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Optimizing Selection and Mating in Genomic Selection with a Look-Ahead Approach: An Operations Research Framework.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2123-2133

Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University.

New genotyping technologies have made large amounts of genotypic data available for plant breeders to use in their efforts to accelerate the rate of genetic gain. Genomic selection (GS) techniques allow breeders to use genotypic data to identify and select, for example, plants predicted to exhibit drought tolerance, thereby saving expensive and limited field-testing resources relative to phenotyping all plants within a population. A major limitation of existing GS approaches is the trade-off between short-term genetic gain and long-term potential. Read More

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3D human liver spheroids for translational pharmacology and toxicology.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Drug development is a failure-prone endeavor and more than 85% of drugs fail during clinical development, showcasing that current preclinical systems for compound selection are clearly inadequate. Liver toxicity remains a major reason for safety failures. Furthermore, all efforts to develop pharmacological therapies for a variety of chronic liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis, remain unsuccessful. Read More

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Who Makes the Choice: Ethical Considerations Regarding Instituting Breastfeeding in a Mother Who Has Compromised Mental Capacity.

Breastfeed Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

This case reports an ethical dilemma in which a mother who had recently delivered a baby through cesarean section after sustaining life-threatening injuries in a car accident did not have documented wishes whether she wanted to breastfeed. Her medical condition rendered her temporarily mentally incapacitated and critically ill, and the lactation medicine team was consulted about whether lactation choice should be preserved by pumping. Complicating considerations in this case were (1) lack of family or designated decision-makers available at the time of injury and emergent delivery, (2) lack of prenatal care, and (3) complex social situation, including prior history of illicit substance use, and state removal of other children into foster care. Read More

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Nurses Participation in Limited Resuscitation: Gray Areas in End of Life Decision-Making.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2021 Apr 19:1-20. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Nursing, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Historically nurses have lacked significant input in end-of-life decision-making, despite being an integral part of care. Nurses experience negative feelings and moral conflict when forced to aggressively deliver care to patients at the EOL. As a result, nurses participate in slow codes, described as a limited resuscitation effort with no intended benefit of patient survival. Read More

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Bariatric Surgery: Consequences on Functional Capacities in Patients With Obesity.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 1;12:646283. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Valais-Wallis School of Health Sciences, HES-SO, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Valais, Switzerland.

Introduction: Bariatric surgery leads to loss of fat and fat-free mass (FFM). To preserve FFM it is recommended that weight loss interventions are accompanied by physical activity. However, it remains unknown if functional capacities spontaneously improve after a substantial weight loss. Read More

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A novel urine cell-free DNA preservation solution and its application in kidney transplantation.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

AlloDx Biotech (Shanghai), Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China.

Aim: Urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a new type of liquid biopsy biomarker used in tumors and allograft injury detection, but is highly susceptible to degradation by the high nuclease activity of urine. This study presents a newly developed urine cfDNA preservation solution (AlloU), efficient for examining allograft injury in kidney transplant recipients (KTx).

Methods: We established urine-preserve solution called AlloU based on the response-surface methodology, with two commercial collection reagents (Streck and K2 EDTA preservation solution) included for analysis. Read More

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Mesoporous zirconia surfaces with anti-biofilm properties for dental implants.

Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering 'G. Natta', Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, Milano, 20133, ITALY.

Cytocompatible bioactive surface treatments conferring antibacterial properties to osseointegrated dental implants are highly requested to prevent bacteria-related peri-implantitis. Here we focus on a newly designed family of mesoporous coatings based on zirconia (ZrO2) microstructure doped with gallium (Ga), exploiting its antibacterial and pro-osseo-integrative properties. The ZrO2 films were obtained via sol-gel synthesis route using Pluronic F127 as templating agent, while Ga doping was gained by introducing gallium nitrate hydrate. Read More

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The promises and challenges of archiving insect behavior and natural history in a changing world.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.

