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Evaluating the added value of multi-input atmospheric transport ensemble modeling for applications of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty organization (CTBTO).

J Environ Radioact 2021 Jun 9;237:106649. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Wagramerstrasse 5, 1400, Vienna, Austria.

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) runs to date operationally an atmospheric transport modeling chain in backward mode based on operational deterministic European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Integrated Forecasting System (ECMWF-IFS) and on National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS) input data. Meanwhile, ensemble dispersion modeling is becoming more and more widespread due to the ever increasing computational power and storage capacities. The potential benefit of this approach for current and possible future CTBTO applications was investigated using data from the ECMWF-Ensemble Prediction System (EPS). Read More

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Widely targeted metabolomics analysis of white peony teas with different storage time and association with sensory attributes.

Food Chem 2021 May 30;362:130257. Epub 2021 May 30.

Zhejiang University Tea Research Institute, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

The sensory features of white peony teas (WPTs) significantly change with storage age; however, their comprehensive associations with composition are still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the sensory quality-related chemical changes in WPTs during storage. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on widely targeted metabolomics analysis was performed on WPTs of 1-13 years storage ages. Read More

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Nondestructive Investigation of the Agglomeration Process for Nanosuspensions via NMR Relaxation of Water Molecules.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 9:105908. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan.

This study investigated an agglomeration of nanoparticles in a suspension using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation. The nanosuspension was prepared by wet bead milling using indomethacin and polyvinylpyrrolidone as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and stabilizer, respectively. Transmission profiles using a dispersion analyzer based on multilight scattering technology confirmed that agglomeration occurred at 25 °C immediately after wet bead milling. Read More

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Disparate genetic variants associated with distinct components of cowpea resistance to the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 84322, USA.

Key Message: Polygenic genome-wide association mapping identified two regions of the cowpea genome associated with different components of resistance to its major post-harvest pest, the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important grain and fodder crop in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa, Asia, and South America, where the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a serious post-harvest pest. Development of cultivars resistant to C. Read More

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Non-covalent and covalent immobilization of papain onto TiC MXene nanosheets.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Aug 12;148:109817. Epub 2021 May 12.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Polysaccharide Materials and Modifications, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530008, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Papain was immobilized onto TiC MXene nanosheets by physical adsorption and physical adsorption combined with covalent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. TiC MXene nanosheets were prepared by hydrofluoric acid etching method. The resulting products were well characterized by SEM, BET, XRD, FTIR, XPS. Read More

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Wet vs. dry inoculation methods have a significant effect of Listeria monocytogenes growth on many types of whole intact fresh produce.

J Food Prot 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Rutgers University Food Science 65 Dudley Road UNITED STATES New Brunswick NJ 08901 732-407-7729.

L. monocytogenes causes relatively few outbreaks linked to whole fresh produce but triggers recalls each year in the US. There are limited data on the influence of wet vs. Read More

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Automatic classification of medical image modality and anatomical location using convolutional neural network.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253205. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Modern radiologic images comply with DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) standard, which, upon conversion to other image format, would lose its image detail and information such as patient demographics or type of image modality that DICOM format carries. As there is a growing interest in using large amount of image data for research purpose and acquisition of large amount of medical image is now a standard practice in the clinical setting, efficient handling and storage of large amount of image data is important in both the clinical and research setting. In this study, four classes of images were created, namely, CT (computed tomography) of abdomen, CT of brain, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of brain and MRI of spine. Read More

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Determining the Optimal Storage Time and Temperature for Performing Platelet Function Assays and Global Hemostasis Assays.

Platelets 2021 Jun 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Central Diagnostic Laboratory, Cluster for Haemostasis and Transfusion, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Platelet function assays and global haemostasis assays are essential in diagnosing bleeding tendencies, with light transmission aggregometry (LTA) as golden standard. The Multiple Electrode Aggregation (Multiplate), platelet function assay (PFA) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are mostly used as whole-blood screening tests. Currently, patients have to travel to specialized laboratories to undergo these tests, since specific expertise is required. Read More

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An in vivo reporter for tracking lipid droplet dynamics in transparent zebrafish.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States.

