3,457 results match your criteria timing maturation

The need to study human milk as a biological system.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Critical advancement is needed in the study of human milk as a biological system that intersects and interacts with myriad internal (maternal biology) and external (diet, environment, infections) factors and its plethora of influences on the developing infant. Human-milk composition and its resulting biological function is more than the sum of its parts. Our failure to fully understand this biology in a large part contributes to why the duration of exclusive breastfeeding remains an unsettled science (if not policy). Read More

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Importance of evaluating protein glycosylation in pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for research and clinical applications.

Pflugers Arch 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

CardiOmics Program, Center for Heart and Vascular Research, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA.

Proper protein glycosylation is critical to normal cardiomyocyte physiology. Aberrant glycosylation can alter protein localization, structure, drug interactions, and cellular function. The in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CM) has become increasingly important to the study of protein function and to the fields of cardiac disease modeling, drug testing, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine. Read More

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Optimization of next-generation emergence timing of Amaranthus hybridus is determined through seed dormancy modulation by the maternal environment.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Departamento de Producción Vegetal, Cátedra de Cerealicultura, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Emergence timing of weed species has critical ecological and agronomical implications. In several species, emergence patterns largely depend on the seedbank dormancy level, which is modulated by specific environmental factors. In addition, environmental conditions during seed maturation on the mother plant have shown marked effects on dormancy level at seed dispersal time. Read More

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Characterization of pubertal development of girls in rural Bangladesh.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(4):e0247762. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

This study aimed to describe the timing and patterns of pubertal maturation of girls living in rural Bangladesh. Starting in September 2015, a total of 15,320 girls from a birth cohort, aged 9 to 15 years at initial encounter, were visited twice at about a one year interval, typically in their birth month. Participants were asked to self-report extent of pubertal maturation, including breast development, pubic hair growth and age at menarche, if applicable. Read More

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Anaplastic astrocytoma during pregnancy: the importance of an effective multidisciplinary approach.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

A 34-year-old pregnant woman at 28 gestational weeks was diagnosed with a brain tumor after experiencing a generalised seizure. After completion of antenatal fetal lung maturation, she underwent an osteoplastic craniotomy parietal on the left side and a microsurgical partial tumor resection under general anaesthesia. With a histology of a diffuse astrocytoma and the postoperative stable amount of residual tumor on follow-up imaging, the pregnancy proceeded until 37 gestational weeks. Read More

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Early Puberty Is Associated With Higher Academic Achievement in Boys and Girls and Partially Explains Academic Sex Differences.

J Adolesc Health 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Purpose: On average, boys have lower academic achievement than girls. We investigated whether the timing of puberty is associated with academic achievement, and whether later puberty among boys contributes to the sex difference in academic achievement.

Method: Examination scores at age 16 were studied among 13,477 British twins participating in the population-based Twins Early Development Study. Read More

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Longitudinal analysis of sleep spindle maturation from childhood through late adolescence.

J Neurosci 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

University of California Davis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Sacramento, CA 95817.

Sleep spindles are intermittent bursts of 11-15 Hz electroencephalogram (EEG) waves that occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Spindles are believed to help maintain sleep and to play a role in sleep dependent memory consolidation. Here we applied an automated sleep spindle detection program to our large longitudinal sleep EEG dataset (98 human subjects, 6-18 y, >2000 uninterrupted nights) to evaluate maturational trends in spindle wave frequency, density, amplitude, and duration. Read More

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Diapause vs. reproductive programs: transcriptional phenotypes in a keystone copepod.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 29;4(1):426. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Many arthropods undergo a seasonal dormancy termed "diapause" to optimize timing of reproduction in highly seasonal environments. In the North Atlantic, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus completes one to three generations annually with some individuals maturing into adults, while others interrupt their development to enter diapause. It is unknown which, why and when individuals enter the diapause program. Read More

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Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and puberty timing: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

C Freire, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, Spain.

