630 results match your criteria three self-paced

Speed-related but not detrended gait variability increases with more sensitive self-paced treadmill controllers at multiple slopes.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251229. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States of America.

Self-paced treadmills are being used more frequently to study humans walking with their self-selected gaits on a range of slopes. There are multiple options to purchase a treadmill with a built-in controller, or implement a custom written self-paced controller, which raises questions about how self-paced controller affect treadmill speed and gait biomechanics on multiple slopes. This study investigated how different self-paced treadmill controller sensitivities affected gait parameters and variability on decline, level, and incline slopes. Read More

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Predicting lying, sitting, walking and running using Apple Watch and Fitbit data.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2021 8;7(1):e001004. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

Objectives: This study's objective was to examine whether commercial wearable devices could accurately predict lying, sitting and varying intensities of walking and running.

Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of 49 participants (23 men and 26 women) to wear three devices, an Apple Watch Series 2, a Fitbit Charge HR2 and iPhone 6S. Participants completed a 65 min protocol consisting of 40 min of total treadmill time and 25 min of sitting or lying time. Read More

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Novel use of radio frequency identification (RFID) provides a valid measure of indoor stair-based physical activity.

Appl Ergon 2021 Apr 22;95:103431. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, 330 River Road, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. Electronic address:

This study sought to test the validity of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to measure indoor stair walking. RFID and Bluetooth sensors (accelerometers with the proximity function) were placed at landings across three floors within a stairwell. Participants (n = 29) were randomized to stair walking or sedentary control and concomitantly wore RFID tags at the hip, chest and neck. Read More

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An Adaptable, Open-Access Test Battery to Study the Fractionation of Executive-Functions in Diverse Populations.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:627219. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The umbrella-term 'executive functions' (EF) includes various domain-general, goal-directed cognitive abilities responsible for behavioral self-regulation. The influential unity and diversity model of EF posits the existence of three correlated yet separable executive domains: inhibition, shifting and updating. These domains may be influenced by factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) and culture, possibly due to the way EF tasks are devised and to biased choice of stimuli, focusing on first-world testees. Read More

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Quantitative Comparison of Human and Software Reliability in the Categorization of Sit-to-Stand Motion Pattern.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 28;29:770-776. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

The Sit-to-Stand (STS) test is used in clinical practice as an indicator of lower-limb functionality decline, especially for older adults. Due to its high variability, there is no standard approach for categorising the STS movement and recognising its motion pattern. This paper presents a comparative analysis between visual assessments and an automated-software for the categorisation of STS, relying on registrations from a force plate. Read More

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Comparison of neuromuscular and cardiovascular exercise intensity and enjoyment between standard of care, off-the-shelf and custom active video games for promotion of physical activity of persons post-stroke.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 Apr 14;18(1):63. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Active video games have been embraced for the rehabilitation of mobility and promotion of physical activity for persons post-stroke. This study seeks to compare carefully matched standard of care stepping activities, off-the-shelf (non-custom) active video games and custom active video games that are either self-paced or game-paced for promoting neuromuscular intensity and accuracy, cardiovascular intensity, enjoyment and perceived effort.

Methods: Fifteen persons (ages 38-72) with mild to moderate severity in the chronic phase post-stroke (average 8 years) participated in a single group counter balanced repeated measures study. Read More

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A heat and moisture-exchanging mask impairs self-paced maximal running performance in a sub-zero environment.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Health Sciences, Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Studentplan 4, 831 40, Östersund, Sweden.

Purpose: Heat-and-moisture-exchanging devices (HME) are commonly used by endurance athletes during training in sub-zero environments, but their effects on performance are unknown. We investigated the influence of HME usage on running performance at - 15 °C.

Methods: Twenty-three healthy adults (15 male, 8 female; age 18-53 years; [Formula: see text] men 56 ± 7, women 50 ± 4 mL·kg·min) performed two treadmill exercise tests with and without a mask-style HME in a randomised, crossover design. Read More

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Evaluating the Effects of Computer-Based Instruction on Trial-Based Functional Analyses Procedures.

Behav Modif 2021 Mar 17:145445520982552. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

The University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.

