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Copeptin and stress-induced hyperglycemia in critically ill patients: A prospective study.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0250035. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Post-Graduate Program in Medical Sciences: Endocrinology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Objectives: Copeptin, an equimolar indicator of serum antidiuretic hormone levels, has been associated with higher mortality in critically ill patients and with the development of diabetes in the general population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of copeptin levels with glycemic parameters in critically ill patients and to compare the time-course of copeptin in survivors and non-survivors.

Design: Prospective cohort study. Read More

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Using Multi-modal Assessments to Capture Personalized Contexts of College Student Well-being in 2020: A Case Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

UCI THRIVE Lab, Department of Psychological Science, University of California, Irvine, 4201 Social and Behavioral Sciences GatewayUniversity of California, Irvine, Irvine, US.

Background: 2020 has been a challenging year for many, particularly for young adults who have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging adulthood is a developmental phase with significant changes in the patterns of daily living; it is a risky phase for the onset of major mental illness. College students during the pandemic face significant risk, potentially losing several protective factors (e. Read More

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[Ophthalmic safety profile of antiangiogenic therapy].

Vestn Oftalmol 2021 ;137(2):114-122

Novosibirsk State Region Hospital, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Antiangiogenic therapy with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) has not only fundamentally changed the treatment outcomes of vasoproliferative eye diseases, but also became the most common ophthalmic surgical manipulation. At the same time, in 36-48% of bilateral lesions there is a need to perform injections in both eyes, making relevant the issues of safety and prevention of severe complications that threaten irreversible loss of visual function. The article reviews the results of randomized clinical trials and real clinical practice, analyzes the incidence and causes of its most dangerous complication - endophthalmitis, characterizes the clinical course depending on the type of drug used, and considers the possibility of reducing the risk of this complication occurring. Read More

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January 2021

Multilayered Human Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Sheets Promote the Healing Process After Colonic Anastomosis in Rats.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:9636897211009559

Cardiovascular Research Institute, 13155Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

Colorectal anastomotic leakage is one of the most feared and fatal complications of colorectal surgery. To date, no external coating material that can prevent anastomotic leakage has been developed. As myoblasts possess anti-inflammatory capacity and improve wound healing, we developed a multilayered human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) sheet by periodic exposure to supraphysiological hydrostatic pressure during repeated cell seeding. Read More

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Macular holes following vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: epiretinal proliferation and spontaneous closure of macular holes.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medicine and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

Purpose: To describe the characteristics and management of full-thickness macular holes (MHs) that develop after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD).

Methods: Retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. Patients who developed secondary full-thickness MHs after prior pars plana vitrectomy for RD over a 6-year period were included. Read More

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T-cell Activation Is Correlated With Monocyte Activation in HCV/HIV Coinfection and Declines During HCV Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Apr 18;8(4):ofab079. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Pathology, VA Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Immune activation markers associate with morbidity and mortality in HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We investigated how T-cell and monocyte activation are related over the course of HCV direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy during HCV/HIV coinfection.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5329 participants and a single-site separate cohort treated with DAAs were analyzed for central memory (CM)/effector memory (EM) T-cell subsets, monocyte subsets, and cell activation (CD38 and HLA-DR expression) before, during, and after therapy. Read More

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Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia in a Patient With Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Cureus 2021 Apr 14;13(4):e14480. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Immunology & Histocompatibility, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, GRC.

We present a 68-year-old male patient with persistent and complicated SARS-CoV-2 infection who was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The patient suffered from fever, cough and progressive dyspnea for 10 days and he was admitted to the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure and cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Despite a transient improvement of CRS by the implementation of supportive care, including also the administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and tocilizumab, his clinical course worsened over time. Read More

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Decompressive hemicraniectomy for acute ischemic stroke associated with coronavirus disease 2019 infection: Case report and systematic review.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 24;12:116. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines.

Background: Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) has been performed for some cases of acute ischemic stroke in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, but there is little information about the clinical course and outcomes of these patients.

Case Description: We report a case of a 36-year-old woman with COVID-19 infection who developed stroke like symptoms while under home quarantine. Cranial CT scan showed an acute left internal carotid artery (ICA) infarct. Read More

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Physiologists turned Geneticists: Identifying transcripts and genes for neuronal function in the Marbled Crayfish, .

J Undergrad Neurosci Educ 2020 31;19(1):A36-A51. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

School of Biological Science, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790.

The number of undergraduate researchers interested in pursuing neurophysiological research exceeds the research laboratory positions and hands-on course experiences available because these types of experiments often require extensive experience or expensive equipment. In contrast, genetic and molecular tools can more easily incorporate undergraduates with less time or training. With the explosion of newly sequenced genomes and transcriptomes, there is a large pool of untapped molecular and genetic information which would greatly inform neurophysiological processes. Read More

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December 2020

Retinal Detachment After Endophthalmitis: Risk Factors and Outcomes.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 13;15:1529-1537. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan W.K. Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Purpose: To analyze the risk factors, clinical course, and visual and anatomic outcomes of retinal detachment (RD) after endophthalmitis.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective study included 108 patients diagnosed with endophthalmitis between August 2014 and May 2019 at a single tertiary referral center. Sixteen patients developed RD after endophthalmitis. Read More

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Safety and Outcomes of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in a General Surgery Residency Program.

