58 results match your criteria time-based switching


Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of an affective task-switching paradigm.

Emotion 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, Goethe University Frankfurt.

Affective flexibility refers to the flexible adaptation of behavior or thought given emotionally relevant stimuli, tasks, or contexts, and has been associated with the efficiency of emotion regulation and dealing with stress and adversity. Experimentally, individual differences in affective flexibility have been measured as behavioral costs (response times, errors rates) of switching between affective and neutral tasks. However, behavioral task measures can only be treated as trait-like characteristics if they have sufficient psychometric quality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Time-Based Transition Expectancy in Task Switching: Do We Need to Know the Task to Switch to?

J Cogn 2021 Mar 10;4(1):19. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Cognition, Action, and Sustainability Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, DE.

Recent research has shown that humans are able to implicitly adapt to time-transition contingencies in a task-switching paradigm, indicated by better performance in trials where the task transition (switch vs. repetition) is validly predicted by the pre-target interval compared to trials with invalidly predicted transitions. As participants switched between only two different tasks, not only the transition, but also the specific task was predictable; at least indirectly when taking into account the temporally predicted transition in the current trial together with the task in the previous trial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluations for New Healthcare Environment Commissioning and Operational Decision Making Using Simulation and Human Factors: A Case Study of an Interventional Trauma Operating Room.

HERD 2021 Mar 11:1937586721999668. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide a case study example of the preopening phase of an interventional trauma operating room (ITOR) using systems-focused simulation and human factor evaluations for healthcare environment commissioning.

Background: Systems-focused simulation, underpinned by human factors science, is increasingly being used as a quality improvement tool to test and evaluate healthcare spaces with the stakeholders that use them. Purposeful real-to-life simulated events are rehearsed to allow healthcare teams opportunity to identify what is working well and what needs improvement within the work system such as tasks, environments, and processes that support the delivery of healthcare services. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bipolar radiofrequency ablation treatment of liver cancer employing monopolar needles: A comprehensive investigation on the efficacy of time-based switching.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 16;131:104273. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University, VIC, 3350, Australia.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a thermal ablative treatment method that is commonly used to treat liver cancer. However, the thermal coagulation zone generated using the conventional RFA system can only successfully treat tumours up to 3 cm in diameter. Switching bipolar RFA has been proposed as a way to increase the thermal coagulation zone. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Joint angle based motor point tracking stimulation for surface FES: A Study on biceps brachii.

Med Eng Phys 2021 02 28;88:9-18. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, 182-8585, Japan; Center for Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, 182-8585, Japan. Electronic address:

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been an effective treatment option in clinical rehabilitation such as motor function recovery after stroke. The main limitation of FES is the lack of stimulation efficiency in motor unit recruitment compared with voluntary contractions, which may cause the early onset of muscle fatigue. The stimulation efficiency of FES can be improved by optimizing electrode positions to target the motor point (MP). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

All you need is air-Alternating activated sludge system BIOCOS without electromechanical equipment.

Water Environ Res 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Exclusively air-driven operation is an essential feature of the cyclic activated sludge process BIOCOS. Switching the air-flow between diffusers, agitation, and recycle air-lift keeps operation and maintenance simple and leads to significant energy savings used for mechanical devices. The overall energy demand for the whole biological system with settling was found to be below 20 kWh/PE. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Variation cascades: resource pulses and top-down effects across time scales.

Ecology 2021 04 1;102(4):e03277. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, 06520, USA.

Top-down and bottom-up theories of trophic control have been fundamental to our understanding of community dynamics and structure. However, most ecological theories have focused on equilibrium dynamics and do not provide predictions for communities' responses in temporally fluctuating environments. By deriving the frequency response of populations in different trophic communities, we extend the top-down and bottom-up theories of ecology to include how temporal fluctuations in potential primary productivity percolate up the food chain and are re-expressed as population variability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Event- and time-based prospective memory in hemodialysis patients.

