207,715 results match your criteria tissue samples

Oncolytic HSV-1 G207 Immunovirotherapy for Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

From the Department of Pediatrics, Divisions of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology (G.K.F., K.K., L.N., K.-D.K., S.T., C.S., A.M.-S.), Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (T.P.A.), and Pediatric Infectious Disease (R.J.W.), and the Departments of Neurosurgery (G.K.F., J.M.J., J.M.M., G.Y.G.), Pathology (R.L.), Biostatistics (I.A.), and Radiation Oncology (J.B.F.), University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Children's of Alabama (G.K.F., J.M.J., R.L., K.K., A.M.-S., T.P.A., R.J.W.) - both in Birmingham; the Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis (A.K.B.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (D.P.) - both in Tennessee; the Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (J.D.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine (A.M.M.), and the Departments of Pediatrics (S.F.S., Y.K., M.A.K.) and Neurology (Y.K.), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center - both in New York; the Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (R.M.-K.); the Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplant (K.W., D.S.O., M.S.A.) and the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery (J.L.), Nationwide Children's Hospital, and the Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center (J.D.P.) - both in Columbus; and the Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplant, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (M.S.A.).

Background: Outcomes in children and adolescents with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma are poor, with a historical median overall survival of 5.6 months. Pediatric high-grade gliomas are largely immunologically silent or "cold," with few tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Read More

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Understanding the cellular origin and progression of esophageal cancer using esophageal organoids.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) organoids are a novel tool to model epithelial cell biology and human diseases of the esophagus. 3D organoid culture systems have been utilized to investigate the pathobiology of esophageal cancer, including both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Additional organoid-based approaches for study of esophageal development and benign esophageal diseases have provided key insights into esophageal keratinocyte differentiation and mucosal regeneration. Read More

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Osteogenesis enhancement using poly (l-lactide-co-d, l-lactide)/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous scaffolds reinforced by phospho-calcified cellulose nanowhiskers.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

BioMatter Unit - École polytechnique de Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 50, CP 165/61, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Electrospun poly (l-lactide-co-d, l-lactide) (PLDLLA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were reinforced by various contents (0-1 wt%) of phospho-calcified cellulose nanowhiskers (PCCNWs) as scaffolds in bone applications. The hydrophilicity and rate of hydrolytic degradation of PLDLLA were improved by introducing 10 wt% of PVA. PCCNWs with inherent hydrophilic properties, high aspect ratio, and large elastic modulus enhanced the hydrophilicity, accelerated the rate of degradation, and improved the mechanical properties of the nanofibrous samples. Read More

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The effect of retinal scaffold modulus on performance during surgical handling.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 7:108566. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Carver Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, 5601 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA; Institute for Vision Research, The University of Iowa, USA. Electronic address:

Emerging treatment strategies for retinal degeneration involve replacing lost photoreceptors using supportive scaffolds to ensure cells survive the implantation process. While many design aspects of these scaffolds, including material chemistry and microstructural cues have been studied in depth, a full set of design constraints has yet to be established. For example, while known to be important in other tissues and systems, the influence of mechanical properties on surgical handling has not been quantified. Read More

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Upregulation of histone acetylation reverses organic anion transporter 2 repression and enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114546. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Drug Metabolism and Pharmaceutical Analysis; Cancer Center of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The failure of chemotherapy in HCC patients is partly due to inadequate intracellular drug accumulation caused by abnormally expressed drug transporters. Human organic anion transporter 2 (hOAT2), a transporter mainly expressed in liver and kidney, is responsible for uptake of various antineoplastic drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Read More

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Am J Pathol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Scotland, KY16 9TF; Sir James Mackenzie Institute for Early Diagnosis, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Scotland, KY16 9TF.

Many modern histopathology laboratories are in the process of digitising their workflows. Once images of the tissue exist as digital data, it becomes feasible to research the augmentation or automation of clinical reporting and diagnosis. The application of modern computer vision techniques, based on Deep Learning, promise systems that can identify pathologies in slide images with a high degree of accuracy. Read More

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RB1CC1 functions as a tumor-suppressing gene in renal cell carcinoma via suppression of PYK2 activity and disruption of TAZ-mediated PDL1 transcription activation.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, No. 69, Chuanshan Road, Hengyang, 421001, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.