Background: Numerous modern non-persistent pesticides have demonstrated estrogenic/anti-androgenic activity and have been classified as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Processes involved in puberty development are vulnerable to EDCs, such as compounds that interfere with the metabolism or activity of sex steroids.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of epidemiological studies on the relationship between early-life exposure to non-persistent pesticides and puberty timing and/or sexual maturation in girls and boys. Read More

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Spatiotemporal mapping of sensory and motor innervation of the embryonic and postnatal mouse urinary bladder.

Dev Biol 2021 Mar 17;476:18-32. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Vic, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

The primary function of the urinary bladder is to store urine (continence) until a suitable time for voiding (micturition). These distinct processes are determined by the coordinated activation of sensory and motor components of the nervous system, which matures to enable voluntary control at the time of weaning. Our aim was to define the development and maturation of the nerve-organ interface of the mouse urinary bladder by mapping the organ and tissue distribution of major classes of autonomic (motor) and sensory axons. Read More

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Ecdysone Quantification from Whole Body Samples of Larvae.

Bio Protoc 2021 Feb 5;11(3):e3915. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Rua da Quinta Grande, 6, Oeiras 2780-156, Portugal.

Steroid hormones strictly control the timing of sexual maturation and final body size both in vertebrates and invertebrates. In insects, the steroid hormone ecdysone controls the timing of the molts between larval instars as well as the transition to metamorphosis. Growth during the final instar accounts for over 80% of the increase in final mass in insects, and the duration of this growth period is driven by a sequence of small ecdysone pulses that ultimately induce metamorphosis. Read More

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February 2021

Ant behavioral maturation is mediated by a stochastic transition between two fundamental states.

Curr Biol 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Quartier Sorge, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

The remarkable ecological success of social insects is often attributed to their advanced division of labor, which is closely associated with temporal polyethism in which workers transition between different tasks as they age. Young nurses are typically found deep within the nest where they tend to the queen and the brood, whereas older foragers are found near the entrance and outside the nest. However, the individual-level maturation dynamics remain poorly understood because following individuals over relevant timescales is difficult; hence, previous experimental studies used same-age cohort designs. Read More

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Sex differences in dopamine innervation and microglia are altered by synthetic progestin in neonatal medial prefrontal cortex.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 Mar;33(3):e12962

Department of Psychology & Center for Neuroscience Research, University at Albany, Albany, NY, USA.

The synthetic progestin 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) is commonly prescribed to pregnant women with a history of preterm delivery, despite little evidence of efficacy. The timing of 17-OHPC administration coincides with fetal mesocortical dopamine pathway development, yet the potential effects on cortical development and cognition are almost unknown. In rodent models, exposure to 17-OHPC significantly increased dopaminergic innervation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an aberrant pattern of connectivity that may underlie deficits in cognitive flexibility observed in adulthood. Read More

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Caregiving influences on emotional learning and regulation: Applying a sensitive period model.

Dylan G Gee

Curr Opin Behav Sci 2020 Dec 3;36:177-184. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Yale University, Department of Psychology, 2 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511.

Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping corticolimbic development and emotional learning and regulation. Given dynamic changes in corticolimbic maturation, the effects of caregiving experiences are likely to depend on the developmental timing of exposure. Cross-species evidence has identified timing-related differences in the effects of caregiving adversity. Read More

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December 2020

Chronic Bilateral Cochlear Implant Stimulation Partially Restores Neural Binaural Sensitivity in Neonatally-Deaf Rabbits.

J Neurosci 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Eaton-Peabody Laboratories, Massachusetts Eye & Ear, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114, USA

Cochlear implant (CI) users with a pre-lingual onset of hearing loss show poor sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITD), an important cue for sound localization and speech reception in noise. Similarly, neural ITD sensitivity in the inferior colliculus (IC) of neonatally-deafened animals is degraded compared to animals deafened as adults. Here, we show that chronic bilateral CI stimulation during development can partly reverse the effect of early-onset deafness on ITD sensitivity. Read More

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Development of luspatercept to treat ineffective erythropoiesis.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(5):1565-1575

