58 results match your criteria tilt pitching


Scapular dyskinesis type is associated with glenohumeral joint and scapular kinematic alteration during pitching motion in baseball players.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2021 Oct 8;28:332-340. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, Japan.

Introduction: Scapular dyskinesis (SD) is associated with an increased risk of throwing-related shoulder injury onset, resulting in abnormalities in glenohumeral joint (GH) and scapular motions during pitching. The effects of SD on shoulder motion during pitching remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate kinematic alterations in GH and scapular motions during pitching in baseball players with type I SD. Read More

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October 2021

Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit on pitching biomechanics and muscle activity.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School & Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

To characterize the scapular pitching biomechanics in symptomatic GIRD pitchers (SG) compared to asymptomatic GIRD (ASG) and healthy pitchers. The scapular kinematics and associated muscle activities during pitching were recorded in 33 high school pitchers. Compared to healthy, GIRD pitchers had less scapular posterior tilt in each pitching event (average difference, AD = 14. Read More

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October 2021

Kinematic and kinetic findings in high vs. low consistency professional baseball pitchers.

J Orthop 2021 Sep-Oct;27:28-33. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Sports Medicine Institute Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

While the performance metric ball velocity has often been associated with increased kinetics at the upper extremity and risk of injury in baseball pitchers, it is unclear if the performance metric pitch location consistency has any positive/negative associations with pitching kinetics. Professional pitchers subdivided into high(Hcon) and low(Lcon) consistency groups were instructed to throw 8-12 fastballs while assessed with motion-capture technology(480 Hz). To further assess pitching consistency, 95% confidence ellipses with comparisons of major and minor radii were conducted with an external comparison to a cohort of high school pitchers. Read More

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Elbow varus torque and ball velocity associations in high school and professional pitchers with increased sagittal-plane trunk tilt.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Sports Medicine Institute, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Increased sagittal-plane trunk tilt is thought to increase drive in the anterior direction toward home plate, transferring energy from the trunk to the distal upper extremity, ultimately generating greater ball velocity. Increased sagittal trunk tilt has also been implicated in the risk of upper-extremity joint loading in baseball pitchers by way of elbow varus torque (EVT), a metric previously associated with elbow injury in professional pitchers. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare sagittal trunk tilt positioning between high school and professional pitchers throughout the pitch and (2) to identify the potential associations between sagittal-plane trunk tilt, ball velocity, and EVT for both cohorts. Read More

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Comparison of Pelvis and Trunk Kinematics Between Youth and Collegiate Windmill Softball Pitchers.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Aug 5;9(8):23259671211021826. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Sports Medicine and Movement Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.

Background: The windmill softball pitch is a dynamic sporting movement that places softball pitchers at high risk of injury. Unlike baseball, there is limited research into the mechanical differences between softball pitchers of varying skill levels.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare pelvis and trunk kinematics between youth and collegiate softball pitchers. Read More

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Relationship Between Clinical Scapular Assessment and Scapula Resting Position, Shoulder Strength, and Baseball Pitching Kinematics and Kinetics.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Mar 18;9(3):2325967121991146. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Scapular assessment is important in examining overhead athletes, but there is inconsistency in scapular clinical assessment and its relation to pathology.

Purpose: To determine the relationship between clinical scapular assessment and biomechanical scapula resting position, shoulder strength, and pitching shoulder kinematics and kinetics.

Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Read More

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The Effects of Contralateral Trunk Tilt on Elbow Varus Torque in Baseball Pitchers: A Critically Appraised Topic.

J Sport Rehabil 2021 Jun 24;30(8):1214-1219. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Clinical Scenario: Ulnar collateral ligament injuries are common in baseball pitchers, with excessive elbow varus torque linked to medial elbow injuries. Trunk tilt, or motion in the frontal plane, could be an identifiable and modifiable factor in medial elbow loading. Clinical Question: In high school through professional baseball pitchers, how does increased contralateral trunk tilt compared with no/limited contralateral trunk tilt influence elbow varus torque? Summary of Key Findings: Four studies were included: all were labeled as "controlled" or "descriptive laboratory studies," representing cross-sectional observational analytic design. Read More

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An individualized linear model approach for estimating scapular kinematics during baseball pitching.