Lipid droplets are lipid storage organelles found in nearly all cell types from adipocytes to cancer cells. Although increasingly implicated in disease, current methods to study lipid droplets in vertebrate models rely on static imaging or the use of fluorescent dyes, limiting investigation of their rapid in vivo dynamics. To address this, we created a lipid droplet transgenic reporter in whole animals and cell culture by fusing tdTOMATO to Perilipin-2 (PLIN2), a lipid droplet structural protein. Read More

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Human monocytes store and secrete preformed CCL5, independent of de novo protein synthesis.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Monocytes are a subset of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with diverse roles in immunity, including sentinel roles in cytokine secretion. Conventionally, cytokines require an inductive stimulus for their expression and secretion, resulting in a time lag from the time of stimulation to when the proteins are packaged and secreted. Because cytokines are the main communicators in the immune system, their temporal expression is a key factor in coordinating responses to efficiently resolve infection. Read More

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Cytokines: From Clinical Significance to Quantification.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 10:e2004433. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Life and Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, 518172, P. R. China.

Cytokines are critical mediators that oversee and regulate immune and inflammatory responses via complex networks and serve as biomarkers for many diseases. Quantification of cytokines has significant value in both clinical medicine and biology as the levels provide insights into physiological and pathological processes and can be used to aid diagnosis and treatment. Cytokines and their clinical significance are introduced from the perspective of their pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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Study on the file management method of data storage system for airborne radar.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jun 9;8(6):210221. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, People's Republic of China.

In order to solve the problem that the air-to-ground data transfer rate is much lower than the radar data rate, the onboard system is commonly used for storing the airborne radar data. However, there are two main problems in the data storage using the traditional file management method. The first is that the frequent data updating of the file allocation table (FAT) and the file directory table (FDT) cause a high frequency of address jumps among the discontinuous areas, which leads to a long response time. Read More

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Technologies for disinfection of food grains: Advances and way forward.

Food Res Int 2021 Jul 11;145:110396. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Lucknow 226 029, Uttar Pradesh, India; Center for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow 226 001, India; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000 South Africa. Electronic address:

Growing demand from the consumers for minimally processed and high-quality food products has raised the scientific quest for foods with improved natural flavours in conjunction with a restricted supplement of additives. In this context, achieving quality and safe food grains and the identification of suitable processing and disinfection technologies have also become the key issues. Microbial contamination is one of the major reasons responsible for the spoilage of food grains. Read More

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Preparation of Nanomaterial Wettable Powder Formulations of Antagonistic Bacteria from Phellodendron chinense and the Biological Control of Brown Leaf Spot Disease.

Plant Pathol J 2021 Jun 1;37(3):215-231. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

College of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Brown leaf spot disease caused by Nigrospora guilinensis on Phellodendron chinense occurs in a large area in Dayi County, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China each year. This outbreak has severely reduced the production of Chinese medicinal plants P. chinense and caused substantial economic losses. Read More

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Effects of storage conditions on the stability and distribution of clinical trace elements in whole blood and plasma: Application of ICP-MS.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jun 7;68:126804. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Knowledge of trace element stability during sample handling and preservation is a prerequisite to produce reliable test results in clinical trace element analysis.

Method: An alkaline dissolution method has been developed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to quantify eighteen trace element concentrations: vanadium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, bromine, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, iodine, mercury, thallium, lead, and bismuth in human blood, using a small sample volume of 0.1 mL. Read More

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A mechanistic model of methane emission from animal slurry with a focus on microbial groups.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252881. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Liquid manure (slurry) from livestock releases methane (CH4) that contributes significantly to global warming. Existing models for slurry CH4 production-used for mitigation and inventories-include effects of organic matter loading, temperature, and retention time but cannot predict important effects of management, or adequately capture essential temperature-driven dynamics. Here we present a new model that includes multiple methanogenic groups whose relative abundance shifts in response to changes in temperature or other environmental conditions. Read More

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When do apples stop growing, and why does it matter?

