSF), simulated gastric fluid (SGF), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Read More

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High MW polyethylene glycol prolongs circulation of pegloticase in mice with anti-PEG antibodies.

J Control Release 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Program in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Division of Pharmacoengineering and Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; UNC/NCSU Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Pegloticase is an enzyme used to reduce serum uric acid levels in patients with chronic, treatment-refractory gout. Clinically, about 40% of patients develop high titers of anti-PEG antibodies (APA) after initial treatment, which in turn quickly eliminate subsequent doses of pegloticase from the systemic circulation and render the treatment ineffective. We previously found that pre-infusion with high MW free PEG (40 kDa) can serve as a decoy to saturate circulating APA, preventing binding to a subsequently administered dose of PEG-liposomes and restoring their prolonged circulation in mice, without any detectible toxicity. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing the immunogenicity of three different inactivated polio vaccine schedules for use after oral polio vaccine cessation, an open label, phase IV, randomized controlled trial.

Vaccine 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Background: After global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) currently recommends a two-dose schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) beginning ≥14-weeks of age to achieve at least 90% immune response. We aimed to compare the immunogenicity of three different two-dose IPV schedules started before or at 14-weeks of age.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label, inequality trial at two sites in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Read More

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September 2021