J Biomech 2021 01 3;114:110160. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

School of Behavioral Sciences and Education, Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg, 777 W. Harrisburg Pike, Middletown, PA 17057, USA. Electronic address:

Assessment of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral contributions to shoulder function during baseball pitching are limited by challenges in accurately measuring dynamic scapular orientation. A recently validated individualized linear model approach that estimates scapular orientation based on measurable humerothoracic orientation has yet to be adapted for pitching and may improve upon currently recommended methods such as the acromion marker cluster (AMC). This study evaluates the ability of a pitching-specific individualized linear model to estimate scapular orientation in static positions throughout a throwing motion by comparing against palpation and an AMC. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of timing and magnitude of wing stroke-plane tilt on the escape maneuverability of flapping wing.

Bioinspir Biomim 2020 11 28;16(1):016010. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, People's Republic of China.

Hummingbirds perform a variety of agile maneuvers, and one of them is the escape maneuver, in which the birds can steer away from threats using only 3-4 wingbeats in less than 150 ms. A distinct kinematic feature that enables the escape maneuver is the rapid backward tilt of the wing stroke plane at the beginning of the maneuver. This feature results in a simultaneous nose-up pitching and backward acceleration. Read More

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November 2020

Influence of stride length on upper extremity joint moments and ball velocity in collegiate baseball pitchers.

Sports Biomech 2020 Sep 10:1-10. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Research, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Farmington, CT, USA.

The initial stride down the mound is an important aspect of the baseball pitch. Understanding the implications of stride length is essential to appropriately coach baseball pitchers. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between normalised stride length and the elbow varus and glenohumeral internal rotation moments, ball velocity, trunk and pelvic rotation and forward trunk tilt. Read More

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September 2020

Baseball pitching biomechanics in relation to pain, injury, and surgery: A systematic review.

J Sci Med Sport 2021 Jan 1;24(1):13-20. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis Research Versus Arthritis, University of Oxford, UK.

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between baseball pitching biomechanics and pain, injury, or surgery, in pitchers of all ages and competition levels.

Design: Systematic review.

Methods: This study was registered on Prospero (CRD42019137462). Read More

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January 2021

The influence of trunk mechanics on the assessment of elbow position in college aged pitchers.

Sports Biomech 2020 May 20:1-11. Epub 2020 May 20.

The Sports Centre, Glastonbury, CT, USA.

Researchers have postulated that the rise in the incidence of pitching injuries is partially due to poor pitching mechanics. A topic that is often debated revolves around the correct positioning of the elbow in relationship to the body. Therefore, this study attempts to understand the associations of vertical or horizontal elbow positon with upper extremity joint moments, and ball velocity, and how elbow position is influenced by trunk position. Read More

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Individual factors associated with baseball pitching performance: scoping review.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2020 12;6(1):e000704. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Human Kinetics, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada.

Background: Ball velocity, accuracy and game statistics represent three methods used to measure pitching performance. However, individual determinants of pitching performance are more elusive.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to classify the performance factors associated with baseball pitchers, to identify the methods used to quantify their abilities through all features of the game and to document relationships between performance factors and indicators. Read More

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February 2020

Human Face Tilt Is a Dynamic Social Signal That Affects Perceptions of Dimorphism, Attractiveness, and Dominance.

Evol Psychol 2020 Jan-Mar;18(1):1474704920910403

University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, New South Wales, Australia.

Previous research has shown that manipulating the pitch of a face (tilting the face upward or downward) affects the perceived femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and dominance of the given face. However, previous research has not considered the influence of direct eye gaze on dominance perceptions or the ambiguity surrounding the proposed social signals sent from a static face. The current research used 94 participants across two studies (women = 63%, age: = 31). Read More

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October 2020

Analysis of lower extremity side-reaching motion in junior high school baseball players.