Insect behavioral ecologists are not routinely archiving their behavioral media files and natural history observations. This is especially problematic because most behaviors are not preserved by the physical specimens stored in typical natural history collections. Improving the reporting and archiving of insect behavior and natural history data holds the promise of allowing scientists to track real-time responses of animals to global change and will preserve aspects of natural history that might otherwise be lost due to extinctions. Read More

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Adverse Effects of Ligation of an Aberrant Left Hepatic Artery Arising from the Left Gastric Artery during Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: a Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

J Gastric Cancer 2021 Mar 24;21(1):74-83. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: No consensus exists on whether to preserve or ligate an aberrant left hepatic artery (ALHA), which is the most commonly encountered hepatic arterial variation during gastric surgery. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of ALHA ligation by analyzing the perioperative outcomes.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 5,310 patients who underwent subtotal/total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Read More

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Redefining the Reconstructive Ladder in Vulvoperineal Reconstruction: The Role of Pedicled Perforator Flaps.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Reconstructive Microsurgery, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background:  Gynecological reconstruction is difficult, particularly in cases with recurrence and received previous surgeries and/or radiotherapy and necessitate secondary reconstruction. Perforator flaps can preserve other donor sites for potential later reconstruction, and they also can be better tailored to the defect. We hypothesized that the use of perforator-based flaps can better restore the defect with less complications. Read More

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Face Sketch Synthesis Using Regularized Broad Learning System.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 14;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

There are two main categories of face sketch synthesis: data- and model-driven. The data-driven method synthesizes sketches from training photograph-sketch patches at the cost of detail loss. The model-driven method can preserve more details, but the mapping from photographs to sketches is a time-consuming training process, especially when the deep structures require to be refined. Read More

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Assessment of long-term functional maintenance of primary human hepatocytes to predict drug-induced hepatoxicity in vitro.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renji Hospital, Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Hepatocytes are the main cell components of the liver and perform metabolic, detoxification, and endocrine functions. Functional hepatocytes are of great value in drug development, toxicity evaluation, and cell therapy for liver diseases. In recent years, an increasing number of in vitro models have been developed to screen drugs and test their toxicity. Read More

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Satisfaction and genital perception after orchiectomy for prostate cancer: does the technique matter? A randomized trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632004, India.

Objectives: Bilateral extracapsular or total orchiectomy (BEO) for prostate cancer is presumed to have psychological consequences after the surgery due to perception of an empty scrotum. Bilateral subcapsular orchiectomy (BSO) was designed to preserve perception of palpable testes. We compared the patients' satisfaction and genital perception following BEO and BSO. Read More

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Dataset on the effect of flavonoids on the stabilization of the resin-dentin interface.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 19;35:106984. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Grupo de Investigaciones Básicas y Aplicadas en Odontología, Departamento de Salud Oral, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

Data in this article are associated with our research article "Effect of Myricetin on Odontoblast-like Cells and its Potential to Preserve Resin-Dentin Bonds." Both a poor infiltration of resin monomers into the demineralized dentin matrix and hydrolytic degradation of the adhesive could lead to the instability of the resin-dentin interface. The degradation of collagen is caused by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and cysteine cathepsins. Read More

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Temperature dependence and histological correlation of inhomogeneous magnetization transfer and myelin water imaging in ex vivo brain.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 10:118046. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

University of British Columbia MRI Research Centre, 2221 Wesbrook Mall, M10 Purdy Pavilion, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5, Canada; Radiology, University of British Columbia, 2775 Laurel Street, 11th Floor, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9; ICORD (International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries), 818 W. 10(th) Ave., Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: The promise of inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) as a new myelin imaging method was studied in ex vivo human brain tissue and in relation to myelin water fraction (MWF). The temperature dependence of both methods was characterized, as well as their correspondence with a histological measure of myelin content. Unfiltered and filtered ihMT protocols were studied by adjusting the saturation scheme to preserve or attenuate signal from tissue with short dipolar relaxation time T. Read More

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Mechanisms of deoxynivalenol-induced endocytosis and degradation of tight junction proteins in jejunal IPEC-J2 cells involve selective activation of the MAPK pathways.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, 270 S. Russell St., West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2041, USA.