Rb1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) has been demonstrated to function as an inhibitor of proline-rich/Ca-activated tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) by binding to the kinase domain of PYK2, which promotes the proliferation, invasion, and migration of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. Additionally, in breast cancer, PYK2 positively regulates the expression of transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) which in turn can enhance PDL1 levels in breast and lung cancer cells. The current study was performed to decipher the impact of RB1CC1 in the progression of RCC via regulation of the PYK2/TAZ/PDL1 signaling axis. Read More

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Methods for restoration of ki67 antigenicity in aged paraffin tissue blocks.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Anatomic Pathology Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics (DISC), University of Genova, IRCCS AOU San Martino IST, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132, Genoa, Italy.

Pathology archives are a treasure trove of paraffin embedded tissue spanning many years and covering a wide variety of tissues and diseases. The possibility of using old archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues for diagnostic updates and research projects is a widespread need and it requires archives of stable, well-preserved samples. Immunohistochemistry performed on old archival paraffin blocks may give unreliable results, in particular for some antigens, such as Ki67. Read More

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Quantitative Backscattered Electron Imaging of Bone Using a Thermionic or a Field Emission Electron Source.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476, Potsdam, Germany.

Quantitative backscattered electron imaging is an established method to map mineral content distributions in bone and to determine the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). The method we applied was initially validated for a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a tungsten hairpin cathode (thermionic electron emission) under strongly defined settings of SEM parameters. For several reasons, it would be interesting to migrate the technique to a SEM with a field emission electron source (FE-SEM), which, however, would require to work with different SEM parameter settings as have been validated for DSM 962. Read More

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Comparison of diagnostic methods for Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae detection in salmonid fish.

J Fish Dis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Ecology and Diseases of Zoo Animals, Game, Fish and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Diagnostic accuracy of pathogen detection depends upon the selection of suitable tests. Problems can arise when the selected diagnostic test gives false-positive or false-negative results, which can affect control measures, with consequences for the population health. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity of different diagnostic methods IHC, PCR and qPCR detecting Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish and as a consequence differences in disease prevalence. Read More

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A Reliable Method for Chin Augmentation by Mechanical Micronization of Lipoaspirates.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Plastic and Aesthetic Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, No. 23 Youzheng Street, Nangang District, Harbin, 150000, Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Desire for improved aesthetic contour of the lower third of the face has resulted in an increase in chin augmentation. Although many fillers, including hyaluronic acid (HA), autologous fat and stromal vascular fraction gel (SVF-gel), have been used to improve facial morphology, chin augmentation requires fillers that provide greater support.

Methods: The elastic and viscous moduli of SVF-gel and Coleman fat were assessed in vitro by rheological testing, whereas their elasticity were evaluated in vivo by ultrasonic elastography. Read More

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Genomic landscape of extraordinary responses in metastatic breast cancer.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 9;4(1):449. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Extreme responders to anticancer therapy are rare among advanced breast cancer patients. Researchers, however, have yet to investigate treatment responses therein on the whole exome level. We performed whole exome analysis to characterize the genomic landscape of extreme responders among metastatic breast cancer patients. Read More

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Bayesian estimation of cell type-specific gene expression with prior derived from single-cell data.

Genome Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Pittsburgh;

When assessed over a large number of samples, bulk RNA sequencing provides reliable data for gene expression at the tissue level. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) deepens those analyses by evaluating gene expression at the cellular level. Both data types lend insights into disease etiology. Read More

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Retrieving the deleterious mutations before extinction: genome-wide comparison of shared derived mutations in liver cancer and normal population.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China

Study Purpose: Deleterious mutations would be rapidly purged from natural populations along with the extinction of their carriers. The currently observed mutations in existing species are mostly neutral. The inaccessibility of deleterious mutations impedes the functional studies on how these mutations affect the fitness at individual level. Read More

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Infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children compared with adults.

