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Exploring participants' experiences of mental health and stigma in American colleges.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Communication, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA.

Mental illness is a growing public concern, particularly for persons in higher education. This research aims to distinguish mental health and stigma experiences between three academic communities: undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty members. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with nineteen individuals who self-identified as a member of one or more of these groups. Read More

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Time and belief in exercise importance predict increased activity during initial COVID-19 restrictions in Ireland.

Health Promot Int 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

The aim of this work was to investigate physical activity levels and the associated barriers and facilitators to physical activity in Irish adults during initial COVID-19 restrictions. Members of the general population completed an online questionnaire. Responses from 1274 participants (1274/1568, 81% completion rate) indicated that the majority (46. Read More

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Grandmothers' care practices in areas of high deprivation of Scotland: the potential for health promotion.

Health Promot Int 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK.

In many families grandparents play an essential role by providing secondary care for grandchildren. The family is a key setting for promoting children's health; however, studies describing health initiatives with grandparents are rare. Grandparents could play an important role in promoting health for their grandchildren within their families and communities. Read More

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Interactions between Health Professionals and Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Patients in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review.

J Homosex 2021 Jul 22:1-27. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (SCPHRP), School of Health in Social Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.

The ways in which health professionals (HPs) interact with individuals from sexual minorities can impact their perception of the health service and influence engagement. This systematic literature review aimed to identify and synthesize the qualitative literature exploring interactions between HPs and lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) patients in healthcare settings. A search strategy was developed and applied to CINAHL and Medline, inclusion criteria were then applied to results by two screeners with good agreement. Read More

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Promoting mentoring relationships through joint decisions: Evidence from a national mentoring program.

Sch Psychol 2021 Jul;36(4):214-223

School of Education and Human Development, University of Virginia.

School-based mentoring programs are one of the most popular types of prevention programs offered to support students' social-emotional and academic success. Because a high-quality mentoring relationship is thought to be a mechanism for improving youth outcomes, we investigated how mentor- and mentee-relationship quality develops over time. In addition, we examined how relationship development varied as a function of three approaches to selecting mentoring activities (i. Read More

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"I am affected in all the ways … ": A phenomenographic analysis of Latinx adolescents' perceptions of family separations at the border.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Children's National Hospital.

Objectives: This phenomenographic analysis examines how news of family separations at the U.S.-Mexico border shaped variations of experience and perceptions among U. Read More

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Ignitions explain more than temperature or precipitation in driving Santa Ana wind fires.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 21;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512, USA.

Autumn and winter Santa Ana wind (SAW)-driven wildfires play a substantial role in area burned and societal losses in southern California. Temperature during the event and antecedent precipitation in the week or month prior play a minor role in determining area burned. Burning is dependent on wind intensity and number of human-ignited fires. Read More

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The photodynamic and intrinsic effects of Azure B on mitochondrial bioenergetics and the consequences of its intrinsic effects on hepatic energy metabolism.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jul 18:102446. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Biological Oxidations, State University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná, Brazil; Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry, State University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: The present study aimed to characterize the intrinsic and photodynamic effects of azure B (AB) on mitochondrial bioenergetics, as well as the consequences of its intrinsic effects on hepatic energy metabolism.

Methods: Two experimental systems were utilized: (a) isolated rat liver mitochondria and (b) isolated perfused rat liver.

Results: AB interacted with mitochondria regardless of photostimulation, but its binding degree was reduced by mitochondrial energization. Read More

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Integrated dementia care: A qualitative evidence synthesis of the experiences of people living with dementia, informal carers and healthcare professionals.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Jun 30;97:104471. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Faculty of Medicine, Health and Social Care, Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU, UK. Electronic address:

Background: In order to provide improved care provision, integrated care services are being developed. However, little is known about how people living with dementia, their families and healthcare professionals experience integrated care. Therefore, the purpose of this review of the qualitative literature was to examine the experiences and perceptions of integrated dementia care. Read More

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The potential roles of osmotic and non-osmotic sodium handling in mediating effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on heart failure.

J Card Fail 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Concomitant type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of heart failure (HF). Recent STUDIES: demonstrate beneficial effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on CKD progression and HF hospitalization in patients with and without diabetes. In addition to inhibiting glucose reabsorption, SGLT2i reduce proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, possibly leading to transient natriuresis. Read More

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MicroRNAs in blood act as biomarkers of colorectal cancer and indicate potential therapeutic targets.

Mol Oncol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Functional Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Association studies have linked alterations of blood-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) with colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we performed a microarray-based comparison of the profiles of 2,549 miRNAs in 80 blood samples from healthy donors and patients with colorectal adenomas, colorectal diverticulitis and CRC at different stages. Confirmation by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was complemented by validation of identified molecules in another 36 blood samples. Read More

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Comparison of the dosimetric accuracy of proton breast treatment plans delivered with SGRT and CBCT setups.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Purpose: To compare the dosimetric accuracy of surface-guided radiation therapy (SGRT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) setups in proton breast treatment plans.

