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Individual and joint effects of phthalate metabolites on biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women in Puerto Rico.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 18;154:106565. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Exposures to phthalate compounds have been linked to adverse birth outcomes, potentially through oxidative stress mechanisms. We explored associations between mixtures of biomarkers of phthalate and phthalate replacement metabolites and oxidative stress using lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). As 8-iso-PGF2α can be generated via both chemical (nonenzymatic) and enzymatic lipid peroxidation pathways, we calculated the ratio of 8-iso-PGF2α/prostaglandin F2α in an attempt to distinguish the potential contributions of the two pathways. Read More

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Scatter-to-primary ratio in dentomaxillofacial cone-beam CT: effect of field of view and beam energy.

Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2021 Apr 21:20200597. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of field of view (FOV) and beam energy on the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) in dental CBCT.

Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom representing an adult male (ATOM Max 711-HN) was scanned using the 3D Accuitomo 170 CBCT (J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) using 11 FOVs. Read More

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The Evaluation of Different Treatments of Incipient Caries Lesions: An in Situ Study of Progression Using Fluorescence-based Methods.

Oper Dent 2021 Jan;46(1):87-99

Clinical Relevance: Effective methods to control incipient caries lesions are needed. In this investigation, several methods provide encouraging results.

Summary: This study aimed to evaluate in situ the inhibition of incipient caries lesion progression using different treatment protocols and to evaluate the effectiveness of fluorescence-based methods (DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent pen, and VistaProof fluorescence camera [FC]) in monitoring this process. Read More

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January 2021

Correlates of variability in endurance shuttle walk test time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0249786. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Dekkerswald Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: The endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) is used to evaluate exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The recommended pre-intervention tolerated duration (Tlim) is between 3-8 minutes for optimal interpretation of treatment effects. However, this window may be exceeded and factors determining ESWT Tlim are not completely understood. Read More

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Optimal allocations for two treatment comparisons within the proportional odds cumulative logits model.

Authors:
Mirjam Moerbeek

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0250119. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Methodology and Statistics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

This paper studies optimal treatment allocations for two treatment comparisons when the outcome is ordinal and analyzed by a proportional odds cumulative logits model. The variance of the treatment effect estimator is used as optimality criterion. The optimal design is sought so that this variance is minimal for a given total sample size or a given budget, meaning that the power for the test on treatment effect is maximal, or it is sought so that a required power level is achieved at a minimal total sample size or budget. Read More

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Effects of insecticides on mortality, growth and bioaccumulation in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0249362. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Residues of persistent insecticides may be present in the substrates on which insects are reared for food and feed, which may affect insect growth or survival. In addition, insecticidal substances may bio-accumulate in reared insects. The objective of this study was to assess potential effects of selected insecticides on the growth and survival of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL, Hermetia illucens) and on their safety when used as animal feed. Read More

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Effect of conglomeration gradation on loess shear strength with different water content.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211010581

School of Civil Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an, China.

Particle gradation and water content are important factors affecting shear strength of soil. However, due to chemical cementation and molecular attraction, loess particles commonly stick together forming conglomerations. Till date, the superposition effect of water content and conglomeration gradation on loess shear strength has rarely been studied and undeniably requires further systematic explorations and development. Read More

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National Maintenance Cost for Precision Diagnostics Under the Verifying Accurate Leading-Edge In Vitro Clinical Test Development (VALID) Act of 2020.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Apr 21:OP2000862. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology, Center for Integrated Diagnostics, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Purpose: The proposed legislation Verifying Accurate and Leading-edge In vitro clinical test Development (VALID) clarifies the US Food and Drug Administration's authority to regulate laboratory-developed tests. Many stakeholders have pointed out that the lack of direct US Food and Drug Administration oversight has led to erroneous results that have serious patient consequences-in particular for patients with cancer. is a key provision proposed in VALID to navigate the balance between safety, patient access, and innovation; however, the maintenance cost of the proposed framework implementation is unclear. Read More

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Saturated Oxo Fatty Acids (SOFAs): A Previously Unrecognized Class of Endogenous Bioactive Lipids Exhibiting a Cell Growth Inhibitory Activity.

J Med Chem 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Center of Excellence for Drug Design and Discovery, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15771, Greece.

