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A computational pipeline for data augmentation towards the improvement of disease classification and risk stratification models: A case study in two clinical domains.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 6;134:104520. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Unit of Medical Technology and Intelligent Information Systems, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GR45110, Greece; Department of Biomedical Research, FORTH-IMBB, Ioannina, GR45110, Greece. Electronic address:

Virtual population generation is an emerging field in data science with numerous applications in healthcare towards the augmentation of clinical research databases with significant lack of population size. However, the impact of data augmentation on the development of AI (artificial intelligence) models to address clinical unmet needs has not yet been investigated. In this work, we assess whether the aggregation of real with virtual patient data can improve the performance of the existing risk stratification and disease classification models in two rare clinical domains, namely the primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) and the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), for the first time in the literature. Read More

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Examining factors associated with postintervention recidivism in DUI repeat offenders after alcohol treatment: One-year follow-up study.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 21;130:108426. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei City Hospital, 309 Songde Road, 110 Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, 110 Taipei, Taiwan; Psychiatric Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, 110 Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Taiwan has deemed driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) to be criminal, and offenders are subjected to fines and jail penalties without being offered alcohol-related treatment, although alcohol use problems are prevalent in this population. We followed the recidivism records of DUI repeat offenders for one year after they had received a newly established legal-medical joint intervention program for alcohol treatment and examined factors related to postintervention recidivism. In this study, 231 DUI repeat offenders with alcohol use problems screened out by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test were referred from the prosecutors' office to one psychiatric hospital for SBIRT-based alcohol treatment. Read More

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Buprenorphine use and disparities in access among emergency department patients with opioid use disorder: A cross-sectional study.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 20;130:108405. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, 401 Broadway, Camden, NJ 08103, United States of America; Cooper University Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Keleman 152, 1 Cooper Plaza, Camden, NJ 08103, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Buprenorphine, a partial mu-opioid agonist and kappa-opioid antagonist, is an approved treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Studies demonstrate that buprenorphine decreases cravings for other opioids, effectively ameliorates withdrawal symptoms, and decreases opioid overdose and mortality. However, buprenorphine remains under-utilized. Read More

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Temporal transition of racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes in 3108 counties of the United States: Three phases from January to December 2020.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;791:148167. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of the Environment, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States of America.

Early studies reported higher risk of COVID-19 outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities in the early phase of the pandemic in the United States. While the initial surge of COVID-19 was concentrated in some areas, COVID-19 became pervasive across the entire continent with high impacts in the northern region and central region in the end of 2020. With this geographical transition, we aim to investigate patterns of these racial/ethnic disparities over time. Read More

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Pesticides are the dominant stressors for vulnerable insects in lowland streams.

Water Res 2021 May 17;201:117262. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of River Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Despite elaborate regulation of agricultural pesticides, their occurrence in non-target areas has been linked to adverse ecological effects on insects in several field investigations. Their quantitative role in contributing to the biodiversity crisis is, however, still not known. In a large-scale study across 101 sites of small lowland streams in Central Europe, Germany we revealed that 83% of agricultural streams did not meet the pesticide-related ecological targets. Read More

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Performance evaluation of nanotubular halloysites from weathered pegmatites in removing heavy metals from water through novel artificial intelligence-based models and human-based optimization algorithm.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 3;282:131012. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Exploration Geology, Faculty of Geosciences and Geoengineering, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, 18 Vien st., Duc Thang ward, Bac Tu Liem dist., Hanoi, Viet Nam.

The efforts of this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the nanotubular halloysites in weathered pegmatites (NaHWP) for removing heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Pb) from water. Read More

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Differential predictors of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in mothers and fathers - A longitudinal cohort study.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 27;292:121-130. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute and Outpatient Clinics of Occupational and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of the Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical School Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Child Health and Development, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence on risk factors of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in mothers is increasing, whereas fathers are less examined. This study aims to determine differential predictors of PTSD symptoms in mothers and fathers.

Methods: Data derive from the DREAM study, including 1,146 mothers and 828 fathers. Read More

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The predictive value of clinical, radiographic, echocardiographic variables and cardiac biomarkers for assessing risk of the onset of heart failure or cardiac death in dogs with preclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease enrolled in the DELAY study.

J Vet Cardiol 2021 May 16;36:77-88. Epub 2021 May 16.

Clinica Veterinaria Gran Sasso, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: To identify the predictive value on time to onset of heart failure (HF) or cardiac death of clinical, radiographic, and echocardiographic variables, as well as cardiac biomarkers N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin I in dogs with preclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD).

Animals: One hundred sixty-eight dogs with preclinical MMVD and left atrium to aortic root ratio ≥1.6 (LA:Ao) and normalized left ventricular end-diastolic diameter ≥1. Read More

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A retrospective cohort study of medication dispensing at pharmacies: Administration matters!

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 May 29;225:108792. Epub 2021 May 29.

Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF), University of Oslo, Bygg 45, Ullevål sykehus, Kirkeveien 166, 0450, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for opioid use disorders may be delivered at treatment clinics or dispensed from pharmacies, however the type of delivery may be associated with different risks and benefits. The aim of the study was to investigate whether dispensing of methadone or buprenorphine at pharmacies during treatment for opioid use disorders was associated with adverse outcomes.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study using a national, linked, population-level data set from Denmark. Read More

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Antimicrobial activity and toxicological risk assessment of silver nanoparticles synthesized using an eco-friendly method with Gloeophyllum striatum.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 4;418:126316. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 12/16 Banacha Street, 90-237 Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:

Recently, nanomaterials synthesized ecologically using microorganisms have attracted much interest. In the present study, the ability of Gloeophyllum striatum to synthesize silver nanoparticles is described for the first time. Nanoparticles were formed in an eco-friendly extracellular manner and characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, MADLS and SEM techniques. Read More

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Frequency of surface bacterial contamination in family physicians' offices.

Infect Dis Now 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Équipe Mobile de Microbiologie Clinique, Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint-Joseph, 75014 Paris, France; Service de maladies infectieuses et tropicales, Hôpital Necker Enfants-Malades, Centre médicale de l'institut Pasteur, Université de Paris, Paris, France; Institut Micalis, UMR1319, Université Paris-Saclay, INRAe, AgroParisTech, Bactéries Pathogènes et Santé, Chatenay-Malabry, France.

Objectives: The environment is perceived as a potential source of healthcare-associated infections. While this infection source has been well studied in hospital settings, little data on the risk of contamination in general medical practice is available. We aimed to assess the frequency of environmental contamination in family practice (FP), and to describe pathogens isolated, at-risk surfaces, and factors associated with this contamination. Read More

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Does Loss of Spondylolisthesis Reduction Impact Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes after Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

Spine J 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY, 10021, USA; Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Background Context: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is a common operative approach to address degenerative lumbar stenosis and spondylolisthesis which has failed nonoperative care. Compared to open TLIF, MI-TLIF relies to a greater extent on indirect decompression resulting in a heightened awareness of spondylolisthesis reduction among MI surgeons. To what extent intraoperative reduction is achieved as well as the rate and clinical impact of loss or reduction and slip recurrence remain unknown. Read More

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Pregnancy and Viral infections: Mechanisms of fetal damage, diagnosis and prevention of neonatal adverse outcomes from cytomegalovirus to SARS-CoV-2 and Zika virus.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jun 9:166198. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Fetal and Perinatal Medicine and Surgery Unit, Medical and Surgical Department of Fetus, Newborn and Infant - "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Some maternal infections, contracted before or during pregnancy, can be transmitted to the fetus, during gestation (congenital infection), during labor and childbirth (perinatal infection) and through breastfeeding (postnatal infection). The agents responsible for these infections can be viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi. Among the viruses most frequently responsible for congenital infections are Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex 1-2, Herpes virus 6, Varicella zoster. Read More

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Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Patients with McCune Albright Syndrome.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Study Objective: To identify PCOS in a population of female patients with MAS by retrospective chart review DESIGN: : Retrospective study SETTING: : Academic setting PARTICIPANTS: : All females with a prior diagnosis of MAS who were older than 12 years of age at the time of chart review. Only complete medical records from January 2009 to January 2020 were included in the analysis.

Interventions: None MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): : Diagnosis of PCOS based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria. Read More

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Prognostic performance of seven biomarkers compared to liver biopsy in early alcohol-related liver disease.

J Hepatol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark; Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background & Aims: Alcohol is the most common cause of liver-related mortality and morbidity. We therefore aimed to assess and compare the prognostic performance of elastography and blood-based markers to predict time to the first liver-related event, severe infection, and all-cause mortality in patients with a history of excess drinking.

Methods: Prospective cohort study of patients with early, compensated alcohol-related liver disease. Read More

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Barriers to and Facilitators of Sustained Employment: A Qualitative Study of Experiences in Dutch Patients With CKD.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Health Sciences, Applied Health Research, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Rationale & Objective: Although patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk for work disability and work loss, not all experience work disruption. We aimed to describe the experienced barriers to and facilitators of sustained employment among Dutch patients with CKD.

Study Design: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Read More

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Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma chemotherapy: Impact of chemotherapy choice.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Hematology, Kuwait Cancer Control Center, Kuwait. Electronic address:

Objective/background: Data generated from retrospective studies on primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) outcome are valuable as no prospective phase 3 trials have been conducted in this rare type of lymphoma.

Methods: Our goal was to assess the long-term outcome of 41 patients with PMBCL who were treated at the Kuwait Cancer Center. We evaluated two types of multidrug treatment, R-CHOP (rituximab, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone) and DA-EPOCH-R (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab), and determined overall survival and complete response (CR) as primary endpoints. Read More

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Association between ocular toxoplasmosis and APEX1 and MYD88 polymorphism.

Acta Trop 2021 Jun 9:106006. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Biology of Malaria and Toxoplasmosis, Department of Parasitology, Center for Biosciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the most common form of posterior uveitis, and in some countries, it is the most frequent cause of visual impairment. Studies demonstrate that the polymorphism in genes involved with the immune response can be related both to the occurrence and to the recurrence of OT. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the association between OT and the polymorphism of the APEX1 (rs1130409) and MyD88 (rs7744) genes. Read More

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Association of kidney function and atrial fibrillation progression to clinical outcomes in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

Am Heart J 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California. Electronic address:

Background: Kidney function may promote progression of AF.