Methods: Data from 30 patients were retrospectively analyzed in this IRB-approved study. Patients were prescribed 4256-5040 cGy in 16-28 fractions. Read More

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Improving flood disaster preparedness of hospitals in Central Thailand: Hospital personnel perspectives.

J Clin Nurs 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Faculty of Nursing, Division of Public Health Nursing, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Aim: To improve hospitals disaster preparedness during floods.

Background: The Thai flood disaster in 2011 struck several sectors, including hospitals. It is necessary to build a disaster preparedness system that ensures that hospitals have the capacity to respond effectively to any kind of disaster. Read More

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Deep learning to automate the labelling of head MRI datasets for computer vision applications.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences, Kings College London, Rayne Institute, 4th Floor, Lambeth Wing, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to build a deep learning model to derive labels from neuroradiology reports and assign these to the corresponding examinations, overcoming a bottleneck to computer vision model development.

Methods: Reference-standard labels were generated by a team of neuroradiologists for model training and evaluation. Three thousand examinations were labelled for the presence or absence of any abnormality by manually scrutinising the corresponding radiology reports ('reference-standard report labels'); a subset of these examinations (n = 250) were assigned 'reference-standard image labels' by interrogating the actual images. Read More

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Band Offset in Semiconductor Heterojunctions.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, Milano, 20125, ITALY.

Semiconductor heterojunctions are widely applied in solid-state device applications, including semiconductor lasers, solar cells, and transistors. In photocatalysis they are of interest due to their capability to hinder charge carriers' recombination. A key role in the performance of heterojunctions is that of the alignment of the band edges of the two units composing the junction. Read More

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A New Anatomic and Staging-Oriented Classification of Radical Hysterectomy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 2;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Gynecology with Center for Oncological Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Virchow Campus Clinic, Charité Medical University, 13353 Berlin, Germany.

The current understanding of radical hysterectomy more is centered on the uterus and little is being discussed about the resection of the vaginal cuff and the paracolpium as an essential part of this procedure. This is because that the current classifications of radical hysterectomy are based only on the lateral extent of resection. This way is easier to be understood but does not reflect the anatomical and surgical conception of radical hysterectomy and the three-dimensional ways of tumour spreading, neither meet the need of adjusting the radicality according to the different stages of FIGO classification, which depends-at least in the early stages-on the tumour volume and the infiltration in the vagina (but not on the directly spread in the parametrium). Read More

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Effect of Inter-layer Coupling on Multilayer Network Centrality Measures.

J Indian Inst Sci 2019 Jun;99(2):237-246

Robert Bosch Centre for Data Science and AI (RBCDSAI), Chennai, India.

The study of networks has been evolving because of its applications in diverse fields. Many complex systems involve multiple types of interactions and such systems are better modeled as multilayer networks.The question "which are the most (or least) important nodes in a given network?", has gained substantial attention in the network science community. Read More

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"You Need to Get Over the Difficulties and Stand Up Again"-A Qualitative Inquiry into Young Nurses' Coping with Lateral Violence from the Feminist Perspective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 4;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Education Department, Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau, Macau 999078, China.

Previous studies have reported lateral violence (LV) styles among nurses and the adverse impacts of LV on nurses and nursing. Young nurses, including nursing students and novice nurses, are often victims of LV. A large qualitative research study that contained three sub-studies exploring professional identity development in different professional stages was conducted by a research team in Macau, Special Administrative Region of China. Read More

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Exploration of Mental Readiness for Enhancing Dentistry in an Inter-Professional Climate.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 1;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Dental School, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.

Competencies required for dentistry go far beyond the academic or scientific spheres. They incorporate important mental readiness concepts at its core with an appropriate balance of operational readiness (i.e. Read More

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La Crosse Virus Disease in the United States, 2003-2019.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

La Crosse virus (LACV) is an arthropod-borne virus that can cause a nonspecific febrile illness, meningitis, or encephalitis. We reviewed U.S. Read More

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Anti-Racism and Anti-Colonialism Praxis in Global Health-Reflection and Action for Practitioners in US Academic Medical Centers.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Center for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

The movement to decolonize global health and address power inequities among its actors is not new. Founded on the work of colonized and marginalized people themselves, initiatives at universities, schools of public health, and international development organizations have emerged to call for anti-racism and anti-colonialism within the field. US Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) have been less vocal in this wider discussion, despite their large engagement in the field through clinical, research, and medical education activities. Read More

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Violence, Suffering and Subversion: Notes from a Qualitative Study about Schooling Trajectories of Brazilian Young Homosexuals.