J Phys Ther Sci 2019 Nov 26;31(11):931-934. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma University, Japan.

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the movement pattern of the pelvis and trunk of junior high school baseball players based on the lateral reach motion of the lower limb, which is related to poor pitching movement. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-five male students belonging to a baseball club participated in this study. Each participant performed the lower limb side reach movement in the standing position, during which the movements of the knee joint, hip joint, pelvis, and trunk were analyzed. Read More

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November 2019

The relationship between variability in baseball pitching kinematics and consistency in pitch location.

Sports Biomech 2021 Nov 26;20(7):879-886. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between variability in pitching kinematics and consistency in pitch location. Data were collected for 47 healthy baseball pitchers throwing ten full-effort fastballs to the centre of the strike zone. For each pitch, 20 kinematic parameters were calculated with an automated motion capture system while pitch location was measured with a PITCHf/x system. Read More

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November 2021

Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of throwing motion focusing on pelvic rotation at stride foot contact.

JSES Open Access 2018 Mar 21;2(1):115-119. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Background: Because the throwing motion can be considered a kinetic chain, pelvic and trunk motion should be included in the analysis. Early pelvic rotation during the throwing sequence has been reported to be a factor leading to overloading of the shoulder and the elbow. A large pelvic rotation angle at the stride foot contact (SFC) was thought to indicate early pelvic opening. Read More

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Sagittal Plane Trunk Tilt Is Associated With Upper Extremity Joint Moments and Ball Velocity in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Oct 16;6(10):2325967118800240. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Elite Sports Medicine, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

Background: The trunk is a major contributor to the kinetic chain during baseball pitching by helping to transfer energy from the lower limbs to produce the desired ball speed. However, most of the research detailing the trunk's contribution to the pitch is focused on rotational timing and coronal plane lean, with little attention focused on sagittal plane positioning of the trunk.

Purpose: To determine the association between sagittal plane trunk motion and elbow varus moment and ball velocity in collegiate baseball pitchers. Read More

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October 2018

The influence of lumbopelvic control on shoulder and elbow kinetics in elite baseball pitchers.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019 Feb 26;28(2):330-334. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Texas Metroplex Institute for Sports Medicine and Orthopedics, Arlington, TX, USA.

Background: Research has shown that diminished lumbopelvic control has a negative effect on pitching performance and can lead to more days on the disabled list. Despite the identified correlation between lumbopelvic control and injury, there is no research that has shown whether insufficient lumbopelvic control increases the force placed on the throwing arm.

Methods: Forty-three asymptomatic, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and professional minor league baseball pitchers participated. Read More

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February 2019

Differences Among Overhand, 3-Quarter, and Sidearm Pitching Biomechanics in Professional Baseball Players.

J Appl Biomech 2018 Oct 9;34(5):377-385. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

4 American Sports Medicine Institute.

The purpose of this study was to assess biomechanical differences among overhand, 3-quarter, and sidearm arm slot professional baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that kinematic and kinetic differences would be found among the 3 groups, with sidearm pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the transverse plane and overhead pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the sagittal plane. Based upon arm slot angle at ball release, 30 overhand, 156 three-quarter, and 21 sidearm pitchers were tested using a 240-Hz motion analysis system, and 37 kinematic and kinetic parameters were calculated. Read More

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October 2018

Descriptive Profile of Lumbopelvic Control in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Apr;32(4):1150-1154

Texas Metroplex Institute for Sports Medicine and Orthopedics, Arlington, Texas.

Laudner, K, Wong, R, Latal, J, and Meister, K. Descriptive profile of lumbopelvic control in collegiate baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1150-1154, 2018-Throwing a baseball requires the transmission of forces generated in the lower extremity, through the trunk, then to the upper extremity, and ultimately out through the ball. Read More

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Kinematic and kinetic differences between left-and right-handed professional baseball pitchers.

Sports Biomech 2019 Aug 21;18(4):448-455. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

a American Sports Medicine Institute , Birmingham , AL , USA.

