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Human Neutrophil Elastase Mediates MUC5AC Hypersecretion via the Tumour Necrosis Factor-α Converting Enzyme-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signalling Pathway in vivo.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Otolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to examine the role of the tumour necrosis factor-α converting enzyme-epidermal growth factor receptor (TACE-EGFR) pathway in human neutrophil elastase (HNE)-induced MUC5AC mucin expression in mice.

Method: Four groups of mice, treated with HNE alone (HNE group), HNE plus TACE inhibitor (HNE + TAPI-2 group), HNE plus EGFR inhibitor (HNE + AG1478 group), and untreated (control group), were used in the experiment. Histopathological changes were monitored by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Read More

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Long Noncoding RNA GAS5 Targeting miR-221-3p/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B Axis Regulates Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Cycle and Proliferation.

Pathobiology 2021 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Introduction: Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is more aggressive than the most common papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the current research on FTC is less than PTC. Here, we investigated the effects of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 and miR-221-3p in FTC. Read More

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Multimaterial bioprinting towards the fabrication of biomimetic tissues and organs.

Biofabrication 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

UCLA, 570 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California, 90095, UNITED STATES.

Tissue reconstruction requires the utilization of multiple biomaterials and cell types to replicate the delicate and complex structure of native tissues. Various three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques have been developed to fabricate customized tissue structures; however, there are still significant challenges, such as vascularization, mechanical stability of printed constructs, and fabrication of gradient structures to be addressed for the creation of biomimetic and complex tissue constructs. One approach to address these challenges is to develop multimaterial 3D bioprinting techniques that can integrate various types of biomaterials and bioprinting capabilities towards the fabrication of more complex structures. Read More

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Lipolytic enzymes and free fatty acids at the endothelial interface.

Atherosclerosis 2021 May 28;329:1-8. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Lipids released from circulating lipoproteins by intravascular action of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) reach parenchymal cells in tissues with a non-fenestrated endothelium by transfer through or around endothelial cells. The actions of LpL are controlled at multiple sites, its synthesis and release by myocytes and adipocytes, its transit and association with the endothelial cell luminal surface, and finally its activation and inhibition by a number of proteins and by its product non-esterified fatty acids. Multiple pathways mediate endothelial transit of lipids into muscle and adipose tissues. Read More

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Nicotinamide mononucleotide-elicited NAMPT signaling activation aggravated adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats by affecting peripheral immune cells differentiation.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 12;98:107856. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu 241000, China; Research Center of Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241000, China; Key Laboratory of Non-coding RNA Transformation Research of Anhui Higher Education Institution, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241000, China. Electronic address:

Supplement of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the direct precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) has gained prominence due to the significant anti-aging potentials of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferas (NAMPT)/NAD signaling. Because over-expression of NAMPT is deeply implicated in inflammatory arthritis, we investigated the effects of NMN supplement on rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Tested rats were given oral treatment of NMN at 200 mg/kg/day for 25 days. Read More

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A novel organ-chip system emulates three-dimensional architecture of the human epithelia and the mechanical forces acting on it.

Biomaterials 2021 Jun 6;275:120957. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Emulate Inc., 27 Drydock Avenue, 5th Floor, Boston, MA, 02210, USA. Electronic address:

Successful translation of in vivo experimental data to human patients is an unmet need and a bottleneck in the development of effective therapeutics. Organ-on-Chip technology aims to address this need by leveraging recent significant advancements in microfabrication and biomaterials, which enable modeling of organs and their functionality. These microengineered chips offer researchers the possibility to recreate critical elements of native tissue architecture such as in vivo relevant tissue-tissue interface, air-liquid interface, and mechanical forces, including mechanical stretch and fluidic shear stress, which are crucial to recapitulate tissue level functions. Read More

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A continuum model and simulations for large deformation of anisotropic fiber-matrix composites for cardiac tissue engineering.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Jun 7;121:104627. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States; Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States. Electronic address:

Cardiac patch therapies promise to restore heart function and lower the risk of heart failure after heart attack. Fiber-matrix engineered tissue scaffolds have gained significant attention due to their tunable micro-structures, providing nonlinear mechanical properties similar to native anisotropic heart tissues. Mechanical properties of engineered scaffolds directly affect the stress fields generated inside and around the tissue scaffolds and have significant impact on the tissue functionality. Read More

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The antidepressant-like effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in GK rats by activating CREB/BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 21;89:153600. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Traditional Chinese Medicine•College of Intergrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Rd, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Background: High rates of co-morbidity have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus with depression (DD). Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula composed of Angelica and Astragalus, has been historically used for the treatment of diabetes.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigated whether DBD and its main active component, ferulic acid (FA) from Angelica, could ameliorate depression-like behavior in DD and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Mesenchyme homeobox 1 mediated-promotion of osteoblastic differentiation is negatively regulated by mir-3064-5p.

