363,014 results match your criteria tissue brain


Soluble TREM2: Innocent bystander or active player in neurological diseases?

Neurobiol Dis 2022 Jan 15:105630. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Brain and Mind Centre and Charles Perkins Centre, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia; Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an innate immune receptor expressed by macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). TREM2 has attracted a lot of interest in the past decade for its critical role in modulating microglia functions under homeostatic conditions and in neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic variation in TREM2 is sufficient to cause Nasu-Hakola disease, a rare pre-senile dementia with bone cysts, and to increase risk for Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

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January 2022

Investigation of synapses in the cortical white matter in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

Brain Res 2022 Jan 15:147787. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Medical Biology and Central Electron Microscopic Laboratory, University of Pécs Medical School Szigeti u. 12. Pécs, 7643, Hungary; Neuromorphology and Cellular Neurobiology Research Group, Center for Neuroscience, University of Pécs Ifjúság u. 20. Pécs, 7624, Hungary. Electronic address:

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common focal pharmacotherapy-resistant epilepsy in adults. Previous studies have shown significantly higher numbers of neurons in the neocortical white matter in TLE patients than in controls. The aim of this work was to investigate whether white matter neurons are part of the neuronal circuitry. Read More

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January 2022

Ictal wavefront propagation in slices and simulations with conductance-based refractory density model.

PLoS Comput Biol 2022 Jan 18;18(1):e1009782. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Laboratory of Molecular Mechanisms of Neural Interactions, Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

The mechanisms determining ictal discharge (ID) propagation are still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to examine these mechanisms in animal and mathematical models of epileptiform activity. Using double-patch and extracellular potassium ion concentration recordings in rat hippocampal-cortical slices, we observed that IDs moved at a speed of about 1 mm/s or less. Read More

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January 2022

Occludin is a target of Src kinase and promotes lipid secretion by binding to BTN1a1 and XOR.

PLoS Biol 2022 Jan 18;20(1):e3001518. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

Lipid droplets (LDs) have increasingly been recognized as an essential organelle for eukaryotes. Although the biochemistry of lipid synthesis and degradation is well characterized, the regulation of LD dynamics, including its formation, maintenance, and secretion, is poorly understood. Here, we report that mice lacking Occludin (Ocln) show defective lipid metabolism. Read More

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January 2022

Improved Ultrasound Localization Microscopy based on Microbubble Uncoupling via Transmit Excitation (MUTE).

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2022 Jan 18;PP. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Ultrasound localization microscopy (ULM) demonstrates great potential for visualization of tissue microvasculature at depth with high spatial resolution. The success of ULM heavily depends on the robust localization of isolated microbubbles (MBs), which can be challenging in vivo especially within larger vessels where MBs can overlap and cluster close together. While MB dilution alleviates the issue of MB overlap to a certain extent, it drastically increases the data acquisition time needed for MBs to populate the microvasculature, which is already on the order of several minutes using recommended MB concentrations. Read More

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January 2022

Sodium Cholate-Based Active Delipidation for Rapid and Efficient Clearing and Immunostaining of Deep Biological Samples.

Small Methods 2022 Jan 5;6(1):e2100943. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03080, South Korea.

Recent surges of optical clearing provided anatomical maps to understand structure-function relationships at organ scale. Detergent-mediated lipid removal enhances optical clearing and allows efficient penetration of antibodies inside tissues, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is the most common choice for this purpose. SDS, however, forms large micelles and has a low critical micelle concentration (CMC). Read More

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January 2022

TRPV1 Suppressed NLRP3 Through Regulating Autophagy in Microglia After Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

J Mol Neurosci 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, No. 109, Xueyuan West Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

The microglia-mediated inflammatory response is one of the main causes of brain tissue damage after stroke. In recent years, it has been reported that autophagy in microglia played an important role in inflammatory response after stroke. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) has been shown to regulate autophagy and inflammatory in microglia; however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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January 2022

Knockdown of circRNA-Memo1 Reduces Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury in Human Brain Endothelial Cells Through miRNA-17-5p/SOS1 Axis.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Neurology, Hunan Provincial People's Hospitaland The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal UniversityHunan Province, No.569, Wangjiali Road, Changsha, 410016, People's Republic of China.

