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Oral Pharmacokinetics in Beagle Dogs of the Mitragynine Metabolite, 7-Hydroxymitragynine.

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background And Objectives: 7-Hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG) is an oxidative metabolite of mitragynine, the most abundant alkaloid in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (otherwise known as kratom). While mitragynine is a weak partial µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist, 7-HMG is a potent and full MOR agonist. It is produced from mitragynine by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, a drug-metabolizing CYP isoform predominate in the liver that is also highly expressed in the intestine. Read More

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Brain electrical traits of logical validity.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7982. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience, Universidad Complutense/Universidad Politécnica, Madrid, Spain.

Neuroscience has studied deductive reasoning over the last 20 years under the assumption that deductive inferences are not only de jure but also de facto distinct from other forms of inference. The objective of this research is to verify if logically valid deductions leave any cerebral electrical trait that is distinct from the trait left by non-valid deductions. 23 subjects with an average age of 20. Read More

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Structurally diverse diterpenoids with eight carbon skeletons from Rhododendron micranthum and their antinociceptive effects.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 29;111:104870. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Seventeen diterpenoids (1-17), classified into eight diverse carbon skeleton types, grayanane (1, 2, and 12), micranthane (3, 4, and 13), mollane (5-7 and 14), 1,5-seco-grayanane (8), kalmane (9-11), 1,5-seco-kalmane (15), A-homo-B-nor-ent-kaurane (16), and leucothane (17), respectively, were isolated from the leaves extract of Rhododendron micranthum. Among them, diterpenoids 1-9 are new compounds and their structures were elucidated via extensive spectroscopic methods, quantum chemical calculations including the C NMR-DP4+ analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Micranthanol A (1) represents the first example of a 5αH,9αH-grayanane diterpenoid and a 6-hydroxy-6,10-epoxygrayanane diterpenoid, and micranthanone B (3) is the first 6,10-epoxymicranthane and the 5α-hydroxy-micranthane diterpenoids. Read More

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Overexpression of MtRAV3 enhances osmotic and salt tolerance and inhibits growth of Medicago truncatula.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 4;163:154-165. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV) transcription factors play important roles in regulating plant growth and stress tolerance, which have been studied in many plant species, but have remained largely unidentified in legumes. To functionally characterize RAV in legumes, MtRAV3 from legume model plant Medicago truncatula was isolated and its function was investigated by overexpressing MtRAV3 in M. truncatula. Read More

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In silico and in vitro studies of isolated constituents from Callistemon citrinus leaves: Anti-microbial potential and inhibition of iNOS activity.

Phytochemistry 2021 Apr 9;186:112745. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS, 38677, USA; Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS, 38677, USA. Electronic address:

Phytochemical investigation of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels (syn. Callistemon lanceolatus (Sm.) Sweet and Melaleuca citrina (Curtis) Dum. Read More

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Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of Chlorophyll Content and Fluorescence Response Within Rice ( L.) Canopies Under Different Nitrogen Treatments.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:645977. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Accurate acquisition of plant phenotypic information has raised long-standing concerns in support of crop breeding programs. Different methods have been developed for high throughput plant phenotyping, while they mainly focused on the canopy level without considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity at different canopy layers and growth stages. This study aims to phenotype spatiotemporal heterogeneity of chlorophyll (Chl) content and fluorescence response within rice leaves and canopies. Read More

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Is Induced by Short Days in Soybean and May Accelerate Flowering When Overexpressed in via Inhibiting .

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:629069. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Key Laboratory of Soybean Biology of Ministry of Education, China (Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetics and Breeding for Soybean in Northeast China), Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Photoperiod is one of the main climatic factors that determine flowering time and yield. Some members of the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) transcription factor family have been reported to be involved in regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis, maize, and rice. In this study, the domain analysis showed that GmIDD had a typical ID domain and was a member of the soybean IDD transcription factor family. Read More

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February 2021

Comparative Metabolite and Gene Expression Analyses in Combination With Gene Characterization Revealed the Patterns of Flavonoid Accumulation During subsp. Fruit Development.

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:619634. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Group of Biotechnology of Pharmaceutical Plants, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

L. subsp. (rockrose) is a shrub widespread in Greece and the Mediterranean basin and has been used in traditional medicine as herb tea for colds, for healing and digestive hitches, for the treatment of maladies, as perfumes, and for other purposes. Read More

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Three-dimensional quantification of twisting in the Arabidopsis petiole.

J Plant Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

Organisms have a variety of three-dimensional (3D) structures that change over time. These changes include twisting, which is 3D deformation that cannot happen in two dimensions. Twisting is linked to important adaptive functions of organs, such as adjusting the orientation of leaves and flowers in plants to align with environmental stimuli (e. Read More

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Parallel analysis of global garlic gene expression and alliin content following leaf wounding.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 10;21(1):174. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

The Key Laboratory of Biotechnology for Medicinal Plant of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, 221116, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Allium sativum (garlic) is an economically important food source and medicinal plant rich in sulfides and other protective substances such as alliin, the precursor of allicin biosynthesis. Cysteine, serine and sulfur is the precursor of alliin biosynthesis. However, little is known about the alliin content under abiotic stress or the mechanism by which it is synthesized. Read More

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Bioenergy generation and nitrogen removal in a novel ecological-microbial fuel cell.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 31;278:130450. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Geology and Environment, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710054, Shaanxi, China.

A novel ecological-microbial fuel cell (E-MFC) was constructed based on the mutualistic symbiosis relationship among wetland plants Ipomoea aquatic, benthic fauna Tubifex tubifex (T. tubifex) and microorganisms. The maximum power densities of sediment MFC (S-MFC), wetland plant MFC (WP-MFC) and E-MFC were 6. Read More

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Insight on the fractionations and structural characterizations of innovative antidiarrheal compounds screened from leaves of Psidium guajava of local origin in Pakistan.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5(Supplementary)):2323-2329

Imran Adrees College of Pharmacy, 3Km Daska Road, Sialkot, Pakistan.

Numerous ailments have been effectively treated with natural plants for long time all over the world. Plants provided a back bone for the exploration of novel medicinal compounds. Therefore, chief focus of our study was to isolate the biologically active compounds from the plant source and evaluate their antidiarrheal potentials, as diarrhea is still the most dominant disease in developing countries. Read More

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September 2020

Study of the antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of Origanum majorana leaf acetone extract.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5(Supplementary)):2209-2218

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia/Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia/Blood Products Quality Control and Research Department, National Organization for Research and Control of Biologicals, Cairo, Egypt.

Origanum majorana (OM) is known to have antioxidant properties. The present work was designed to evaluate, for the first time, the hepato/nephroprotective, immunomudulatory and antibacterial potentials of OM leaves acetone extract (OMLE). OML was collected from Al-Soudah, Aseer, Saudi Arabia, and OMLE was prepared. Read More

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September 2020