CMAJ 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cadham Provincial Laboratory (Bullard, Dust, Hedley, Alexander, Van Caeseele), Manitoba Health; Department of Pediatrics & Child Health (Bullard, Strong, Lee, Van Caeseele, Poliquin), University of Manitoba; National Microbiology Laboratory (Funk, Garnett, Tran, Bello, Strong, Poliquin), Public Health Agency of Canada; Departments of Anesthesiology and Medicine (Funk), Section of Critical Care, University of Manitoba; Department of Medical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (Garnett, Tran, Bello, Alexander), University of Manitoba; Communicable Disease Control, Public Health (Lee), Manitoba Health; Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit (Waruk, Loeppky), Manitoba Health; Department of Community Health Science (Loeppky), University of Manitoba. Winnipeg, Man.

Background: The role of children in the transmission and community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. We aimed to quantify the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal samples from children compared with adults.

Methods: We obtained nasopharyngeal swabs from adult and pediatric cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and from their contacts who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Manitoba between March and December 2020. Read More

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Detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomic and subgenomic RNA in retina and optic nerve of patients with COVID-19.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human retinal biopsies (RBs) was previously reported by us. In this consecutive study, we analysed RB and optic nerve biopsies (ONBs) in deceased patients with confirmed COVID-19 assessing viral RNA load, possible virus replication and infectivity.

Patients And Methods: In this case series, 14 eyes of 14 deceased patients with COVID-19 were enucleated during autopsy. Read More

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Mass spectrometric profiling of DNA adducts in the human stomach associated with damage from environmental factors.

Genes Environ 2021 Apr 9;43(1):12. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Tumor Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan.

Background: A comprehensive understanding of DNA adducts, one of the most plausible origins of cancer mutations, is still elusive, especially in human tissues in clinical settings. Recent technological developments have facilitated the identification of multiple DNA adducts in a single experiment. Only a few attempts toward this "DNA adductome approach" in human tissues have been reported. Read More

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Synovial fluid neutrophils in oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis have an altered phenotype and impaired effector functions.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 Apr 9;23(1):109. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Neutrophils are the most prevalent immune cells in the synovial fluid in inflamed joints of children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Despite this, little is known about neutrophil function at the site of inflammation in JIA and how local neutrophils contribute to disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to characterize the phenotype and function of synovial fluid neutrophils in oligoarticular JIA. Read More

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Synonymous mutations that regulate translation speed might play a non-negligible role in liver cancer development.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 9;21(1):388. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of interventional radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Background: Synonymous mutations do not change the protein sequences. Automatically, they have been regarded as neutral events and are ignored in the mutation-based cancer studies. However, synonymous mutations will change the codon optimality, resulting in altered translational velocity. Read More

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MKNK2 enhances chemoresistance of ovarian cancer by suppressing autophagy via miR-125b.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 6;556:31-38. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Xingtai Medical College, Xingtai, Hubei, 054000, China. Electronic address:

Chemoresistance is a major cause for high mortality and poor survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Changes of cellular autophagy is associated with tumor cell chemoresistance. MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (MKNK2) belongs to the protein kinase superfamily mediating cell cycle, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Read More

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First report of bacterial leaf spot disease on sunflower () caused by in South Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Chungnam National University, 26715, Department of Applied Biology, Daejeon, N/A, Korea (the Republic of);

In September 2019, bacterial leaf spot symptoms were observed on sunflowers in an experimental field in Eumseong, South Korea. The leaves of infected plants initially showed irregular brown spots surrounded by haloes; as the disease progressed, the spots became enlarged and darkened (eXtra Fig. 1a). Read More

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Secukinumab and metformin ameliorate dermal fibrosis by decreasing tissue interleukin-17 levels in bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis.

Int J Rheum Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Although the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis is not exactly known, it is thought that immune activation has prominent roles in pathogenesis. Secukinumab is a monoclonal antibody against interleukin (IL)-17A. Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic medication, has anti-proliferative, immunomodulating and anti-fibrotic activities. Read More

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A 3D Polymer Scaffold Platform for Enhanced Culture of Human & Rabbit Buccal Epithelial Cells for Cell Therapies.

Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2021 Apr 20;46(1):1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

II Department of Surgery & Center for Advancing Clinical Research (CACR), University of Yamanashi, Faculty of Medicine, 1110, Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.