Children who engage in problem behavior are often educated in the public schools. A trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) is an experimental functional analysis whereby conditions are embedded into scheduled activities of the school day to identify environmental variables responsible for problem behavior. To be included in this process, it is important that staff are trained effectively and efficiently. Read More

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The Physiological, Neuromuscular, and Perceptual Response to Even- and Variable-Paced 10-km Cycling Time Trials.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Mar 10:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Background: During self-paced (SP) time trials (TTs), cyclists show unconscious nonrandom variations in power output of up to 10% above and below average. It is unknown what the effects of variations in power output of this magnitude are on physiological, neuromuscular, and perceptual variables.

Purpose: To describe physiological, neuromuscular, and perceptual responses of 10-km TTs with an imposed even-paced (EP) and variable-paced (VP) workload. Read More

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Alternative approaches for clinical clerkship during the COVID-19 pandemic: online simulated clinical practice for inpatients and outpatients-A mixed method.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Mar 8;21(1):149. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Health Professional Development Center, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a need for educational materials and methods that can replace clinical clerkships (CCs) for online simulated clinical practice (online-sCP). This study evaluates the impact of using simulated electronic health records (sEHR) for inpatients, and electronic problem-based learning (e-PBL) and online virtual medical interviews (online-VMI) for outpatients, for an online-sCP using a learning management system (LMS) and online meeting system facilitated by a supervising physician.

Methods: The sEHR was reviewed by medical students and subsequently discussed with a supervising physician using an online meeting system. Read More

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Summated Hazard Score as a Powerful Predictor of Fatigue in Relation to Pacing Strategy.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 18;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA.

During competitive events, the pacing strategy depends upon how an athlete feels at a specific moment and the distance remaining. It may be expressed as the Hazard Score (HS) with momentary HS being shown to provide a measure of the likelihood of changing power output (PO) within an event and summated HS as a marker of how difficult an event is likely to be perceived to be. This study aimed to manipulate time trial (TT) starting strategies to establish whether the summated HS, as opposed to momentary HS, will improve understanding of performance during a simulated cycling competition. Read More

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February 2021

Altered cerebrovascular reactivity due to respiratory rate and breath holding: a BOLD-fMRI study on healthy adults.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 May 17;226(4):1229-1239. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, Center for Information in Medicine, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.2006, Xiyuan Avenue, West Hi-Tech Zone, Chengdu, 611731, Sichuan, China.

Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is of great significance for the treatment and prevention of cerebrovascular diseases. CVR can be mapped using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal of fMRI. Breath holding (BH) is a reliable method to produce the desired increase in arterial CO, while its application in clinical research is limited due to subject's compliance and variability. Read More

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Using Immersive Technologies to Develop Medical Education Materials.

Cureus 2021 Jan 12;13(1):e12647. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, TUR.

Principles of modern surgical education for clerkship and residency were established by the novel approaches of Sir William Osler, MD, Flexner report, and Halsted's principles. The evaluation of surgical education has continued to benefit from the wisdom of the past by harnessing technologies. Rapidly changing and improving the nature of the surgery fostered that evaluation and enforced the institutions to find new solutions for surgical education. Read More

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January 2021

Effectiveness of Dry Needling Therapy on Pain, Hip Muscle Strength, and Physical Function in Patients With Hip Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 May 7;102(5):959-966. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Physiatrist and Nursery, Faculty of Health Science, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

Objective: To investigate the short-term effects of dry needling (DN) on physical function, pain, and hip muscle strength in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA).

Design: A double-blind, placebo-control, randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Private practice physiotherapy clinic. Read More

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Attraction Effects for Verbal Gender and Number Are Similar but Not Identical: Self-Paced Reading Evidence From Modern Standard Arabic.