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252288. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Reading Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom.

Apples in the commercial food chain are harvested up to two weeks before maturity. We explore apple fruit development through the growing season to establish the point at which physical features differentiating those cultivars become evident. This is relevant both for the understanding of the growing process and to ensure that any identification and classification tools can be used both on ripened-on-tree and stored fruit. Read More

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Aerogel Constructed by Ultrasmall Mn-Doped Silica Nanoparticles for Superior Lithium-Ion Storage.

Authors:
Fei Wang Jian Mao

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

College of materials science and engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

The high internal stress during (de)lithiation, poor ionic/electronic conductivity, and relatively low specific capacity are the three critical issues for the applications of silica (SiO) anodes. Herein, a high-performance SiO anode is designed from the microscale to the atomic scale, and for the first time, an aerogel constructed by the graphene and manganese atom (Mn)-doped ultrasmall SiO nanoparticles (around 50 nm) is proposed to overcome the three issues. From the aspect of microscale, the ultrasmall SiO nanoparticles and the porous feature of aerogel improve the structural stability during (de)lithiation and the lithium-ion diffusion kinetics. Read More

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Acceptability of the Medication Event Reminder Monitor for Promoting Adherence to Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Therapy in Two Indian Cities: Qualitative Study of Patients and Health Care Providers.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jun 10;23(6):e23294. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) face challenges adhering to medications, given that treatment is prolonged and has a high rate of adverse effects. The Medication Event Reminder Monitor (MERM) is a digital pillbox that provides pill-taking reminders and facilitates the remote monitoring of medication adherence.

Objective: This study aims to assess the MERM's acceptability to patients and health care providers (HCPs) during pilot implementation in India's public sector MDR-TB program. Read More

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A Complex-Valued Oscillatory Neural Network for Storage and Retrieval of Multidimensional Aperiodic Signals.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 24;15:551111. Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory for Computational Neuroscience, Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

Recurrent neural networks with associative memory properties are typically based on fixed-point dynamics, which is fundamentally distinct from the oscillatory dynamics of the brain. There have been proposals for oscillatory associative memories, but here too, in the majority of cases, only binary patterns are stored as oscillatory states in the network. Oscillatory neural network models typically operate at a single/common frequency. Read More

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Formation of three-dimensional bicontinuous structures via molten salt dealloying studied in real-time by in situ synchrotron X-ray nano-tomography.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 9;12(1):3441. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Three-dimensional bicontinuous porous materials formed by dealloying contribute significantly to various applications including catalysis, sensor development and energy storage. This work studies a method of molten salt dealloying via real-time in situ synchrotron three-dimensional X-ray nano-tomography. Quantification of morphological parameters determined that long-range diffusion is the rate-determining step for the dealloying process. Read More

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Age of red blood cells is not associated with in-hospital mortality in massively transfused patients.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Transfusion Research Unit, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University; Melbourne, Australia Department of Haematology, Monash Health; Melbourne, Australia Australian & New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University; Melbourne, Australia Department of Intensive Care, Western Health; Melbourne, Australia, Disclaimers: none.

Background: Studies comparing mortality following massive transfusion (MT) with fresher versus longer-stored red blood cells (RBCs) have focused on trauma patients. The Australian and New Zealand Massive Transfusion Registry (ANZMTR) collects data on all adult MT cases (≥5 RBCs within 4 hours, any bleeding context, ≥ 18 years) at participating hospitals.