Ren Fail 2020 Nov;42(1):1135-1141

Institute of Nephrology, Zhong Da Hospital, Southeast University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Objective: The present study investigated whether hemodialysis (HD) patients exhibit future memory impairment (PM; the capability of remembering to perform expected future actions) and exploring relevant factors of PM task performance.

Methods: Sixty HD patients and 60 healthy controls matched by age are enrolled in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Finger Span Test (DST), Oral Fluency Test (VFT), Ray Auditory Oral Learning Test (RAVLT), Received Stroop Color Word Interference Test (SCWT), and event-based PM (EBPM) and time-based PM (TBPM).

Results: There were no significant difference between the patients and controls in the DST-Forward digit span (9. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Health effects of electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use on organ systems and its implications for public health.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2020 Jul 20. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15/1, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: There has been growing concern over the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in recent years. Although advocated as an aid to smoking cessation, there is increasing evidence of harm not just to the respiratory system, but to all other organs in the body. To give a clearer picture on how e‑cigarettes can affect our health, we gathered an overview of the literature on the various health effects of e‑cigarettes and categorized them into how they specifically affect organ systems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Weight and body mass index increase in children and adolescents exposed to antipsychotic drugs in non-interventional settings: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.

Antipsychotics increase weight, BMI and waist size, particularly in pediatric patients. Switching antipsychotics is common practice, thus defining the risk for each antipsychotic in real-life settings can be important for clinical guidance. We conducted a meta-analysis on antipsychotic-related changes in body measures in pediatric observational studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A carbon-based memristor design for associative learning activities and neuromorphic computing.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul;12(25):13531-13539

National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of New Energy Photovoltaic Devices, College of Electron and Information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, P. R. of China.

Carbon quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant interest due to their excellent electronic properties and wide application prospects. However, the application of carbon QDs has been rarely reported in memristors. Here, a memristor model with carbon conductive filaments (CFs) is proposed for the first time based on carbon quantum dots. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Does temporal predictability of tasks influence task choice?

Psychol Res 2021 Apr 17;85(3):1066-1083. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.

Task performance improves when the required tasks are predicted by the preceding time intervals, suggesting that participants form time-based task expectancies. In the present study, we pursued the question whether temporal predictability of tasks can also influence task choice. For this purpose, we conducted three experiments using a hybrid task-switching paradigm (with two tasks) combining forced-choice and free-choice trials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prospective memory and working memory in comparison. New experimental paradigms.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Aug 7;130(8):834-840. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.

Prospective memory (PM) is a cognitive high load activity. Two main models showed the relation between working memory (WM) and PM. The preparatory attentional and memory processes model (PAM) posits an interdependence between WM and PM; while, the multiprocess framework assumes independence between these two functions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Humans derive task expectancies from sub-second and supra-second interval durations.

Psychol Res 2020 Jul 25;84(5):1333-1345. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Cognition, Action, and Sustainability Unit, Department of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Engelbergerstrasse 41, 79085, Freiburg, Germany.

Recent studies in the field of task switching have shown that humans can base expectancies for tasks on temporal cues. When tasks are predictable based on the duration of the preceding pre-target interval, humans implicitly adapt to this predictability, indicated by better performance in trials with validly compared to invalidly predicted tasks. Yet, it is not clear which internal timing mechanisms are involved. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prospective memories and working memory: shared resources or distinct mechanisms?

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2020 Jul-Aug;27(4):311-325. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.

Prospective memory (PM) is a complex process involving multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies demonstrated the role of working memory (WM) in PM. However, to date, the extent to which PM and WM shared resources or, rather, they are distinct mechanisms is still debated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Long-term efficacy of opicapone in fluctuating Parkinson's disease patients: a pooled analysis of data from two phase 3 clinical trials and their open-label extensions.

Eur J Neurol 2019 07 25;26(7):953-960. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Research and Development, BIAL - Portela & Ca SA, S. Mamede do Coronado, Portugal.