Front Psychol 2020 21;11:586464. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Language, Mind and Brain Lab, Division of Science, Psychology Program, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Previous work on the comprehension of agreement has shown that incorrectly inflected verbs do not trigger responses typically seen with fully ungrammatical verbs when the preceding sentential context furnishes a possibly matching distractor noun (i.e., agreement attraction). Read More

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January 2021

Distracting stimuli evoke ventral tegmental area responses in rats during ongoing saccharin consumption.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Mar 2;53(6):1809-1821. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Disruptions in attention, salience and increased distractibility are implicated in multiple psychiatric conditions. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a potential site for converging information about external stimuli and internal states to be integrated and guide adaptive behaviours. Given the dual role of dopamine signals in both driving ongoing behaviours (e. Read More

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Ablation Analysis to Select Wearable Sensors for Classifying Standing, Walking, and Running.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Dec 30;21(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, MA 02421-6426, USA.

The field of human activity recognition (HAR) often utilizes wearable sensors and machine learning techniques in order to identify the actions of the subject. This paper considers the activity recognition of walking and running while using a support vector machine (SVM) that was trained on principal components derived from wearable sensor data. An ablation analysis is performed in order to select the subset of sensors that yield the highest classification accuracy. Read More

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December 2020

Regular training has a greater effect on aerobic capacity, fasting blood glucose and blood lipids in obese adolescent males compared to irregular training.

J Exerc Sci Fit 2021 Apr 26;19(2):98-103. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

College of Health and Human Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Northern Territory, Australia.

Background/objective: It is not clear whether the regularity of training affects the outcomes of aerobic exercise. This study aimed to compare the effects of regular with irregular training on aerobic fitness, blood markers, and anthropometric characteristics of obese adolescent males.

Methods: Twenty three male students between 16 and 17 years old were randomly assigned into regular exercise (RE) group and performed exercises on specific time and days each week, or irregular exercise (IE) group and performed exercise on randomly selected days each week. Read More

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Multiclass Classification Based on Combined Motor Imageries.

Front Neurosci 2020 19;14:559858. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LORIA, Inria, Nancy, France.

Motor imagery (MI) allows the design of self-paced brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which can potentially afford an intuitive and continuous interaction. However, the implementation of non-invasive MI-based BCIs with more than three commands is still a difficult task. First, the number of MIs for decoding different actions is limited by the constraint of maintaining an adequate spacing among the corresponding sources, since the electroencephalography (EEG) activity from near regions may add up. Read More

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November 2020

Individual differences in emotion regulation and face recognition.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(12):e0243209. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Face recognition ability is highly variable among neurologically intact populations. Across three experiments, this study examined for the first time associations between individual differences in a range of adaptive versus maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and face recognition. Using an immediate face-memory paradigm, in which observers had to identify a self-paced learned unfamiliar face from a 10-face target-present/ target-absent line-up, Experiment 1 (N = 42) found high levels of expressive suppression (the ongoing efforts to inhibit emotion-expressive behaviors), but not cognitive reappraisal (the cognitive re-evaluation of emotional events to change their emotional consequences), were associated with a lower level of overall face-memory accuracy and higher rates of misidentifications and false positives. Read More

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January 2021

Alive and Well: Encouraging Long Term Health Habits Through Implementation of Student Driven Wellness Programs in Medical Schools.

Glob Adv Health Med 2020 18;9:2164956120973622. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University, St. George's, Grenada, West Indies.

Purpose: A lack of coping mechanisms has been linked to increased rates of anxiety, depression, and imposter syndrome among medical students. In response, schools have been searching for methods to negate these results through wellness programs focused on student life.

Methods: A survey comprised of three multiple choice questions was disseminated amongst first year basic science medical students to determine their current state of well-being and potential interest in an educational course focused on wellness. Read More

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November 2020

Influence of Self-managed Rehabilitation on Work Efficiency in Active Duty Military With a Knee Injury.

Mil Med 2021 05;186(5-6):486-492

College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurology, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

Introduction: Knee injuries associated with intense physical training are one of the most frequent injuries associated with medical encounters for military members. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four approaches to physiotherapy rehabilitation and their effects on work efficiency in active duty military with a knee injury. The four groups included neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), walking with a weighted vest (WALK), combined NMES/Walk, and standard physiotherapy rehabilitation. Read More

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Instructed versus spontaneous entrainment of running cadence to music tempo.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 04 18;1489(1):91-102. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

IPEM, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Matching exercise behavior to musical beats has been shown to favorably affect repetitive endurance tasks. In this study, our aim was to explore the role of spontaneous versus instructed entrainment, focusing on self-paced exercise of healthy, recreational runners. For three 4-min running tasks, 33 recreational participants were either running in silence or with music; when running with music, either no instructions were given to entrain to the music, or participants were instructed to match their running cadence with the tempo of the music. Read More

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Word predictability effects are linear, not logarithmic: Implications for probabilistic models of sentence comprehension.