Department of Hematology, Cellular Therapy and Hemostaseology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Luspatercept (Reblozyl) was recently approved for treating patients with transfusion-dependent lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with ring sideroblasts (RS) and/or SF3B1 mutation who were not eligible for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or patients for whom those agents failed. Luspatercept acts as an activin receptor type IIB fusion protein ligand trap that targets the altered transforming growth factor beta pathway in MDS, which is associated with impaired terminal erythroid maturation. Treatment with luspatercept results in decreased SMAD signaling, which enables erythroid maturation by means of late-stage erythroblast differentiation and thus improves anemia. Read More

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Effect of the time interval between oocyte retrieval and ICSI on embryo development and reproductive outcomes: a systematic review.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Mar 1;19(1):34. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Gynecology Endocrine and Reproductive Center, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College/Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratories. However, there is no consensus regarding the precise time intervals within ICSI cycles [oocyte pick up (OPU), oocyte denudation (DN), and ICSI], and results are inconsistent and contradictory. Thus, we aim to evaluate whether there is a concordance regarding the time intervals used in different laboratories and a concrete time that gives better laboratory and reproductive results. Read More

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Timing the Juvenile-Adult Neurohormonal Transition: Functions and Evolution.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 12;11:602285. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Molecular Physiology of Behavior Laboratory, Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology, Cajal Institute, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Puberty and metamorphosis are two major developmental transitions linked to the reproductive maturation. In mammals and vertebrates, the central brain acts as a gatekeeper, timing the developmental transition through the activation of a neuroendocrine circuitry. In addition to reproduction, these neuroendocrine axes and the sustaining genetic network play additional roles in metabolism, sleep and behavior. Read More

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February 2021

A putative adverse outcome pathway network for disrupted female pubertal onset to improve testing and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

Neuroendocrinology 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

The average age for pubertal onset in girls has declined over recent decades. Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animals suggest a causal role for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) that are present in our environment. Of concern, current testing and screening regimens are inadequate in identifying EDCs that may affect pubertal maturation, not least because they do not consider early-life exposure. Read More

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February 2021

From stem and progenitor cells to neurons in the developing neocortex: key differences among hominids.

FEBS J 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

Comparing the biology of humans to that of other primates, and notably other hominids, is a useful path to learn more about what makes us human. Some of the most interesting differences among hominids are closely related to brain development and function, for example behaviour and cognition. This makes it particularly interesting to compare the hominid neural cells of the neocortex, a part of the brain that plays central roles in those processes. Read More

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February 2021

The Atlantic salmon whole blood transcriptome and how it relates to major locus maturation genotypes and other tissues.

Mar Genomics 2021 Apr 31;56:100809. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is important to many ecosystems and local economies and has therefore become the focus of a broad range of research questions that have benefited from the availability of high-quality genomic resources. Albeit gene expression studies have been extensive for this species, the transcriptome information for Atlantic salmon whole blood has been lacking. A transcriptome of Atlantic salmon blood would be a valuable resource for future studies, especially those wishing to take non-lethal samples. Read More

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Sex-specific lipid profiles in the muscle of Atlantic salmon juveniles.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Feb 8;38:100810. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 9, 00014 Helsinki, Finland; Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Energy allocation in juvenile fish can have important implications for future life-history progression. Inherited and environmental factors determine when and where individuals allocate energy, and timely and sufficient energy reserves are crucial for reaching key life stages involved in the timing of maturation and sea migration. In Atlantic salmon, lipid reserves are predominantly found in the viscera and myosepta in the muscle and have been shown to play a key role in determining the timing of maturity. Read More

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February 2021

Capacity of Trolox to improve the development and quality of metabolically compromised bovine oocytes and embryos invitro during different windows of development.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2021 Feb;33(4):291-304

Gamete Research Centre, Laboratory for Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium; and Corresponding author. Email:

Trials to improve oocyte developmental competence under metabolic stress by using antioxidants may start before or after oocyte maturation. In the present conceptual study, we aimed to identify the most efficient timing of antioxidant application in relation to a metabolic insult using a bovine invitro embryo production model. Pathophysiological concentrations of palmitic acid (PA) were used to induce metabolic stress during oocyte maturation or embryo development. Read More

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February 2021

Osteoclasts Differentiation from Murine RAW 264.7 Cells Stimulated by RANKL: Timing and Behavior.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Feb 4;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l'Innovazione Biomedica, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy.