Background And Purpose: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor opicapone (25 and 50 mg) as adjunct therapy to levodopa in a pooled population of Parkinson's disease patients who participated in the pivotal double-blind trials of opicapone and their 1-year open-label extensions.

Methods: Data (placebo, opicapone 25 mg and opicapone 50 mg) from the BIPARK-1 and BIPARK-2 double-blind and open-label studies were combined. The studies had similar designs, eligibility criteria and assessment methods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Integrated Working Memory Model for Time-Based Resource-Sharing.

Top Cogn Sci 2019 01 27;11(1):261-276. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, Wright State University.

The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model envisions working memory as a rapidly switching, serial, attentional refreshing mechanism. Executive attention trades its time between rebuilding decaying memory traces and processing extraneous activity. To thoroughly investigate the implications of the TBRS theory, we integrated TBRS within the ACT-R cognitive architecture, which allowed us to test the TBRS model against both participant accuracy and response time data in a dual task environment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2019

A simple lateral flow biosensor for rapid detection of lead(ii) ions based on G-quadruplex structure-switching.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec;54(97):13718-13721

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The 2nd Clinical medicine College (Shenzhen People's Hospital) of Jinan University, Shenzhen 518020, China.

A novel lateral flow biosensor for rapid detection of Pb2+ was established for the first time based on Pb2+-induced G-quadruplex structure-switching. Semi-quantitative results could be read by reference to a colorimetric card. The whole process only took 15 minutes with a visual detection limit of 25 nM. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2018

Effectiveness of opicapone and switching from entacapone in fluctuating Parkinson disease.

Neurology 2018 05 25;90(21):e1849-e1857. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

From the Instituto de Medicina Molecular (J.J.F.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon; CNS-Campus Neurológico Sénior (J.J.F.), Torres Vedras, Portugal; University College London (A.J.L.), Reta Lila Weston Institute, UK; Department of Neurology (W.P.), Medical University Innsbruck, Austria; Université de Toulouse (O.R.), CHU de Toulouse, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Department of Neurosciences and Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Investigation Center 1436, and NeuroToul Center of Excellence in Neurodegeneration France; Department of Research and Development (J.-F.R., P.S.-d.-S.), BIAL-Portela & Ca SA, S. Mamede do Coronado, Portugal; Department of Biostatistics (B.K.), Clinipace Worldwide, Eschborn, Germany; and Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (P.S.-d.-S.), Faculty of Medicine, University Porto, Portugal.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of opicapone as add-on to levodopa and the effects of switching from entacapone over 1 year of treatment in patients with fluctuating Parkinson disease.

Methods: After completion of a placebo- and entacapone-controlled double-blind study of opicapone (5, 25, or 50 mg), 495 patients continued to a 1-year extension phase in which patients were treated with opicapone. Patients began with once-daily opicapone 25 mg for 1 week, followed by individually tailored levodopa and/or opicapone dose adjustments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Full imitation of synaptic metaplasticity based on memristor devices.

Nanoscale 2018 Mar;10(13):5875-5881

Key Laboratory of Microelectronic Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China.

Neuromorphic engineering is a promising technology for developing new computing systems owing to the low-power operation and the massive parallelism similarity to the human brain. Optimal function of neuronal networks requires interplay between rapid forms of Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic mechanisms that adjust the threshold for plasticity, termed metaplasticity. Metaplasticity has important implications in synapses and is barely addressed in neuromorphic devices. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Feb 25;18(3). Epub 2018 Feb 25.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Korea.

The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2018

Spark-generated microbubble cell sorter for microfluidic flow cytometry.

Cytometry A 2018 02 18;93(2):222-231. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.

High-speed and accurate cell sorting is of great significance for cell analysis regarding both bioresearch and clinical application. Different from the jet-in-air sorting of commercial flow cytometers, sorting in fully enclosed and disposal microfluidic chips can avoid aerosols and crosscontamination, thus contributing to the improvement of biosafety and test accuracy. However, current microfluidic sorters usually require complicated structures, or otherwise cannot attain high throughput. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2018

Real-time scan speed control of the atomic force microscopy for reducing imaging time based on sample topography.