Mycotoxin contamination in foods is a major risk factor for human and animal health due to its prevalence in cereals and their by-products. Deoxynivalenol (DON), mainly produced by Fusarium genera, is the most common mycotoxin detected in cereal products. Deoxynivalenol disrupts intestinal barrier function and decreases protein levels of tight junction proteins (TJP). Read More

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Early, intensive marine resource exploitation by Middle Stone Age humans at Ysterfontein 1 rockshelter, South Africa.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

Modern human behavioral innovations from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) include the earliest indicators of full coastal adaptation evidenced by shell middens, yet many MSA middens remain poorly dated. We apply Th/U burial dating to ostrich eggshells (OES) from Ysterfontein 1 (YFT1, Western Cape, South Africa), a stratified MSA shell midden. Th/U burial ages of YFT1 OES are relatively precise (median ± 2. Read More

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Influence of Preoperative Radiation Therapy on the Occurrence of Pharyngocutaneous Fistula After Total Laryngectomy.

Cureus 2021 Mar 10;13(3):e13797. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, JPN.

Introduction Chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) has increasingly been employed for the treatment of laryngeal cancer at T3 or higher rather than total laryngectomy (TL), in order to preserve the larynx. However, TL is still frequently performed in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer, especially T4 disease. When CRT is performed for advanced cancer, there is a certain rate of residual disease or relapse, and TL is conducted as salvage surgery for those patients, but TL following CRT is associated with a high incidence of postoperative complications. Read More

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Does Extended Interval Dosing Natalizumab Preserve Effectiveness in Multiple Sclerosis? A 7 Year-Retrospective Observational Study.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:614715. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Service of Neurology, Hospital Sierrallana-IDIVAL, Torrelavega, Spain.

The extended interval dosing (EID) of natalizumab has been suggested to be associated with a reduced risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and short-term preservation of efficacy but its long-term effectiveness remain unknown. We aimed to determine the long-term effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in an EID setting in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated for more than 7 years. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study, including 39 (34 female, 5 male) patients with clinically definite relapsing-MS, initially treated with standard interval dosing (SID) of natalizumab (mean time 54 months [SD29]) who were then switched to EID, every 8 weeks (mean time 76 months [SD13]). Read More

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Towards a new era of mass data collection: Assessing pandemic surveillance technologies to preserve user privacy.

Technol Forecast Soc Change 2021 Jun 22;167:120681. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.

Controlling the coronavirus pandemic is triggering a cross-border strategy by which national governments attempt to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. A response based on sharing facts about millions of private movements and a call to study information behavior during the global health crisis has been advised worldwide. The present study aims to identify the technologies to control the COVID-19 and future pandemics with massive data collection from users' mobile devices. Read More

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Neural correlates of visuospatial processing in migraine: does the pain network help?

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Neuroimaging Research Unit, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Migraine patients frequently report cognitive symptoms during the different phases of migraine. The most affected cognitive domains are visuospatial abilities, processing speed, attention and executive functions. We explored migraine patients' performance during a visuospatial task and investigated the activity of brain areas involved in visuospatial processing. Read More

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Multilevel Deep-Aggregated Boosted Network to Recognize COVID-19 Infection from Large-Scale Heterogeneous Radiographic Data.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Apr 9;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

In the present epidemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), radiological imaging modalities, such as X-ray and computed tomography (CT), have been identified as effective diagnostic tools. However, the subjective assessment of radiographic examination is a time-consuming task and demands expert radiologists. Recent advancements in artificial intelligence have enhanced the diagnostic power of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools and assisted medical specialists in making efficient diagnostic decisions. Read More

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Learning ultrasound rendering from cross-sectional model slices for simulated training.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Computer-assisted Applications in Medicine, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Purpose: Given the high level of expertise required for navigation and interpretation of ultrasound images, computational simulations can facilitate the training of such skills in virtual reality. With ray-tracing based simulations, realistic ultrasound images can be generated. However, due to computational constraints for interactivity, image quality typically needs to be compromised. Read More

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Whole genome resequencing and custom genotyping unveil clonal lineages in 'Malbec' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.).