J Homosex 2021 Jul 19:1-19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Sydney School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

The objective of this article was to analyze the schooling trajectories of young homosexuals, as well as to verify situations that caused psychological distress in formal education environments. Three men who self-identified as homosexual participated in the research. Semi-structured, reflexive and group interviews were used as data collection methods and data were analyzed through Thematic Analysis. Read More

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Health professional's willingness to advocate for strengthening global commitments to the Paris climate agreement: Findings from a multi-nation survey.

J Clim Chang Health 2021 May;2:None

George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

Health professionals have the potential to address the health threats posed by climate change in many ways. This study sought to understand the factors that influence health professionals' willingness to engage in climate advocacy. We hypothesized and tested a model with six antecedent factors predicting willingness to engage in advocacy for strengthening global commitments to the Paris Agreement. Read More

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Seven practices for pursuing equity through learning health systems: Notes from the field.

Learn Health Syst 2021 Jul 22;5(3):e10279. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Critical Care Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Cincinnati Ohio USA.

Introduction: Despite learning health systems' focus on improvement in health outcomes, inequities in outcomes remain deep and persistent. To achieve and sustain health equity, it is critical that learning health systems (LHS) adapt and function in ways that directly prioritize equity.

Methods: We present guidance, including seven core practices, borne from theory, evidence, and experience, for actors within LHS pursuing equity. Read More

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How Our Caregivers Shape Who We Are: The Seven Dimensions of Attachment at the Core of Personality.

Front Psychol 2021 1;12:657628. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Computer Science, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Psychology defines personality as the stable traits of an individual, and cognitive research suggests that a set of core beliefs is at the root of these traits. From this perspective, two major questions remain unanswered: (1) What are the core beliefs that make up personality? (2) How are they acquired? An interesting answer is provided by attachment theory, according to which attachment is at the basis of personality. The current theoretical formulation, however, does not sufficiently clarify the relationship between the two. Read More

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Assessing Instructional Cognitive Load in the Context of Students' Psychological Challenge and Threat Orientations: A Multi-Level Latent Profile Analysis of Students and Classrooms.

Front Psychol 2021 1;12:656994. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia.

To better understand instructional cognitive load, it is important to operationalize and assess it in novel ways that can reveal how different students perceive and experience this load as either challenging or threatening. The present study administered a recently developed instruction assessment tool-the Load Reduction Instruction Scale-Short (LRIS-S)-to = 2,071 students in 188 high school science classrooms. Multilevel latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to identify student and classroom profiles based on students' reports of instructional cognitive load (load reduction instruction, LRI; using the LRIS-S) and their accompanying psychological challenge orientations (self-efficacy and growth goals), and psychological threat orientations (anxiety and failure avoidance goals). Read More

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Participatory co-design and normalisation process theory with staff and patients to implement digital ways of working into routine care: the example of electronic patient-reported outcomes in UK renal services.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jul 18;21(1):706. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Centre for Health Informatics, Division of Informatics, Imaging and Data Science, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Successful implementation of digital health systems requires contextually sensitive solutions. Working directly with system users and drawing on implementation science frameworks are both recommended. We sought to combine Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) with participatory co-design methods, to work with healthcare stakeholders to generate implementation support recommendations for a new electronic patient reported outcome measure (ePRO) in renal services. Read More

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The food restriction wars: Proposed resolution of a primary battle.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jul 15;240:113530. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Suite 119, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Electronic address:

Research regarding the definition and consequences of dieting has generated controversy for years. This controversy has spilled over into the public domain, especially as eating disorders and obesity have become more prevalent. One of the earliest and longest-lasting controversies involves the restrained eating framework, which was originally developed by Herman and Polivy and also strongly influenced the development of the cognitive-behavioral model of bulimia nervosa. Read More

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An ongoing process of reconnection: A qualitative exploration of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for adults in remission from depression.

Psychol Psychother 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Division of Psychology and Mental Health, School of Health Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, UK.

Objectives: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an 8-week relapse-prevention intervention designed for people who have experienced multiple episodes of depression and remain vulnerable to relapse. Previous qualitative explorations of the effects of MBCT for people in remission from depression have suggested a number of themes regarding changes arising from participating in MBCT ranging from awareness, agency, perspective, group processes, self-related change, and new ways of understanding depression. We aimed to qualitatively explore how participants in remission from depression experienced MBCT both post-MBCT and during a follow-up period. Read More

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Three Delays Model applied to prevention of unsafe abortion in Ghana: a qualitative study.

BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

The Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Unsafe abortion is an important public health problem in Ghana, making significant contributions to the morbidity and mortality of reproductive-aged women. Although mostly used in explaining mortality associated with perinatal care, recent calls for research on induced abortion in Africa suggest that the Three Delays Model could be used to enhance understanding of women's experiences and access to induced abortion care.

Methods: We conducted 47 face-to-face interviews with women who had experienced unsafe abortions, with formal abortion providers (abortion providers in hospitals) and with informal and non-legal abortion providers (pharmacy workers and herb sellers). Read More

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