The discovery of novel bioactive lipids that promote human health is of great importance. Combining "suspect" and targeted lipidomic liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) approaches, a previously unrecognized class of oxidized fatty acids, the saturated oxo fatty acids (SOFAs), which carry the oxo functionality at various positions of the long chain, was identified in human plasma. A library of SOFAs was constructed, applying a simple green photochemical hydroacylation reaction as the key synthetic step. Read More

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Effect of argon plasma on repair bond strength using nanofilled and microhybrid composites.

J Esthet Restor Dent 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Dental Materials Division, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma (PLA), sandblasting (SAN), silanization (SIL) and hydrophobic bonding resin (HBR) on the micro-shear bond strength (MSBS) of fresh nanofilled (NF) or microhybrid (MH) composites to water-aged nanofilled composite.

Materials And Methods: NF plates were fabricated and stored in distilled water for 4 months. The aged plates were assigned to the groups (n = 6): 1- untreated; 2- SAN + SIL + HBR; 3- HBR; 4- PLA + HBR; 5- SAN + HBR; 6- SAN + PLA + HBR; and 7- PLA. Read More

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60 years of fertilization and liming impacts on soil organic carbon stabilization in a sub-tropical Alfisol.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Environmental Sciences and Biomedical Metrology Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Limited information is available on the C stabilization mechanism of tropical soils under different management practices including long-term organic manuring, mineral fertilization alone, or in combination with lime. Hence, to understand the effect of continuous application (for 60 years) of organic manure, fertilizer, and lime alone or in combination on an acidic Alfisol, stabilization of soil organic carbon (SOC) was evaluated under maize (Zea mays L.) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Read More

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Treatment of Scars with Laser-Assisted Delivery of Growth Factors and Vitamin C: A Comparative, Randomised, Double-blind, Early Clinical Trial.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Pharmaceutical Research Group, Faculty of Health, School of Allied Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Bishops Hall Lane, Chelmsford, CM1 1SQ, UK.

Background: Scarring can jeopardize the final result of plastic surgeries. Deep dermal injuries activate dermal fibroblasts that produce excessive amount of collagen and inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, which contributes to increased fibrous tissue and scarring tissue formation.

Objectives: The aim of this early study, double-blind, prospective, randomised clinical trial was to investigate the use of laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) for scar improvement to support the establishment of LADD as standard therapy modality and to indicate suitable drugs for dermal administration. Read More

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Comparing radiomics models with different inputs for accurate diagnosis of significant fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 95 Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing, 100190, China.

Objective: The non-invasive discrimination of significant fibrosis (≥ F2) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is clinically critical but technically challenging. We aimed to develop an updated deep learning radiomics model of elastography (DLRE2.0) based on our previous DLRE model to achieve significantly improved performance in ≥ F2 evaluation. Read More

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Association of Multigenerational Family History of Depression With Lifetime Depressive and Other Psychiatric Disorders in Children: Results from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Importance: Three-generation family studies of depression have established added risk of psychopathology for offspring with 2 previous generations affected with depression compared with 1 or none. Because of their rigorous methodology, there are few of these studies, and existing studies are limited by sample sizes. Consequently, the 3-generation family risk paradigm established in family studies can be a critical neuropsychiatric tool if similar transmission patterns are reliably demonstrated with the family history method. Read More

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[Effects of artificial gravity on perimetry results].

Vestn Oftalmol 2021 ;137(2):26-33

Medical technical association «Stormoff» LLC, Krasnogorsk, Russia.

The active exploration of space requires minimizing negative effects induced by weightlessness (microgravity). Risk reduction can be achieved with the use of artificial gravity created by short-radius centrifuge (SRC). Short-radius centrifuge causes redistribution of body liquids towards the caudal portion of the body imitating a vertical human pose. Read More

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January 2021

A phase 1 study of prexasertib (LY2606368), a CHK1/2 inhibitor, in pediatric patients with recurrent or refractory solid tumors, including CNS tumors: A report from the Children's Oncology Group Pediatric Early Phase Clinical Trials Network (ADVL1515).

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Apr 21:e29065. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona.

Background: Prexasertib (LY2606368) is a novel, second-generation, selective dual inhibitor of checkpoint kinase proteins 1 (CHK1) and 2 (CHK2). We conducted a phase 1 trial of prexasertib to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), to define and describe the toxicities, and to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prexasertib in pediatric patients with recurrent or refractory solid and central nervous system (CNS) tumors.