Background: Buccal mucosal epithelial cells show promising application for various regenerative medicine approaches. In this study, we examined the feasibility of culturing rabbit and human buccal mucosal epithelial cells in a novel thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) scaffold, without feeder layers or other foreign proteins.

Methods & Results: The results of this 28-day culture, u sing the conventional technique (2D) and TGP (3D) showed that the epithelial cell morphology could be maintained only in the TGP group while cells in the 2D group de-differentiated to fibroblast morphology in both human and rabbit samples. Read More

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QuickIsoSeq for Isoform Quantification in Large-Scale RNA Sequencing.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2284:135-145

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA, USA.

RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful technology for transcriptome profiling. While most RNA-seq projects focus on gene-level quantification and analysis, there is growing evidence that most mammalian genes are alternatively spliced to generate different isoforms that can be subsequently translated to protein molecules with diverse or even opposing biological functions. Quantifying the expression levels of these isoforms is key to understanding the genes biological functions in healthy tissues and the progression of diseases. Read More

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January 2021

Using RNentropy to Detect Significant Variation in Gene Expression Across Multiple RNA-Seq or Single-Cell RNA-Seq Samples.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2284:77-96

Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy.

RNA-Seq has become the de facto standard technique for characterization and quantification of transcriptomes, and a large number of methods and tools have been proposed to model and detect differential gene expression based on the comparison of transcript abundances across different samples. However, state-of-the-art methods for this task are usually designed for pairwise comparisons, that is, can identify significant variation of expression only between two conditions or samples. We describe the use of RNentropy, a methodology based on information theory, devised to overcome this limitation. Read More

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January 2021

Automated 3D scoring of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a confocal whole slide imaging scanner.

Appl Microsc 2021 Apr 9;51(1). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique to visualize specific DNA/RNA sequences within the cell nuclei and provide the presence, location and structural integrity of genes on chromosomes. A confocal Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) scanner technology has superior depth resolution compared to wide-field fluorescence imaging. Confocal WSI has the ability to perform serial optical sections with specimen imaging, which is critical for 3D tissue reconstruction for volumetric spatial analysis. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics, safety, activity, and biomarker analysis of palbociclib plus letrozole as first-line treatment for ER+/HER2- advanced breast cancer in Chinese women.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Pfizer Inc, San Diego, CA, USA.

Purpose: This phase 1, open-label, single-arm clinical trial evaluated pharmacokinetics, safety, and biomarker activity of palbociclib-letrozole as first-line treatment for estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) in postmenopausal Chinese women to support palbociclib approval in China.

Methods: Patients received palbociclib 125 mg once daily (3/1 schedule) plus letrozole 2.5 mg once daily. Read More

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[Sitagliptin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts by blocking nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway].

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;39(2):153-163

Dept. of Periodonto-logy, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University & Shandong Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration & Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Dental Materials and Oral Tissue Regeneration, Jinan 250012, China.

Objectives: This study was performed to clarify the effects of sitagliptin on -lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), explore the molecular mechanism of its roles, and provide a foundation for clinical therapeutics in periodontitis.

Methods: Healthy gingival samples were collected from the donors. HGFs were isolated with enzymic digestion method and identified. Read More

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Determining MMP-2 and MMP-9 reductive activities of bovine and equine amniotic membranes homogenates using fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

Vet Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

Introduction: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 are present in corneal ulcers, and an imbalance between MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) leads to further corneal degradation. Amniotic membrane homogenate (AMH) has proteolytic properties beneficial for corneal healing, but it is unknown whether AMH possesses TIMPs or effectively inhibits MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity.

Objective: To determine if bovine and equine AMH reduce in vitro MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities associated with the presence of TIMPs. Read More

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Imaging Motion: A Comprehensive Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Woo June Choi

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1310:343-365

School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of ICT Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging technology that provides noninvasive, micrometer resolution images of structural interiors within biological samples with an approximately 1 ~ 2 mm penetration depth. Over the last decades, advances in OCT have revolutionized biomedical imaging by demonstrating a potential of optical biopsy in preclinical and clinical settings. Recently, functional OCT imaging has shown a promise as angiography to visualize cell-perfused vasculatures in the tissue bed in vivo without requiring any exogenous contrast agents. Read More

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January 2021