Circ-Memo1 has been proved to be upregulated in ischemia-reperfusion induced acute injury of kidney tissues. However, the potential role of circ-Memo1 in cerebral hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is still unclear.Blood samples were collected from 25 ischemic stroke patients and 25 healthy controls. Read More

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January 2022

massNet: integrated processing and classification of spatially resolved mass spectrometry data using deep learning for rapid tumor delineation.

Bioinformatics 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Motivation: Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides rich biochemical information in a label-free manner and therefore holds promise to substantially impact current practice in disease diagnosis. However, the complex nature of MSI data poses computational challenges in its analysis. The complexity of the data arises from its large size, high dimensionality, and spectral non-linearity. Read More

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January 2022

Recent Advances in Classification of Brain Tumor from MR Images - State of the Art Review from 2017 to 2021.

Curr Med Imaging 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA Corresponding Author *: Ghazanfar Latif, Department of Computer Science, Prince Mohammad bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar, 31952, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The task of identifying a tumor in the brain is a complex problem that requires sophisticated skills and inference mechanisms to accurately locate the tumor region. The complex nature of the brain tissue makes the problem of locating, segmenting, and ultimately classifying Magnetic Resonance (MR) images a complex problem. The aim of this review paper is to consolidate the details of the most relevant and recent approaches proposed in this domain for the binary and multi-class classification of brain tumors using brain MR images. Read More

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January 2022

Dexpanthenol may protect the brain against lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation via anti-oxidant action and regulating CREB/BDNF signaling.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2022 Jan 18:1-8. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur, Turkey.

Background: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Dexpanthenol (Dex) is an alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dexpanthenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain injury, specifically on the CREB/BDNF pathway. Read More

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January 2022

Histopathological evaluation of insulin-DMSO formula designed for direct nose-to-brain delivery.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Jan 18:18421. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Veterinary, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

The combination of insulin and DMSO is a patented (Publication No US8987199B2), noninvasive, pharmaceutically strategized preparation for direct nose-to-brain delivery (DN2BD) suggested for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although its main ingredients have been individually researched, no histopathological investigations have been conducted to address this combination effect on the CNS and nasal tissues in animals. The present work was, therefore, designed to investigate the potential histopathological changes induced by this new pharmaceutical combination using a newly developed refractory staining method. Read More

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January 2021

Quantitative Analysis of Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia and Intracranial Blood Volumes for Predicting Mortality After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Transl Stroke Res 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 920 S.L. Young Blvd #2040, Oklahoma City, OK, 73014, USA.

Stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH) is a neuroendocrine response to acute illness. Although SIH has an adverse association with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), quantitative measures and determinants of SIH are not well delineated. In the present study, we objectively evaluated SIH using glycemic gap (GG) and identified its radiological and clinical determinants, with a 5-year retrospective review of charts of ICH patients. Read More

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January 2022

A cerebrospinal fluid microRNA analysis: Progressive supranuclear palsy.

Mol Med Rep 2022 Mar 18;25(3). Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki‑Cho, Kagawa 761‑0793, Japan.

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy described as a syndrome of postural instability, supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, dysarthria, dystonic rigidity of the neck and trunk, dementia, and pseudobulbar palsy. The clinical diagnosis of PSP is often difficult because there are no established biomarkers, and diagnosis is currently based on clinical and imaging findings. Furthermore, the etiology and pathogenesis of PSP remain unknown. Read More

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Trigger point injections and dry needling can be effective in treating long COVID syndrome-related myalgia: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Jan 17;16(1):31. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Columbia Basin Health Association, 1515 E Columbia St, Othello, WA, 99344, USA.

Introduction: Myofascial pain is a complex health condition that affects the majority of the general population. Myalgia has been recognized as a symptom of long COVID syndrome. The treatment for long COVID syndrome-related myalgia lacks research. Read More

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January 2022

TMS with fast and accurate electronic control: Measuring the orientation sensitivity of corticomotor pathways.