Methods: Prexasertib was administered intravenously (i. Read More

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Memory outcomes of temporal lobe surgery in adults aged over 45 years.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

First Department of Neurology and Department of Neurosurgery, Brno Epilepsy Center, St. Anne's Hospital and School of Medicine, Brno, Czech Republic.

Objective: It is assumed that temporal lobe resection in older people is associated with worse seizure outcomes and potential postsurgical memory decline. We studied postsurgical memory development and surgical efficacy in patients over 45 years of age compared with younger patients.

Methods: We studied 88 patients (51 male and 37 female) after temporal lobe surgery, which involved hippocampal resection. Read More

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Anesthetic Management for Awake Tubeless Suspension Microlaryngoscopy.

Laryngoscope 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: Patients' eligibility for bilateral selective laryngeal reinnervation surgery is evaluated by suspension microlaryngoscopy (SML) examination with laryngeal electromyography (LEMG). Maintaining spontaneous ventilation, with remifentanil sedation/analgesia without endotracheal tube, to allow the patient to phonate with the surgeon during awake, LEMG is a major challenge for the anesthesiologist and the otorhinololaryngologist. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel anesthesia protocol to manage airway access during awake tubeless SML. Read More

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Distinct Illness Representation Profiles Are Associated With Anxiety in Women Testing Positive for Human Papillomavirus.

Ann Behav Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Cancer Prevention Group, School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) at cervical cancer screening has been associated with heightened anxiety. To date, the cognitive determinants of heightened anxiety remain unclear, making it difficult to design effective interventions.

Purpose: This study investigated latent illness representation profiles in women testing positive for HPV with no abnormal cells (normal cytology) and explored associations between these profiles and anxiety. Read More

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Fractal-inspired soft deployable structure: a theoretical study.

Soft Matter 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Earth Engineering Center, Center for Advanced Materials for Energy and Environment, Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

The study of soft deployable structures is an emergent field that is highly correlated with metamaterial design, soft robotics, medical devices, etc. This paper studies a novel two-dimensional (2D) soft deployable structure that has a fractal layout with hierarchically coupled thin walls, which buckles upon actuation and deforms into a "peacock tail" pattern that is over 10 fold its original dimension. Large deflection theory and finite-element (FE) modeling are used to characterize its mechanical performance and to investigate its potential application in multiple fields. Read More

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Bright bluish-green emitting Cu(I) complexes exhibiting efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr;50(15):5171-5176

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Jimei Road 668, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, China. and CAS Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China and Xiamen Institute of Rare Earth Materials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Three strongly emissive Cu(i) complexes [Cu(tBupzmpy)(POP)]BF4(1), [Cu(Phpzmpy)(POP)]BF4(2) and [Cu(Adpzmpy)(POP)]BF4(3) (tBupzmpy = 2-(5-(tert-butyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-6-methylpyridine, Phpzmpy = 2-methyl-6-(5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine, Adpzmpy = 2-(5-((3R,5R)-adamantan-1-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-6-methylpyridine, and POP = bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether) were synthesized and characterized. These complexes exhibit bright bluish-green photoluminescence in the solid state with quantum yields of 91% (1), 71% (2) and 77% (3) and lifetimes of 13.4 μs (1), 32. Read More

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Conducting spirometry in occupational health at COVID-19 times: international standards.

Med Lav 2021 Apr 20;112(2):95-106. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Italy.

Spirometry is a commonly performed assessment of lung function for diagnostic purposes as well as for monitoring of chronic lung diseases. The last international standardization of this technique was published in 2005. After 14 years, a group of experts from two leading scientific societies, American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS), published a joint position that updated the standardization of spirometry, with an extensive criteria re-organization, including key updates such as: relative contraindications, instrumentation requirement to meet the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards, quality assurance, operator training, pre-test requirements, acceptability and usability criteria. Read More

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Phylogeny of hymenolepidids (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from mammals: sequences of 18S rRNA and COI genes confirm major clades revealed by the 28S rRNA analyses.

J Helminthol 2021 Apr 21;95:e23. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113Sofia, Bulgaria.