While 10% of the general population is left-handed, 27% of professional baseball pitchers are left-handed. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed college pitchers have been previously reported, but these differences have yet to be examined at the professional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare pitching biomechanics between left- and right-handed professional pitchers. Read More

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Effects of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit on baseball pitching among pitchers of different ages.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Apr 11;27(4):599-605. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Sports Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies have reported that glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) may increase the risk of shoulder injury. However, the effects of GIRD on baseball pitching among pitchers of different age groups are still unclear.

Methods: The study participants were 24 high school and 24 university pitchers. Read More

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Biomechanical Comparisons Among Fastball, Slider, Curveball, and Changeup Pitch Types and Between Balls and Strikes in Professional Baseball Pitchers.

Am J Sports Med 2017 Dec 2;45(14):3358-3367. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

San Francisco Giants Baseball Club, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: In professional baseball pitchers, pitching biomechanics have not been examined for the slider, and the only known study for the curveball and changeup examined limited kinetics. Moreover, no known studies have investigated pitching biomechanics between strikes and balls. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare pitching biomechanics in professional baseball pitchers among the fastball, slider, curveball, and changeup and between balls and strikes. Read More

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December 2017

The Effect of Stride Length and Lateral Pelvic Tilt on Elbow Torque in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

J Appl Biomech 2017 Oct 23;33(5):339-346. Epub 2017 Sep 23.

1 The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention.

High elbow torque during a pitch may contribute to injury risk. Our objective was to determine the pitch mechanics associated with elbow varus torque in youth baseball pitchers. Eighteen male youth pitchers (age = 15. Read More

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October 2017

Trunk Muscle Function Deficit in Youth Baseball Pitchers With Excessive Contralateral Trunk Tilt During Pitching.

Clin J Sport Med 2017 Sep;27(5):475-480

*Department of Health and Kinesiology, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas; †University of Incarnate Word; ‡University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas; and §Department of Physical Therapy, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL.

Objective: Pitching technique is one of many factors that affect injury risk. Exhibiting excessive contralateral trunk tilt (CLT) during pitching has been linked to higher ball speed but also to increased joint loading. Deficit in trunk muscle strength has been suggested as an underlying cause of this movement pattern. Read More

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September 2017

Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

J Hum Kinet 2015 Dec 30;49:47-54. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Auburn University. School of Kinesiology. Auburn, Alabama. USA.

Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Read More

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December 2015

Pitching people with an inversion table: Estimates of body orientation are tipped as much as those of visual surfaces.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2016 Feb;78(2):700-6

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Mansfield, 1760 University Drive, Mansfield, OH, 44906, USA.

In the current work we investigate people's perception of their own body tilt in the pitch direction. In Experiment 1, we tilted people backward at 1 of 5 different randomly assigned angles using an inversion table. People significantly overestimated the angle at which they were tilted backward at angles from 8° to 45°. Read More

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February 2016

Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 2: short-term dynamic stability and trim.

Authors:
G Iosilevskii

R Soc Open Sci 2014 Oct 15;1(2):140249. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel.

Thrust generation by flapping is accompanied by alternating pitching moment. On the down-stroke, it pitches the bird down when the wings are above its centre of gravity and up when they are below; on the up-stroke, the directions reverse. Because the thrust depends not only on the flapping characteristics but also on the angle of attack of the bird's body, interaction between the flapping and body motions may incite a resonance that is similar to the one that causes the swinging of a swing. Read More

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October 2014

Lower body predictors of glenohumeral compressive force in high school baseball pitchers.

J Appl Biomech 2015 Jun 3;31(3):181-8. Epub 2015 Mar 3.

Department of Kinesiology and Dance, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.

The purpose of this study was to better understand how lower body kinematics relate to peak glenohumeral compressive force and develop a regression model accounting for variability in peak glenohumeral compressive force. Data were collected for 34 pitchers. Average peak glenohumeral compressive force was 1. Read More

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