JSLS 2021 Jan-Mar;25(1)

Obesity Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma, Italy.

Background: With the escalation of surgical treatment of morbid obesity, there is a growing interest in the training of bariatric surgeons. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) gained popularity both as a first-stage approach and as a stand-alone procedure.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess detectable differences in LSG with intra-operative resident involvement. Read More

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Preparation of an experimental mouse model lacking selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities by feeding a selenium-deficient diet.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2021 Mar 17;68(2):123-130. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Quantitative RedOx Sensing Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences for Radiation Damages, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Quantum Medical Science Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555, Japan.

Relatively young (4-week-old) selenium deficient (SeD) mice, which lack the activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) isomers, were prepared using torula yeast-based SeD diet. Mice were fed the torula yeast-based SeD diet and ultra-pure water. Several different timings for starting the SeD diet were assessed. Read More

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Decision support for the quickest detection of critical COVID-19 phases.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 20;11(1):8558. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269, USA.

During the course of an epidemic, one of the most challenging tasks for authorities is to decide what kind of restrictive measures to introduce and when these should be enforced. In order to take informed decisions in a fully rational manner, the onset of a critical regime, characterized by an exponential growth of the contagion, must be identified as quickly as possible. Providing rigorous quantitative tools to detect such an onset represents an important contribution from the scientific community to proactively support the political decision makers. Read More

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Effect of TAAR1/5-HT agonist SEP-363856 on REM sleep in humans.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Apr 20;11(1):228. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marlborough, MA, USA.

SEP-363856 is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 1A (5-HT) agonist, currently in Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of schizophrenia. Although SEP-363856 activates TAAR1 and 5-HT receptors in vitro, an accessible marker of time- and concentration-dependent effects of SEP-363856 in humans is lacking. In rodents, SEP-363856 has been shown to suppress rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Read More

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The clinical course of critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation with subsequent terminal weaning: Primary data from 11 cases.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25619

Department of Critical Care Medicine.

Abstract: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Specific information about critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is rare.To describe the clinical course and complications of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who received IMV and were successfully weaned from it. Read More

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Intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis responses in leukaemia cells following daunorubicin treatment.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 21;21(1):438. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science (LIMS), La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, VIC, 3552, Australia.

Background: Daunorubicin is used clinically in the treatment of myeloma, acute lymphatic and myelocytic leukaemia. The toxic lesions caused by daunorubicin induce various modes of cell death, including apoptosis. Apoptosis is highly regulated programmed cell death that can be initiated mainly via two pathways, through death receptors (extrinsic) or involvement of the mitochondria (intrinsic). Read More

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[Analysis of the clinical efficacy and safety of bronchial thermoplasty in the treatment of patients with severe asthma and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;101(15):1071-1076

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shenzhen Hospital of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518106, China.

To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety analysis of bronchial thermoplasty (BT) in the treatment of severe asthma and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap. The clinical data of 49 patients with asthma-COPD overlap who received BT in the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenzhen Hospital from January 2016 to December 2018 and 50 patients with severe asthma who received BT in the same period were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into overlap group and asthma group, and the baseline data of two groups were recorded. Read More

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Early and Midtreatment Mortality in Palliative Radiotherapy: Emphasizing Patient Selection in High-Quality End-of-Life Care.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Apr 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

1Department of Radiation Oncology, and.

Background: Palliative radiotherapy (RT) is effective, but some patients die during treatment or too soon afterward to experience benefit. This study investigates end-of-life RT patterns to inform shared decision-making and facilitate treatment consistent with palliative goals.

Materials And Methods: All patients who died ≤6 months after initiating palliative RT at an academic cancer center between 2015 and 2018 were identified. Read More

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Defining the risk profile of women with stage 1 hypertension: A time to event analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Apr 17:100376. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Background: Chronic hypertension complicates up to 5% of pregnancies and is increasing in prevalence. Women with hypertension have increased risks of serious maternal morbidity and mortality in pregnancy including the development of preeclampsia. In 2017, new guidelines reclassified blood pressure into four categories: normal (<120/<80 mmHg), elevated (120-129/<80 mmHg), stage 1 hypertension (130-139/80-89 mmHg), and stage 2 hypertension (>140/>90 mmHg). Read More

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Hand eczema and temporal variation of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complexes: A prospective observational study.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark.

Background: Hand eczema (HE) is frequently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus); however, its role in the pathogenesis of HE is poorly understood.