Brain Stimul 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland; BioMag Laboratory, HUS Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils allow only a slow, mechanical adjustment of the stimulating electric field (E-field) orientation in the cerebral tissue. Fast E-field control is needed to synchronize the stimulation with the ongoing brain activity. Also, empirical models that fully describe the relationship between evoked responses and the stimulus orientation and intensity are still missing. Read More

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January 2022

EIF4A3-induced circCCNB1 (hsa_circ_0001495) promotes glioma progression by elevating CCND1 through interacting miR-516b-5p and HuR.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, No. 39, Chaoyang Middle Road, Maojian District, Shiyan, 442000, China.

To explore the functions of circRNA cyclin B1 (circCCNB1) in glioma and its possible mechanisms. The expression of circCCNB1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A3 (EIF4A3), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and miR-516b-5p was determined by qRT-PCR, western blot or immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. The feature of circCCNB1 was analyzed by Actinomycin D (ActD), RNase R and subcellular fraction assays. Read More

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January 2022

Identifying Candidate Genes Associated with Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis via Integrative Analysis of Transcriptome-Wide Association Study and Messenger RNA Expression Profile.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No. 1838, North Guangzhou Avenue, Baiyun District, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal neurodegeneration disease affecting motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, is difficult to diagnose and treat. The objective of this study is to identify novel candidate genes related to ALS. Transcriptome-wide association study of ALS was conducted by integrating the genome-wide association study summary data (including 1234 ALS patients and 2850 controls) and pre-computed gene expression weights of different tissues. Read More

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January 2022

T -weighted ihMT imaging - Part I. Isolation of long- and short-T components by T -filtering.

Magn Reson Med 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CRMBM, Marseille, France.

Purpose: To identify T -filtering methods, which can specifically isolate various ranges of T components as they may be sensitive to different microstructural properties.

Methods: Modified Bloch-Provotorov equations describing a bi-T component biophysical model were used to simulate the inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) signal from ihMTRAGE sequences at high RF power and low duty-cycle with different switching time values for the dual saturation experiment: Δt = 0.0, 0. Read More

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January 2022

A dual-channel optogenetic stimulator selectively modulates distinct defensive behaviors.

iScience 2022 Jan 24;25(1):103681. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Beijing National Research Center for Information Science and Technology, Center for Flexible Electronics Technology, and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Implantable devices and systems have been emerging as powerful tools for neuroscience research and medical applications. Here we report a wireless, dual-channel optoelectronic system for functional optogenetic interrogation of superior colliculus (SC), a layered structure pertinent to defensive behaviors, in rodents. Specifically, a flexible and injectable probe comprises two thin-film microscale light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) at different depths, providing spatially resolved optical illuminations within the tissue. Read More

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January 2022

6-Shogaol Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Anxiety/Depression-like Behavior via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress-Influenced Expressions of Inflammatory Mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, and BDNF: Insight into the Mechanism.

ACS Omega 2022 Jan 28;7(1):140-148. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science, New Delhi 110058, India.

Anxiety and depression are among the major traumatic brain injury-induced psychiatric disorders in survivors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of 6-Shogaol against depression-like behavior and anxiety, induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI), in mice. The mice were administered either fluoxetine, vehicle, or three different doses (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg/day, i. Read More

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January 2022

Synthetic Matrices for Intestinal Organoid Culture: Implications for Better Performance.

ACS Omega 2022 Jan 25;7(1):38-47. Epub 2021 Dec 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, Arkansas 72204, United States.

Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) self-renewing and self-organizing clusters of cells that imitate an organ's structure and function, making them an important tool in various fields ranging from regenerative medicine to drug discovery. Organoids can be developed by isolating adult stem cells from an organ-specific tissue (e.g. Read More

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January 2022

HDAC Inhibitor Titration of Transcription and Axolotl Tail Regeneration.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 31;9:767377. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Mathematics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

New patterns of gene expression are enacted and regulated during tissue regeneration. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by removing acetylated lysine residues from histones and proteins that function directly or indirectly in transcriptional regulation. Previously we showed that romidepsin, an FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, potently blocks axolotl embryo tail regeneration by altering initial transcriptional responses to injury. Read More

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December 2021

Deep-Learning-Based Cancer Profiles Classification Using Gene Expression Data Profile.

