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Comprehensive analysis of BTN3A1 in cancers: mining of omics data and validation in patient samples and cellular models.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China.

Butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1), a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated gene that encodes a membrane protein with 2 extracellular immunoglobulin domains and an intracellular B30.2 domain, is critical in T-cell activation and adaptive immune response. Here, the expression of BTN3A1 in cancers was analyzed in 8 databases comprising 86,733 patients of 33 cancers and the findings were validated in patient samples and cell models. Read More

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Flow inside a bone scaffold: Visualization using 3D phase contrast MRI and comparison with numerical simulations.

J Biomech 2021 Jul 12;126:110625. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. Electronic address:

We report on results of experimental flow measurements inside a bone scaffold model, subjected to a uniform incoming flow (applied perfusion). Understanding the flow behavior inside a tissue engineered scaffold is essential for mechanistic studies of mechanobiology, particularly flow-sensitive bone cells. Nearly all existing studies that quantify interstitial flow inside engineered bone scaffolds have been based on numerical results, in part due to the difficulties associated with quantitative measurements and visualization of flow inside large, opaque bone or bone mimics. Read More

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miR-543 impairs cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer by suppressing VCAN.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 19;570:191-198. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430000, Hubei, China.

Breast cancer (BC) continues to plague millions of people worldwide. MicroRNAs have been observed to be closely associated with many cancers and may serve as promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of BC. BC tissue samples were collected from 26 patients, and qRT-PCR and western blotting were performed to evaluate the levels of miR-543 and VCAN. Read More

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BTF3-mediated regulation of BMI1 promotes colorectal cancer through influencing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell-like traits.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130000, PR China. Electronic address:

The critical roles of transcription factors in cell differentiation and the delineation of cell phenotypes have been reported. The current study aimed to characterize the functions of the basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3) gene and its regulation of the intestinal stem cell marker B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1) gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). Stem cell-like traits and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cultured human CRC cell line HCT116 were evaluated by CD133+ subpopulation counting, colony formation, tumorosphere generation, and expression of EMT-specific markers and stem cell markers. Read More

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PDL1 triggered by binding eIF3I contributes to the amelioration of diabetes-associated wound healing defects by regulating IRS4.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Dermatology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437, China; Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200443, China. Electronic address:

Persistent chronic inflammation and delayed epithelialization lead to stalled healing in diabetic ulcers (DUs). PDL1 shows anti-inflammatory and proliferative activities in healing defects, while its function in DU pathogenesis remains unknown. Lower levels of PDL1 were found in DU tissues, and exogenous PDL1 has therapeutic effects in healing process by accelerating re-epithelialization and attenuating prolonged inflammation, which contributed to the delayed wound closure. Read More

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The functional cross talk between cancer cells and cancer associated fibroblasts from a cancer mechanics perspective.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jul 19:119103. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The function of biological tissues in health and disease is regulated at cellular level and is highly influenced by the physical microenvironment, through the interaction of forces between cells and ECM, which are perceived through mechanosensing pathways. In cancer, both chemical and physical signaling cascades and their interactions are involved during cell-cell and cell-ECM communications to meet requirements of tumor growth. Among stroma cells, cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play key role in tumor growth and pave the way for cancer cells to initiate metastasis and invasion to other tissues, and without recruitment of CAFs, the process of cancer invasion is dysfunctional. Read More

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Using optogenetics to link myosin patterns to contractile cell behaviors during convergent extension.