The development of multi-nucleated cells is critical for osteoclasts (OCs) maturation and function. Our objective was to extend knowledge on osteoclastogenesis, focusing on pre-OC fusion timing and behavior. RAW 264. Read More

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February 2021

RNA sequencing data for heat stress response in isolated seed tissues.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 21;35:106726. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences-UMR1345, Université d'Angers, INRAE, Institut Agro, SFR 4207 QuaSaV, 49071, Beaucouzé, France.

Legumes are important crop species as they produce highly nutritious seeds for human food and animal feed. In grain legumes, sub-optimal conditions affect seed developmental timing leading to impairment of seed quality traits acquired during seed maturation. To understand the molecular mechanisms of heat stress response in legume seeds, we analysed transcriptome changes of three seed tissues (i. Read More

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Low BMI, but not high BMI, influences the timing of puberty in boys.

Andrology 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Previous studies investigating the association between weight status and onset of puberty in boys have been equivocal. It is currently unclear to what extent weight class influences puberty onset and progression.

Objectives: To explore the relationship between degree of sexual maturation and anthropometric measures in Norwegian boys. Read More

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February 2021

Total and central adiposity are associated with age at gonadarche and incidence of precocious gonadarche in boys.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Institute of Maternal and Child Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Context: A close link between BMI and female pubertal onset is well established. However, observations in boys remain inconclusive.

Objective: We aim to determine whether BMI as well as total and central adiposity in pre-pubertal Chilean boys is associated with pubertal timing. Read More

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February 2021

Occurrence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates in metaphase II oocytes: relationship with stimulation protocols and outcome of ICSI and IVF cycles.

Hum Reprod 2021 Mar;36(4):907-917

UOS Physiopathology of Human Reproduction, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 10-16132 Genova, Italy.

Study Question: Is there any association between the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates (SERa) in oocytes and ovarian stimulation, embryological, clinical and neonatal outcomes of ICSI and IVF cycles?

Summary Answer: A suboptimal prolonged ovarian stimulation is detrimental to oocytes by inducing the occurrence of SERa, which reduces the reproductive potential of oocytes.

What Is Known Already: Controlled ovarian stimulation recruits oocytes of different qualities. Based on current evidence, it was agreed that non-homogeneous cytoplasm may represent the normal variability among oocytes rather than a dysmorphism with developmental significance. Read More

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The Role of Fetal, Infant, and Childhood Nutrition in the Timing of Sexual Maturation.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 28;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Pediatric Unit, "V. Buzzi" Children's Hospital, 20154 Milan, Italy.

Puberty is a crucial developmental stage in the life span, necessary to achieve reproductive and somatic maturity. Timing of puberty is modulated by and responds to central neurotransmitters, hormones, and environmental factors leading to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis maturation. The connection between hormones and nutrition during critical periods of growth, like fetal life or infancy, is fundamental for metabolic adaptation response and pubertal development control and prediction. Read More

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January 2021

The gill-oxygen limitation theory (GOLT) and its critics.

Daniel Pauly

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 6;7(2). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Sea Around Us, Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Email:

The gill-oxygen limitation theory (GOLT) provides mechanisms for key aspects of the biology (food conversion efficiency, growth and its response to temperature, the timing of maturation, and others) of water-breathing ectotherms (WBEs). The GOLT's basic tenet is that the surface area of the gills or other respiratory surfaces of WBE cannot, as two-dimensional structures, supply them with sufficient oxygen to keep up with the growth of their three-dimensional bodies. Thus, a lower relative oxygen supply induces sexual maturation, and later a slowing and cessation of growth, along with an increase of physiological processes relying on glycolytic enzymes and a declining role of oxidative enzymes. Read More

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January 2021