Differentiation 2021 Jun 10;120:19-27. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 59 Haier Road, Qingdao, 266000, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that can be differentiated into different cell types including osteoblasts. Herein we aimed to assess the regulation of transcription factor mesenchyme homeobox 1 (Meox1) in the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and to determine the microRNA which targets on Meox1. Total RNA was extracted from the isolated ligamentum flavum tissue samples and cultured hMSCs, and the expression of Meox1 was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot assays. Read More

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Silicon influenced ripening metabolism and improved fruit quality traits in apples.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 8;166:270-277. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources, ELGO-DEMETER, Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece. Electronic address:

The benefits of silicon against abiotic stress in different annual plant species have been described in many studies, however the regulation of ripening of fruit tree crops by silicon remains largely uncharacterized. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the impact of foliar silicon application in the apple (cv. 'Fuji') fruit ripening traits along with the effect of silicon in the nutrient and metabolic changes in the fully expanded leaves, annual shoots, fruit outer pericarp (peel) and fruit mesocarp (skin) tissues. Read More

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Propofol represses cell growth and metastasis by modulating the circNCAPG/miR-200a-3p/RAB5A axis in glioma.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Hospital of Hebei Medicine University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei,050011, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Glioma is a common primary intracranial tumor, with high infiltration and aggression. Propofol (Pro) is associated with growth and metastasis in glioma. Meanwhile, circular RNA non-SMC condensin I complex subunit G (circNCAPG, hsa_circ_0007244) has been reported to be upregulated in glioma. Read More

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3D two-photon polymerization of smart cell gelatin - collagen matrixes with incorporated ruthenium complexes for the monitoring of local oxygen tensions.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

MoVe, Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de physique, CNRS UMR 5588, Université Grenoble Alpes, St-Martin d'Hères, France.

The extra cellular matrix plays a major role in the biomechanical properties of tissues that impact cell behavior and fate. It is therefore crucial to mimic these complex cell-matrix interactions in 3D cell cultures. Here, two-photon polymerization is applied to produce gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) - collagen matrixes that further enable local pO measurement, when ruthenium complexes are used as photo-activators. Read More

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Deeply Mining a Universe of Peptides Encoded by Long Noncoding RNAs.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100109. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Laboratory of Protein and Peptide Pharmaceuticals & Laboratory of Proteomics, institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Many small open reading frames (smORFs) embedded in lncRNA transcripts have been shown to encode biologically functional polypeptides (smORFs-encoded polypeptides, SEPs) in different organisms. Despite significant advances in genomics, bioinformatics and proteomics that largely enabled the discovery of novel SEPs, their identification across different biological samples is still hampered by their poor predictability, diminutive size and low relative abundance. Here, we take advantage of NONCODE, a repository containing the most complete collection and annotation of lncRNA transcripts from different species, to build a novel database that attempts to maximize a collection of SEPs from human and mouse lncRNA transcripts. Read More

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Pitfalls in HLA ligandomics - How to catch a li(e)gand.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100110. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Immatics Biotechnologies GmbH, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 15-17, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; Immatics US, Inc. 2201 W. Holcombe Blvd., Suite 205, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Knowledge about the peptide repertoire presented by human leukocyte antigens (HLA) holds the key to unlock target-specific cancer immunotherapies like adoptive cell therapies or bispecific T cell engaging receptors. Therefore, comprehensive and accurate characterization of HLA peptidomes by mass spectrometry (immunopeptidomics) across tissues and disease states is essential. With growing numbers of immunopeptidomics datasets and the scope of peptide identification strategies reaching beyond the canonical proteome, the likelihood for erroneous peptide identification as well as false annotation of HLA-independent peptides as HLA ligands is increasing. Read More

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Sensitive and quantitative detection of MHC-I displayed neoepitopes using a semi-automated workflow and TOMAHAQ mass spectrometry.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100108. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Genentech, South San Francisco, 94080, California, USA. Electronic address:

Advances in several key technologies, including MHC peptidomics, have helped fuel our understanding of basic immune regulatory mechanisms and the identification of T cell receptor targets for the development of immunotherapeutics. Isolating and accurately quantifying MHC-bound peptides from cells and tissues enables characterization of dynamic changes in the ligandome due to cellular perturbations. However, the current multi-step analytical process is challenging, and improvements in throughput and reproducibility would enable rapid characterization of multiple conditions in parallel. Read More

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Seneca Valley virus induces immunodepressionin suckling piglets by selective apoptosis of B lymphocytes.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 12:105022. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Comparative Pathology Shared Resources Laboratory, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the causative agent of an emerging infectious vesicular disease in swine that is clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases of swine. This study utilized healthy suckling piglets (control) and SVV-naturally infected suckling piglets to determine the effects of SVV on lymphoid tissues and determined the SVV RNA load by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were performed to quantify the expression of T and B cell lymphocytes, natural killer cells, cleaved caspase 3, and ki-67. Read More

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Coenzyme Q supplementation - In ageing and disease.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Jun 12;197:111521. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Se-581 85, Linköping, Sweden.