Micron 2018 03 15;106:1-6. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China; Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Here, a novel method, real-time scan speed control for raster scan amplitude modulation atomic force microscopes (AM-AFMs), is proposed. In general, the imaging rate is set to a fixed value before the experiment, which is determined by the feedback control calculations on each imaging point. Many efforts have been made to increase the AFM imaging rate, including using the cantilever with high eigenfrequency, employing new scan methods, and optimizing other mechanical components. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Time-based expectancy in temporally structured task switching.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2018 Jun 20;44(6):856-870. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Cognition, Action, and Sustainability Unit, Department of Psychology, Albert Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg.

In many situations, people have to switch between different tasks. Previous research has shown that task switching leads to relatively slow responses and high error rates. In many real-life task-switching contexts, tasks are not randomly distributed over time, but the temporal distribution of tasks carries information. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Under Which Conditions Can Older Participants Maintain Information In Working Memory?

Exp Aging Res 2017 Oct-Dec;43(5):409-429. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

c Psychology Department , Université Grenoble Alpes, LPNC, BSHM , Grenoble , France.

Background/Study Context: Age-related deficits in working memory (WM) are commonly described in the literature. However, age-related deficits in WM maintenance mechanisms have received less attention. Based on recent models of WM, the present study aims at determining the conditions under which older adults are able to maintain information. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transfer of time-based task expectancy across different timing environments.

Psychol Res 2018 Jan 24;82(1):230-243. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Cognition, Action, and Sustainability Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Engelbergerstrasse 41, 79085, Freiburg, Germany.

Recent research on time-based expectancy has shown that humans base their expectancies for responses on representations of temporal relations (e.g., shorter vs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2018

Sequential Therapeutic Response Modeling for Tumor Treatment Using Computational Hybrid Control Systems Approach.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2018 04 6;65(4):866-874. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Objective: Tumorigenesis is due to uncontrolled cell division arising from mutations and alterations in the proliferative controls of the cell population. The fight against tumor growth and development has often relied on combination therapy that has been acclaimed as one of the main standards of care in cancer therapeutics and prevention of drug-related resistances. The toxicity of the combinatorial drugs raises a significant concern whenever patients take two or more drugs concurrently at the maximum tolerated dose. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Time-Based Switching Control of Genetic Regulatory Networks: Toward Sequential Drug Intake for Cancer Therapy.

Cancer Inform 2017 10;16:1176935117706888. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

As cancer growth and development typically involves multiple genes and pathways, combination therapy has been touted as the standard of care in the treatment of cancer. However, drug toxicity becomes a major concern whenever a patient takes 2 or more drugs simultaneously at the maximum tolerable dosage. A potential solution would be administering the drugs in a sequential or alternating manner rather than concurrently. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Temporal Distinctiveness in Task Switching: Assessing the Mixture-Distribution Assumption.

Authors:
James A Grange

Front Psychol 2016 24;7:251. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

School of Psychology, Keele University Keele, UK.

In task switching, increasing the response-cue interval has been shown to reduce the switch cost. This has been attributed to a time-based decay process influencing the activation of memory representations of tasks (task-sets). Recently, an alternative account based on interference rather than decay has been successfully applied to this data (Horoufchin et al. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Division time-based amplifiers for stochastic gene expression.

Mol Biosyst 2015 Sep 16;11(9):2417-28. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, People's Republic of China.

While cell-to-cell variability is a phenotypic consequence of gene expression noise, sources of this noise may be complex - apart from intrinsic sources such as the random birth/death of mRNA and stochastic switching between promoter states, there are also extrinsic sources of noise such as cell division where division times are either constant or random. However, how this time-based division affects gene expression as well as how it contributes to cell-to-cell variability remains unexplored. Using a computational model combined with experimental data, we show that the cell-cycle length defined as the difference between two sequential division times can significantly impact the expression dynamics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2015