The aim of the study is to test a hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among mammalian hymenolepidid tapeworms, based on partial (D1-D3) nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, by estimating new molecular phylogenies for the group based on partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and nuclear 18S rRNA genes, as well as a combined analysis using all three genes. New sequences of COI and 18S rRNA genes were obtained for Coronacanthus integrus, C. magnihamatus, C. Read More

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Personality traits and body image in adults with oral piercing: a questionnaire analysis.

Quintessence Int 2021 Apr 21;0(0). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Objectives: Due to the growing popularity of body modifications, dental practitioners are increasingly confronted with oral piercing and its implications. Successful consultation and subsequent change of patient behavior require an understanding of the patient's personality and the deep reasons that explain this self-injurious behavior. This is the first study evaluating personality traits and aspects of body perception in a cohort of adults with oral piercing. Read More

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The study and comparison of elastic modulus of pineapple fruit in macroscopic and microscopic modes.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

According to bibliography, elastic modulus studies of agricultural produce at the macro-scale using a resistance measuring (as Magness-Taylor penetration test or compression test) by an Instron Universal Mechanical Testing Machine is often used to express this characteristic. However, the determination of the elastic properties of agricultural produce at the macro-scale result widely varying values for a particular agricultural produce. So in this study, to decrease the variability which now exists in the elastic modulus results of agricultural produce measured at the macro-scale, measuring and comparison of the elastic modulus of agricultural produce, pineapple fruit as case study, in macroscopic (by Hook's theory on the cylindrical specimen and Hertz theory in the mode of spherical indenter contact on the whole specimen) and microscopic (by atomic force microscopy) modes was investigate. Read More

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Task set and instructions influence the weight of figural priors: A psychophysical study with extremal edges and familiar configuration.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology; Cognitive Science Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

In figure-ground organization, the figure is defined as a region that is both "shaped" and "nearer." Here we test whether changes in task set and instructions can alter the outcome of the cross-border competition between figural priors that underlies figure assignment. Extremal edge (EE), a relative distance prior, has been established as a strong figural prior when the task is to report "which side is nearer?" In three experiments using bipartite stimuli, EEs competed and cooperated with familiar configuration, a shape prior for figure assignment in a "which side is shaped?" task. Read More

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Identification patterns of Trichoderma strains using morphological characteristics, phylogenetic analyses and lignocellulolytic activities.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jln UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne fungus with an abundance of reports of its economic importance in the agriculture industry. Thus, the correct identification of Trichoderma species is necessary for its commercial purposes. Globally, Trichoderma species are routinely identified from micro-morphological descriptions which can be tedious and prone to errors. Read More

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Reduced Cerebellar Brain Inhibition Measured Using Dual-Site TMS in Older Than in Younger Adults.

Cerebellum 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Discipline of Psychology, College of Science, Health, Engineering, and Education, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.

Dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to measure the cerebellar inhibitory influence on the primary motor cortex, known as cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), which is thought to be important for motor control. The aim of this study was to determine whether age-related differences in CBI (measured at rest) were associated with an age-related decline in bilateral motor control measured using the Purdue Pegboard task, the Four Square Step Test, and a 10-m walk. In addition, we examined test re-test reliability of CBI measured using dual-site TMS with a figure-of-eight coil in two sessions. Read More

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Methodology for Evaluation of WIAMan Injury Assessment Reference Curves Using Whole Body Match-Paired Data.

Ann Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

U.S. Army Futures Command, Combat Capabilities Development Command, Data and Analysis Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, USA.

Development of the Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) capability has included the creation of injury assessment reference curves (IARCs) specific to under-body blast (UBB) loading mechanisms and injuries. The WIAMan IARCs were created from high-rate vertical loading tests of component post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) and analogous components of the WIAMan anthropomorphic test device (ATD). Validation of the WIAMan IARCs is required prior to the WIAMan ATD being utilized for injury assessment in live-fire vehicle test events. Read More

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Association Between Added Sugars from Infant Formulas and Rapid Weight Gain in US Infants and Toddlers.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Behavioral Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background: Formulas often contain high amounts of added sugars, though little research has studied their connection to obesity.

Objectives: This study assessed the contribution of added sugars from formulas during complementary feeding on total added sugar intakes, and the association between these sugars and upward weight-for-age percentile (WFA%) crossing (i.e. Read More

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