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. It is also an antioxidant in cellular membranes and lipoproteins. All cells produce CoQ by a specialized cytoplasmatic-mitochondrial pathway. Read More

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Impact of protocatechuic acid on high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome sequelae in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12:174257. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

The study aimed to assess the possible protective impact of protocatechuic acid (PCA) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (Mets) sequelae in rats. Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly grouped as follows: CTR group; PCA group; HFD group; HFD-PCA group and HFD-MET group. Rats were fed on standard diet or HFD for 14 weeks. Read More

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CTPS forms the cytoophidium in zebrafish.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Jun 12:112684. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China; Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Cytidine triphosphate synthase (CTPS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of de novo CTP biosynthesis. An intracellular structure of CTPS, the cytoophidium, has been found in many organisms including prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Formation of the cytoophidium has been suggested to regulate the activity and stability of CTPS and may participate in certain physiological events. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence in Pathology: Easing the Burden of Annotation Running Title: AI Annotation Reduction.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Emeritus Professor, Rutgers-NJMS; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Adjunct Professor, Perelman Medical School; Adjunct Professor, Sidney Kimmel School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

The need for huge datasets represents a bottleneck for applications of artificial intelligence. In Pathology, an additional problem is that there are often substantially fewer annotated target lesions than normal tissues for comparison. Organic brains overcome these limitations by utilizing large numbers of specialized neural nets arranged in both linear and parallel fashion, with each solving a restricted classification problem. Read More

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Inhibiting microRNA-424 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosomes suppresses tumor growth in colorectal cancer by upregulating TGFBR3.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 12:108965. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 71 North Baoshan Road, Yunyan District, Guiyang, 550001, Guizhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to be differently expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) and were identified as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CRC. We aimed to identify the effect of microRNA-424 (miR-424) on process of CRC.

Methods: Exosomes were obtained from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Read More

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Human oral mucosa cell atlas reveals a stromal-neutrophil axis regulating tissue immunity.

Cell 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Oral Immunity and Inflammation Section, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

The oral mucosa remains an understudied barrier tissue. This is a site of rich exposure to antigens and commensals, and a tissue susceptible to one of the most prevalent human inflammatory diseases, periodontitis. To aid in understanding tissue-specific pathophysiology, we compile a single-cell transcriptome atlas of human oral mucosa in healthy individuals and patients with periodontitis. Read More

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Cytokinins initiate secondary growth in the Arabidopsis root through a set of LBD genes.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Biotechnology, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland; Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland. Electronic address:

During primary growth, plant tissues increase their length, and as these tissues mature, they initiate secondary growth to increase thickness. It is not known what activates this transition to secondary growth. Cytokinins are key plant hormones regulating vascular development during both primary and secondary growth. Read More

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Oncolytic virotherapy: Potentially a game-changing tumor treatment.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jun;39(6):753-755

Department of Neurology, University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; German Cancer Center (DKTK) Clinical Cooperation Unit (CCU) Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

A two-center phase I trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine shows safety and feasibility of locally administered oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 virus plus 5 Gy radiation for progressive pediatric high-grade gliomas. Patients seemed to have an unusually good clinical course and showed immune activation in post-treatment tissues. Read More

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Research Relevant Conditions and Pathology in Nonhuman Primates.

ILAR J 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Covance Preclinical Services GmbH, Münster 48163, Germany.

Biomedical research involving animal models continues to provide important insights into disease pathogenesis and treatment of diseases that impact human health. In particular, nonhuman primates (NHPs) have been used extensively in translational research due to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and similarities to disease pathogenesis and treatment responses as assessed in clinical trials. Microscopic changes in tissues remain a significant endpoint in studies involving these models. Read More

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BIO-LGCA: A cellular automaton modelling class for analysing collective cell migration.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 15;17(6):e1009066. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Information Services and High Performance Computing, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Collective dynamics in multicellular systems such as biological organs and tissues plays a key role in biological development, regeneration, and pathological conditions. Collective tissue dynamics-understood as population behaviour arising from the interplay of the constituting discrete cells-can be studied with on- and off-lattice agent-based models. However, classical on-lattice agent-based models, also known as cellular automata, fail to replicate key aspects of collective migration, which is a central instance of collective behaviour in multicellular systems. Read More

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Autophagy activity in cholangiocarcinoma is associated with anatomical localization of the tumor.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253065. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

The presence of autophagy has been indicated in cholangiocarcinoma (CC), which disease has poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Recently, CC has been classified by anatomical localization as intrahepatic (iCC), perihilar (pCC) and distal (dCC), showing different clinical and molecular characteristics. Thus, our aim was to compare autophagy activity in CC samples resected from different anatomical locations. Read More

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Parameter-free optimization algorithm for iterative wavefront shaping.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2880-2883

Optical focusing through scattering media has a significant impact on optical applications in biological tissues. Recently, iterative wavefront shaping (WFS) has been successfully used to focus light through or inside scattering media, and various heuristic algorithms have been introduced to improve the performance. While these results are encouraging, more efforts are needed to tune parameters towards robust and optimum optimization. Read More

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Elke Bräuer-Krisch: Dedication, creativity and generosity: May 17, 1961- September 10, 2018.

Authors:
Jean A Laissue

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Jun 15:1-24. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Purpose: This extraordinary woman worked her professional way from a radiation protection engineer to become the successful principal investigator of a prestigious international European project for a new radiation therapy (ERC Synergy grant, HORIZON 2020). The evaluation of the submitted proposal was very positive. The panel proposed that it be funded. Read More

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