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7775. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Instituto de Biología Agrícola de Mendoza (IBAM, CONICET-UNCuyo), Almirante Brown 500, M5528AHB. Chacras de Coria, Mendoza, Argentina.

Grapevine cultivars are clonally propagated to preserve their varietal attributes. However, genetic variations accumulate due to the occurrence of somatic mutations. This process is anthropically influenced through plant transportation, clonal propagation and selection. Read More

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Pendimethalin-based herbicide impairs cellular immune response and haemocyte morphology in a beneficial ground beetle.

J Insect Physiol 2021 Apr 6;131:104236. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Science, University of Calabria, Italy. Electronic address:

Herbicides have become the most commonly applied agrochemicals in agroecosystems. Thus, basic knowledge of their physiological effects on insects is needed, especially for understanding their impact on beneficial insect species. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a pendimethalin-based herbicide (PND) on the cellular immune response of the carabid beetle Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) rufipes (De Geer 1774) (Coleoptera, Carabidae), acting as biocontrol agent in agroecosystems. Read More

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Preservation of female fertility: The current therapeutic strategy.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center for Assisted Medical Procreation, University of Liège, CHR Liège Hospital, Liège, Belgium.

Background: Preservation of female fertility is a relatively new field in medicine that has grown very rapidly in recent decades. At the beginning, embryo freezing remained the most effective technique. Thereafter, cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue was considered a secure tool in human fertility preservation. Read More

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CycleMorph: Cycle consistent unsupervised deformable image registration.

Med Image Anal 2021 Mar 12;71:102036. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Image registration is a fundamental task in medical image analysis. Recently, many deep learning based image registration methods have been extensively investigated due to their comparable performance with the state-of-the-art classical approaches despite the ultra-fast computational time. However, the existing deep learning methods still have limitations in the preservation of original topology during the deformation with registration vector fields. Read More

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Engagement of ethics and regulatory authorities on human infection studies: Proceedings of an engagement workshop in Zambia.

Wellcome Open Res 2021 12;6:31. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Research Department, The centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, 10101, Zambia.

Human infection studies (HIS) have generally been used as a tool in the pathway for vaccine development in high income settings. Over the last decade, this model has been implemented in LMICs with the aim of accelerating development of next generation vaccines that would perform better in these settings. However, in most LMICs, the ethics and regulatory framework for the conduct of these studies are not in place. Read More

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February 2021

2D NMR-Based Metabolomics with HSQC/TOCSY NOAH Supersequences.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 6;93(15):6112-6119. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Campus Chemical Instrument Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.

Sensitivity-improved versions of two-dimensional (2D) C-H HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum coherence) and HSQC-TOCSY (HSQC-total correlation spectroscopy) NMR experiments optimized for small biological molecules and their complex mixtures encountered in metabolomics are presented that preserve the magnetization of H spins not directly attached to C spins. This allows (i) the application of rapid acquisition techniques to substantially shorten measurement time and (ii) their incorporation into supersequences (NOAH-NMR by ordered acquisition using H detection) for the compact acquisition of multiple 2D NMR data sets with significant gains in sensitivity, resolution, and/or time. The new pulse sequences, which are demonstrated for both metabolite model mixtures and mouse urine, offer an attractive approach for the efficient measurement of multiple 2D NMR spectra (HSQCsi and/or HSQCsi-TOCSY and TOCSY) of metabolomics samples in a single experiment for the accurate and comprehensive identification and quantitation of metabolites. Read More

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Maintaining personal resilience in this Covid-19 era.

Authors:
Christine Stobbs

In Pract 2021 Mar 5;43(2):109-112. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

The role of personal resilience in maintaining psychological wellbeing is now more important than ever. No matter what your role is in practice, you are still susceptible to making that unfortunate transition from feeling pressure (which comes with the job) to feeling stressed. The Covid-19 pandemic has made these issues more acute, so it's worth taking time out to think about how you can preserve and enhance your mental health going forward. Read More

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