J Healthc Eng 2022 7;2022:4715998. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia.

The quantity of data required to give a valid analysis grows exponentially as machine learning dimensionality increases. In a single experiment, microarrays or gene expression profiling assesses and determines gene expression levels and patterns in various cell types or tissues. The advent of DNA microarray technology has enabled simultaneous intensive care of hundreds of gene expressions on a single chip, advancing cancer categorization. Read More

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January 2022

Butylphthalide Inhibits TLR4/NF-B Pathway by Upregulation of miR-21 to Have the Neuroprotective Effect.

J Healthc Eng 2022 7;2022:4687349. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Qiqihar City, Qiqihar 161000, China.

Stroke is a disease with the highest incidence rate and the highest mortality rate in the world. The study aims to verify the neuroprotective effect of Butylphthalide. The mice were divided into sham group, MCAO group, and MCAO + Butylphthalide-treated group. Read More

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January 2022

miR-34a overexpression protects against hippocampal neuron damage caused by ketamine-induced anesthesia in immature rats through the Notch-1/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(12):13452-13461. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou Municipal Hospital (North District) Suzhou 215000, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: To investigate the protective effect of miR-34a overexpression on hippocampal neuron damage caused by ketamine-induced anesthesia in immature rats and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: A total of 48 male SD rats were divided into control group (CG, n=12), ketamine group (KG, n=12), negative control group (NCG, n=12), and intervention group (IG, n=12) by using the random number table method. Neurological function, cognitive function, pathological changes of brain tissues, inflammatory cytokines, as well as mRNA expression levels of Notch-1, NICD, RBP-JK, and Hes-1 in brain tissues were detected in the four groups. Read More

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December 2021

Curcumin slows the progression of Alzheimer's disease by modulating mitochondrial stress responses via JMJD3-H3K27me3-BDNF axis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(12):13380-13393. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University Zhengzhou 450014, Henan, China.

Disturbance of mitochondrial proteins by amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) that associates with mitochondrial stress responses (MSR) is one of the pathological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study tried to explore whether the axis of Jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (JMJD3)-trimethylated lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3)-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the regulation of MSR which in turn intervenes in the process of AD, and whether curcumin (CUR) has a protective role against AD by influencing this axis, aiming to provide insights into AD treatment. AD mouse models presented a significant aggregation of Aβ, with conspicuous pathological changes in brain tissues and an increase in neuronal apoptosis. Read More

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December 2021

Screening and Identification of Key Biomarkers in Lower Grade Glioma via Bioinformatical Analysis.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2022 7;2022:6959237. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Lower-grade glioma (LGG) is a common type of central nervous system tumor. Due to its complicated pathogenesis, the choice and timing of adjuvant therapy after tumor treatment are controversial. This study explored and identified potential therapeutic targets for lower-grade. Read More

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January 2022

MSR1 and NEP Are Correlated with Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Pathology and Apolipoprotein Alterations.

J Alzheimers Dis 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: In mouse models of amyloidosis, macrophage receptor 1 (MSR1) and neprilysin (NEP) have been shown to interact to reduce amyloid burden in the brain.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze these two gene products in combination with apolipoproteins and Aβ1 - 42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of individuals at different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as in autopsied brain samples from ROSMAP (Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project).

Methods: CSF/plasma levels of MSR1 and NEP were measured using the sensitive primer extension assay technology. Read More

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January 2022

Protective roles of liraglutide against brain injury of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Nov;34(6):2121-2129

Endocrinology Departments, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, PR China.

Our study aimed to explore the impacts of liraglutide on brain dysfunction of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rats in liraglutide treatment group were diabetic rats further received daily intraperitoneal administration of liraglutide for continuous 6 weeks. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Read More

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November 2021