Biophys J 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York, 10027, USA. Electronic address:

Distinct patterns of actomyosin contractility are often associated with particular epithelial tissue shape changes during development. For example, a planar polarized pattern of myosin II localization regulated by Rho1 signaling during Drosophila body axis elongation is thought to drive cell behaviors that contribute to convergent extension. However, it is not well understood how specific aspects of a myosin pattern influence the multiple cell behaviors-including cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and apical cell area fluctuations-that simultaneously occur during morphogenesis. Read More

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The role of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C in regulating inflammatory responses in ulcerative colitis.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jul 19:114691. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Clinical Pharmacy Center, Department of Pharmacy, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang, China; Key Laboratory of Endocrine Gland Diseases of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease caused by an interaction of genetics, immune responses, and environmental factors. However, the precise pathogenesis of UC remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential target genes implicated in UC and to elucidate its underlying pathogenic mechanism. Read More

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Activated macrophages promote invasion by early colorectal cancer via an IL-1β-SAA1 axis.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Submucosal invasion and lymph node metastasis are important issues affecting treatment options for early colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the invasiveness of early CRCs. We performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) with poorly differentiated components (PORs) and their normal counterparts isolated from T1 CRC tissues, and detected significant upregulation of SAA1 in PORs. Read More

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Ectopic Lymphoid Follicles in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: From Patients to Animal Models.

Immunology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Anatomy, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany.

Ectopic lymphoid follicles (ELFs), resembling germinal center-like structures, emerge in a variety of infectious and autoimmune as well as neoplastic diseases. ELFs can be found in the meninges of around 40% of the investigated progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) postmortem brain tissues and are associated with the severity of cortical degeneration and clinical disease progression. Of predominant importance for progressive neuronal damage during the progressive MS phase appears to be meningeal inflammation, comprising diffuse meningeal infiltrates, B cell aggregates, and compartmentalized ELFs. Read More

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Male microchimerism in females: a quantitative study of twin pedigrees to investigate mechanisms.

Hum Reprod 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Amsterdam Reproduction and Development (AR&D) Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Study Question: Does having a male co-twin, older brothers, or sons lead to an increased probability of persistent male microchimerism in female members of twin pedigrees?

Summary Answer: The presence of a male co-twin did not increase risk of male microchimerism and the prevalence of male microchimerism was not explained by having male offspring or by having an older brother.

What Is Known Already: Microchimerism describes the presence of cells within an organism that originate from another zygote and is commonly described as resulting from pregnancy in placental mammals. It is associated with diseases with a female predilection including autoimmune diseases and pregnancy-related complications. Read More

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Effects of canagliflozin on human myocardial redox signalling: clinical implications.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, L6 West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Aims: Recent clinical trials indicate that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We explored the direct effects of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor with mild SGLT1 inhibitory effects, on myocardial redox signalling in humans.

Methods And Results: Study 1 included 364 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Read More

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FFPE samples from cavitational ultrasonic surgical aspirates are suitable for RNA profiling of gliomas.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255168. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de Alicante (ISABIAL), Alicante, Spain.

During surgical procedures for gliomas, tissue material obtained from cavitational ultrasonic surgical aspirators (CUSAs) is generally discarded but can actually exceed the amount and quality of certain tumour core resections (TCRs). Despite reports indicating the suitability of CUSA-derived material for diagnosis and research, its use is still marginal. We extended these conclusions to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, the most common format for archival tumour tissue in anatomical pathology departments, by conducting for the first time RNA-seq analysis in CUSA aspirates. Read More

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Constitutive activation of NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) in the mesenchymal lineage using Osterix (Sp7)- or Fibroblast-specific protein 1 (S100a4)-Cre drives spontaneous soft tissue sarcoma.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254426. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Musculoskeletal Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

Aberrant NF-κB signaling fuels tumor growth in multiple human cancer types including both hematologic and solid malignancies. Chronic elevated alternative NF-κB signaling can be modeled in transgenic mice upon activation of a conditional NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) allele lacking the regulatory TRAF3 binding domain (NT3). Here, we report that expression of NT3 in the mesenchymal lineage with Osterix (Osx/Sp7)-Cre or Fibroblast-Specific Protein 1 (FSP1)-Cre caused subcutaneous, soft tissue tumors. Read More

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MG53 suppresses NFκB activation to mitigate age-related heart failure.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States of America.