Objective: To investigate temporal variation of S. Read More

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A three-time point longitudinal investigation of the arcuate fasciculus throughout reading acquisition in children developing dyslexia.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 17:118087. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium; Research Group ExpORL, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Belgium; Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Institute of Neuroscience, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Electronic address:

Although the neural basis of dyslexia has intensively been investigated, results are still unclear about the existence of a white matter deficit in the arcuate fasciculus (AF) throughout development. To unravel this ambiguity, we examined the difference in fractional anisotropy (FA) of the AF between children developing dyslexia and children developing typical reading skills in a longitudinal sample with three MRI time points throughout reading development: the pre-reading stage (5-6 years old), the early reading stage (7-8 years old) and the advanced reading stage (9-10 years old). Applying along-the-tract analyses of white matter organization, our results confirmed that a white matter deficit existed in the left AF prior to the onset of formal reading instruction in children who developed dyslexia later on. Read More

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Natural Course of the Diffusion Capacity for Carbon Monoxide in COPD: Importance of Sex.

Chest 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Department, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The value of the single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) relates to outcomes in COPD patients. However, little is known about the natural course of DLco over time, the intersubject variability and the factors that may influence DLco progression.

Research Question: What is the natural course of DLco in COPD patients over time, and which other factors, including sex differences could influence this progression?

Study Design And Methods: We phenotyped 602 smokers (33% women) of which 506 (84%) had COPD and 96 (16%) had no airflow limitation. Read More

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Comparative profile of refractory status epilepticus models following exposure of cholinergic agents pilocarpine, DFP, and soman.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Apr 17:108571. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine, Bryan, TX 77807.

Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency with continuous seizure activity that causes profound neuronal damage, morbidity, or death. SE incidents can arise spontaneously, but mostly are elicited by seizurogenic triggers. Chemoconvulsants such as the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and organophosphates (OP), such as the pesticide diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and the nerve agent soman, can induce SE. Read More

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Cases of Q fever detected in residents of the novosibirsk region hospitalized with suspection of infections transmitted by ticks.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Apr;66(4):229-236

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS.

Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever (coxiellosis), which, in addition to acute manifestations, often occurs in a latent form, is prone to chronic course and, in the absence of antibiotic therapy, has a high risk of disability or death. As a result of the presence of a wide range of clinical manifestations specific to other infectious diseases, the use of laboratory test methods (LTM) is required to make a diagnosis. The presence of Q fever anthropurgic foci in the Novosibirsk region was described in the 90s of the last century, but due attention to its laboratory diagnostics is not paid in this region. Read More

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Experiences and attitudes of elementary school students and their parents toward online learning in China during the COVID-19 pandemic: Questionnaire Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of psychiatry, Chaohu Hospital, Anhui Medical University, 64 North Chaohu Road, Hefei, CN.

Background: Due to the widespread infection of COVID-19, an emergency homeschooling plan was rigorously implemented throughout China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the experiences and attitudes of elementary school students and their parents (two generations from the same family) toward online learning in China during the pandemic.

Methods: A 16-item questionnaire was distributed at the 10 day- and 40 day-mark after the first online course to 867 parent-child pairs and 141 parent-child pairs, respectively. Read More

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Learning from the Experiences of COVID-19 Survivors: A Descriptive Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Dartmouth College, 9 Maynard Street, Hanover, US.

Background: There are still many unanswered questions about the novel coronavirus, however, a largely underutilized source of knowledge are the millions of people who have recovered after contracting the virus. This includes majority of undocumented cases of the COVID-19 which are classified as mild or moderate and received little to no clinical care during the course of illness.

Objective: To document and glean insights from the experiences of persons with first-hand experience with coronavirus, especially the so-called mild to moderate cases that self-resolved in isolation. Read More

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[Influence of therapeutic temperature management on the clinical course in patients after in-hospital cardiac arrest : A retrospective analysis].

Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Klinik für Kardiologie und internistische Intensivmedizin, Erfurt, Deutschland.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the ICU of the cardiologic department of the University Hospital of Halle (Saale) between 1999 and 2009.

Results: During the observation period, 169 patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest and information regarding temperature measurements were treated. Invasive therapeutic temperature management (TTM+) was applied in 64 patients (37. Read More

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Diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating mid-course responders to chemotherapy for long-bone osteosarcoma compared to the histologic response: an update.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Pediatric Radiology, Hôpital Timone Enfants, Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 Rue Sainte Pierre, 13385, Marseille Cedex 05, France.

Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been described to correlate with tumoural necrosis in response to preoperative chemotherapy for osteosarcoma.

Objective: To assess the accuracy of DWI in evaluating the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy at the mid-course treatment of long-bone osteosarcoma and in predicting survival.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a prospective single-centre study over a continuous period of 11 years. Read More

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Reproductive transitions and women's status in Indian households.

Authors:
Megan N Reed

Popul Stud (Camb) 2021 Apr 20:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Pennsylvania.

Using panel data, this study tracks the impact of reproductive transitions on women's status in the household in India. Here, status refers to the social benefits that women experience by meeting societal expectations related to childbearing. The analysis shows that becoming a mother is associated with increased freedom of movement and access to enabling resources. Read More

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The Use of Linaclotide in Children with Functional Constipation or Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Retrospective Chart Review.

Paediatr Drugs 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Linaclotide is a well-tolerated and effective agent for adults with functional constipation (FC) or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). However, data in children are lacking. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in children. Read More

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