Methods: 2007-2018 data from 29 hospitals were analyzed to quantify the association between mortality and RBC storage time in adult MT cases. Read More

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Stable but not rigid: Chronic in vivo STED nanoscopy reveals extensive remodeling of spines, indicating multiple drivers of plasticity.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 9;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Optical Nanoscopy in Neuroscience, Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Excitatory synapses on dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are considered a central memory locus. To foster both continuous adaption and the storage of long-term information, spines need to be plastic and stable at the same time. Here, we advanced in vivo STED nanoscopy to superresolve distinct features of spines (head size and neck length/width) in mouse neocortex for up to 1 month. Read More

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The accuracy of gypsum casts obtained from the disinfected extended-pour alginate impressions through prolonged storage times.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Jun 9;21(1):296. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Manufacturers of the extended-pour alginates claimed their dimensional stability through prolonged storage. No data confirmed the ability of these materials to maintain their dimensions and the reproduced oral details following their chemical disinfection. Therefore, this study evaluated the dimensional stability and surface detail reproduction of gypsum casts obtained from disinfected extended-pour alginate impressions through different storage time intervals. Read More

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Detection of Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberries Implicated in an Outbreak in the USA in 1997.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Fera Science Ltd., Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ, UK.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was detected in frozen strawberries which had been implicated in a large outbreak of hepatitis A in 1997. The sample was analysed after over 20 years of storage, following a standard method not available at the time of the outbreak. This is the first study in which the HAV associated with the 1997 outbreak of foodborne hepatitis has finally been detected. Read More

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Design and Implementation of an Informatics Infrastructure for Standardized Data Acquisition, Transfer, Storage, and Export in Psychiatric Clinical Routine: Feasibility Study.

JMIR Ment Health 2021 Jun 9;8(6):e26681. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: Empirically driven personalized diagnostic applications and treatment stratification is widely perceived as a major hallmark in psychiatry. However, databased personalized decision making requires standardized data acquisition and data access, which are currently absent in psychiatric clinical routine.

Objective: Here, we describe the informatics infrastructure implemented at the psychiatric Münster University Hospital, which allows standardized acquisition, transfer, storage, and export of clinical data for future real-time predictive modelling in psychiatric routine. Read More

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Development of a method for the determination of the JAK2 gene mRNA in venous blood and assessment of its diagnostic value in oncohematology.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 06;66(6):379-384

Krasnoyarsk branch of the «National Research Center for Hematology» Department of Health.

Overactive JAK pathway signaling is a hallmark of immune diseases and critically affects on inflammation and coagulation. A number of mutations in the JAK2 gene act as driving forces of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), the pathogenesis of certain variants of acute leukemia, a number of solid malignancies and cardiovascular diseases. Assays for quantifying JAK2 mRNA in circulating blood cells can be used as a marker associated with the activity of this enzyme. Read More

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Large Low-Field Magnetoresistance (LFMR) Effect in Free-Standing LaSrMnO Films.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics & Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China.

The realization of a large low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) effect in free-standing magnetic oxide films is a crucial goal toward promoting the development of flexible, low power consumption, and nonvolatile memory devices for information storage. LaSrMnO (LSMO) is an ideal material for spintronic devices due to its excellent magnetic and electronic properties. However, it is difficult to achieve both a large LFMR effect and high flexibility in LSMO films due to the lack of research on LFMR-related mechanisms and the strict LSMO growth conditions, which require rigid substrates. Read More

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Electrokinetic Proton Transport in Triple (H /O /e ) Conducting Oxides as a Key Descriptor for Highly Efficient Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cells.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 25;8(11):e2004099. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea.

Recently, triple (H /O /e ) conducting oxides (TCOs) have shown tremendous potential to improve the performance of various types of energy conversion and storage applications. The systematic understanding of the TCO is limited by the difficulty of properly identifying the proton movement in the TCO. Herein, the isotope exchange diffusion profile (IEDP) method is employed via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to evaluate kinetic properties of proton in the layered perovskite-type TCOs, PrBa Sr Co Fe O (PBSCF). Read More

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Flexibility in the Critical Period of Nutrient Sequestration in Bumble Bee Queens.

Integr Org Biol 2021 19;3(1):obab009. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Entomology, The University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Synopsis: Bumble bee queens undergo a nutrient storage period prior to entering diapause wherein they sequester glycogen and lipids that are metabolized during overwintering. In the laboratory under optimal food availability conditions, the majority of nutrients are sequestered during the first few days of adulthood. However, if food resources are scarce during this narrow window of time, wild queen bumble bees might be limited in their ability to obtain adequate food resources for overwintering. Read More

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