Aging is associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation that impact the tissue repair and regeneration capacity. MG53 is a TRIM family protein that facilitates repair of cell membrane injury in a redox-dependent manner. Here we demonstrate that the expression of MG53 is reduced in failing human heart and aging mouse heart, concomitant with elevated NFκB activation. Read More

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Macrophage phenotype and function are dependent upon the composition and biomechanics of the local cardiac tissue microenvironment.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 17;13(13):16938-16956. Epub 2021 May 17.

McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

Macrophage accumulation and nitrosative stress are known mechanisms underlying age-related cardiovascular pathology and functional decline. The cardiac muscle microenvironment is known to change with age, yet the direct effects of these changes have yet to be studied in-depth. The present study sought to better elucidate the role that biochemical and biomechanical alterations in cardiac tissue have in the altered phenotype and functionality of cardiac resident macrophages observed with increasing age. Read More

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Graft Technique Reliably Yields Grafts With 8.0-mm Diameter or Larger.

Orthopedics 2021 Jul-Aug;44(4):e539-e545. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

The significance of graft diameter in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with soft tissue grafts is well established, with a minimum graft diameter of 8.0 mm associated with lower rates of revision surgery. Consistently achieving grafts that meet or exceed the ideal diameter of 8. Read More

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Deletion of muscle Igf1 exacerbates disuse atrophy weakness in mice.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 07 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Muscle atrophy occurs as a result of prolonged periods of reduced mechanical stimulation associated with injury or disease. The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis and load sensing pathways can both aid in recovery from disuse through their shared downstream signaling, but their relative contributions to these processes are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to determine if reduced muscle IGF-1 altered the response to disuse and reloading. Read More

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ALDOB depletion promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis through activating insulin receptor signaling and lipogenesis.

Hepatology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health (SINH), University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China, 200031.

Background & Aims: Insulin receptor (IR) transduces cell surface signal via phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways, or translocates to nucleus and binds to the promoters to regulate genes associated with insulin actions including de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Chronic activation of IR signaling drives malignant transformation but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Down-regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is correlated with poor prognosis. Read More

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Fascial plane mapping for superficial tumor resection in dogs. Part II: Forelimb.

Vet Surg 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Center, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Objective: To detail the qualitative fascial categories and fascial intersections of the forelimb of the dog to facilitate preoperative planning for superficial cancers.

Study Design: Qualitative anatomical study.

Sample Population: Three male and four female mixed breed canine cadavers weighing approximately 20-35 kg. Read More

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Molecular detection of Wolbachia endosymbiont in reptiles and their ectoparasites.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.

Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted Gram-negative endosymbiont of onchocercid nematodes and arthropods, has a role in the biology of their host; thus it has been exploited for the filariasis treatment in humans. To assess the presence and prevalence of this endosymbiont in reptiles and their ectoparasites, blood and tail tissue as well as ticks and mites collected from them were molecularly screened for Wolbachia DNA using two sets of primers targeting partial 16S rRNA and Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) genes. Positive samples were screened for the partial 12S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes for filarioids. Read More

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Patient-Reported Aesthetic and Psychosocial Outcomes After Microvascular Reconstruction for Head and Neck Cancer.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: Aesthetic outcomes are key determinants of psychosocial functioning among surgically treated patients with head and neck cancer (HNC); however, long-term aesthetic outcomes after microvascular free tissue transfer (MFTT) are not well described.

Objective: To examine risk factors for impaired long-term aesthetic satisfaction and appearance-related psychosocial functioning after HNC ablation with MFTT.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted at an academic tertiary care center. Read More

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Chronic Stress Burden, Visceral Adipose Tissue, and Adiposity-Related Inflammation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Psychosom Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Joint Doctoral Program in Epidemiology, San Diego State University and University of California San Diego, San Diego CA, USA School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego CA, USA Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego CA, USA Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ, USA Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore MD, USA Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego CA, USA.

Objective: We investigated the role of chronic stress burden on adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation with two hypotheses: (1) greater chronic stress is associated with higher central adiposity and selective accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT); and (2) associations between VAT and inflammatory biomarkers are exacerbated when chronic stress is high.