Objective: We evaluated the association of kidney function to AF progression and resultant clinical outcomes in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED).

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using national clinical data from the Veterans Health Administration linked to CIED data from the Carelink® remote monitoring data warehouse (Medtronic Inc, Mounds View, MN). Read More

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No need for secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in adult people living with HIV from Europe on ART with suppressed viraemia and a CD4 cell count greater than 100 cells/µL.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Jun;24(6):e25726

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PjP) is one of the most frequent opportunistic AIDS-defining infections. The Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) has shown that primary Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PjP) prophylaxis can be safely withdrawn in patients with CD4 counts of 100 to 200 cells/µL if plasma HIV-RNA is suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy. Whether this holds true for secondary prophylaxis is not known, and this has proved difficult to determine due to the much lower population at risk. Read More

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Prognostic impacts of peripheral blood erythroblasts after single-unit cord blood transplantation.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: The appearance of erythroblasts (EBLs) in peripheral blood occurs in a variety of serious conditions and has been associated with mortality in critically ill patients. However, the incidence, risk factor, and outcomes of EBLs after cord blood transplantation (CBT) remain unclear.

Methods: We have investigated the impact of EBLs on transplant outcomes on 225 adult patients who underwent single-unit CBT at our single institute. Read More

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Risk for hepatic and extra-hepatic outcomes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from the symposium: Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

J Intern Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined by presence of steatosis in more than 5% of liver cells. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy, but this is seldom achieved due to costs and risk for side-effects, why the diagnosis is mostly made based on a combination of radiology and exclusion of other liver diseases. Disease severity staging can be non-invasively achieved with radiological exams such as elastography, or blood-based markers, that usually have lower sensitivity and specificity. Read More

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The impact of prolonged second-stage in twins on perinatal outcomes.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Objective: To assess the duration of the second stage of labor in twin pregnancies in relation to maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective study between 2014-2020. Eligible cases were twin pregnancies who reached the second stage. Read More

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The effects of vitamin D supplementation on types of falls.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background/objectives: To assess whether vitamin D supplementation prevents specific fall subtypes and sequelae (e.g., fracture). Read More

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Incidence and risk factors of late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis after single umbilical cord blood transplantation with myeloablative conditioning regimen.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Hematology of Anhui Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Objective: To explore the incidence and risk factors of late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (LOHC) in patients undergoing single umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematological malignancies.

Methods: Clinical data from 234 patients who consecutively underwent single UCBT using a myeloablative conditioning regimen without antithymocyte globulin in our center were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: In total, 64 (27. Read More

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Human papillomavirus in Italy: retrospective cohort analysis and preliminary vaccination effect from real-world data.

Eur J Health Econ 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute for Leadership and Management in Health, Kingston University London, London, UK.

Introduction: The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime risk of hospitalization associated with all major human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Italy. Moreover, a preliminary vaccination effect was also performed.

Methods: A retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study was developed based on patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2018 in Italy. Read More

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A Qualitative Study of Mothers' Perspectives on Enrolling and Engaging in an Evidence-Based Nurse Home Visiting Program.

Prev Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Health Systems, Management & Policy, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, USA.

Prevention programs like Nurse-Family Partnership® (NFP) must enroll and retain clients of the intended population to maximize program impact. NFP is an evidence-based nurse home visitation program shown in randomized trials to improve maternal and child health and life course outcomes for first-time parents experiencing economic adversity, particularly for mothers with limited psychological resources. The purpose of this study was to understand enrollment and engagement experiences of mothers with previous live births referred to NFP in a formative study of the program for this population, but did not enroll or dropped out before program graduation. Read More

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Migration and abiotic transformation of estrone (E1) and estrone-3-sulfate (E1-3S) during soil column transport.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Hydraulic and Waterway Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of River and Ocean Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing, 400074, China.

Steroid estrogens have received worldwide attention and given rise to great challenges of aquatic ecosystems security, posing potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms and human health even at low levels (ng/L). The present study focused on understanding the mobility and abiotic transformation of estrone (E1) and estrone-3-sulfate (E1-3S) over spatial and time scales during soil transport. Column transport experiments showed that the migration capacity of E1-3S was far stronger than E1 in soil. Read More

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Mapping Pathways by Which Genetic Risk Influences Adolescent Externalizing Behavior: The Interplay Between Externalizing Polygenic Risk Scores, Parental Knowledge, and Peer Substance Use.

Behav Genet 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 842018, 806 W Franklin St, Richmond, VA, 23284, USA.

Genetic predispositions and environmental influences both play an important role in adolescent externalizing behavior; however, they are not always independent. To elucidate gene-environment interplay, we examined the interrelationships between externalizing polygenic risk scores, parental knowledge, and peer substance use in impacting adolescent externalizing behavior across two time-points in a high-risk longitudinal sample of 1,200 adolescents (764 European and 436 African ancestry; M = 12.99) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Read More

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