Methods: Data come from 1,809 participants included in a Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis ancillary study of body composition and adiposity-related inflammation. Chronic psychosocial stress was measured with a 5-item version of the Chronic Stress Burden Scale. Read More

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Host-associated microbe PCR (hamPCR) enables convenient measurement of both microbial load and community composition.

Elife 2021 Jul 22;10. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany.

The ratio of microbial population size relative to the amount of host tissue, or 'microbial load', is a fundamental metric of colonization and infection, but it cannot be directly deduced from microbial amplicon data such as 16S rRNA gene counts. Because existing methods to determine load, such as serial dilution plating, quantitative PCR, and whole metagenome sequencing, add substantial cost and/or experimental burden, they are only rarely paired with amplicon sequencing. We introduce host-associated microbe PCR (hamPCR), a robust strategy to both quantify microbial load and describe interkingdom microbial community composition in a single amplicon library. Read More

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Visceral Adipose Tissue Volumetrics Inform Odds of Treatment Response and Risk of Subsequent Surgery in IBD Patients Starting Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School, Austin,  TX, USA.

Background: Data describing the effect of obesity on antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment response are inconsistent. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a superior marker of adiposity to body mass index. However, its effect on treatment response is unclear. Read More

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Mesenchymal PLAG1 Tumor With PCMTD1-PLAG1 Fusion in an Infant: A New Type of "Plagoma".

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Dermatology, University Clinic of Navarra, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Roma, Italy; Department of Pathology, Ospedale Bambino Gesù, Roma, Italy; Orthopedic Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; and Department of Pathology, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Abstract: In the past decade, there have been major advances in knowledge related to mesenchymal tumors, and new genetic alterations are being delineated. We report a mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasm harboring a novel gene fusion in an infant. Histopathologically, the neoplasm shared some features with sclerosing perineurioma, but immunohistochemically, EMA was negative, whereas GLUT1, NK1-C3, and BCOR were positive. Read More

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A review of respiratory manifestations and their management in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and hypermobility spectrum disorders.

Chron Respir Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;18:14799731211025313

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS) and Hypermobility Spectrum Disorders (HSD) are a heterogeneous group of heritable genetic connective tissue disorders with multiple characteristics including joint hypermobility, tissue fragility, and multiple organ dysfunction. Respiratory manifestations have been described in EDS patients, but have not been systematically characterized. A narrative review was undertaken to describe the respiratory presentations and management strategies of individuals with EDS and HSD. Read More

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Current and potential biomarkers in gastric cancer: a critical review of the literature.

Future Oncol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of General Surgery & Laparoscopic Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou 310009, China.

Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide and the second most lethal. Gastric cancer biomarkers can be used for diagnosis, prediction of sensitivity to treatment, and prognosis. The following search terms were applied to PubMed as of December 2020: 'gastric cancer classification', 'gastric cancer epidemiology', 'cancer metastasis' and 'gastric cancer biomarker'. Read More

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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats as an advanced treatment for Parkinson's disease.

Brain Behav 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000, P. R. China.

Recently, genome-editing technology like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 has improved the translational gap in the treatments mediated through gene therapy. The advantages of the CRISPR system, such as, work in the living cells and tissues, candidate this technique for the employing in experiments and the therapy of central nervous system diseases. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a widespread, disabling, neurodegenerative disease induced by dopaminergic neuron loss and linked to progressive motor impairment. Read More

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Genetic variation of rs12918566 affects GRIN2A expression and is associated with spontaneous movement response during sevoflurane anesthesia induction.

Brain Behav 2021 Jul 21:e02165. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the nervous system and are preferentially inhibited by general anesthetics such as sevoflurane. Spontaneous movement is a common complication during sevoflurane anesthesia induction and seriously affects operations. In this study, we investigated the relationship between NMDA polymorphisms and spontaneous movement during sevoflurane induction. Read More

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