J Mem Lang 2021 Feb 18;116. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA USA.

During language comprehension, we routinely use information from the prior context to help identify the meaning of individual words. While measures of online processing difficulty, such as reading times, are strongly influenced by contextual predictability, there is disagreement about the mechanisms underlying this lexical predictability effect, with different models predicting different linking functions - (Reichle, Rayner & Pollatsek, 2003) or (Levy, 2008). To help resolve this debate, we conducted two highly-powered experiments (self-paced reading, N = 216; cross-modal picture naming, N = 36), and a meta-analysis of prior eye-tracking while reading studies (total N = 218). Read More

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February 2021

Effects of motor style on timing control and EEG waveforms in self-paced and synchronization tapping tasks.

Neurosci Lett 2020 11 20;739:135410. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Psychology, Aichi University, 1-1 Machihata-cho, Toyohashi, 4418522, Japan. Electronic address:

We investigated the effects of tapping style on motor performance and neural activity in self-paced and synchronization tapping tasks in three conditions (drum sticking [DS], one-finger tapping [1FT], and four-finger tapping [4FT]). In the synchronization task, participants tapped in synchrony with a metronomic sound. No significant differences were detected in the accuracy of timing control among the tapping styles, whereas larger potentials on EEG waveforms before tap onset were found in 4FT than in DS or 1FT; these may be readiness potentials for the motor commands required to control multiple fingers. Read More

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November 2020

Zooming in on visual narrative comprehension.

Mem Cognit 2021 04 6;49(3):451-466. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Communication and Cognition, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

The comprehension of visual narratives requires paying attention to certain elements and integrating them across a sequence of images. To study this process, we developed a new approach that modified comic strips according to where observers looked while viewing each sequence. Across three self-paced experiments, we presented sequences of six panels that were sometimes automatically "zoomed-in" or re-framed in order to highlight parts of the image that had been fixated by another group of observers. Read More

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A flow resistive inspiratory muscle training mask worn during high-intensity interval training does not improve 5 km running time-trial performance.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jan 1;121(1):183-191. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Physical Activity, Public Health and Wellness Research Group, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

Purpose: There is little evidence of the ergogenic effect of flow-resistive masks worn during exercise. We compared a flow-resistive face mask (MASK) worn during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) against pressure threshold loading inspiratory muscle training (IMT).

Methods: 23 participants (13 males) completed a 5 km time trial and six weeks of HIIT (3 sessions weekly). Read More

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January 2021

The use of context in resolving syntactic ambiguity: Structural and semantic influences.

Lang Cogn Neurosci 2020 27;35(1):43-57. Epub 2019 May 27.

University of California, Davis.

Verb bias facilitates parsing of temporarily ambiguous sentences, but it is unclear when and how comprehenders use probabilistic knowledge about the combinatorial properties of verbs in context. In a self-paced reading experiment, participants read direct object/sentential complement sentences. Reading time in the critical region was investigated as a function of three forms of bias: structural bias (the frequency with which a verb appears in direct object/sentential complement sentences), lexical bias (the simple co-occurrence of verbs and other lexical items), and global bias (obtained from norming data about the use of verbs with specific noun phrases). Read More

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Concurrent heart rate validity of wearable technology devices during trail running.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(8):e0238569. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Kinesiology and Outdoor Recreation, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, Utah, United States of America.

Validation of heart rate responses in wearable technology devices is generally composed of laboratory-based protocols that are steady state in nature and as a result, high accuracy measures are returned. However, there is a need to understand device validity in applied settings that include varied intensities of exercise. The purpose was to determine concurrent heart rate validity during trail running. Read More

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October 2020

A comparison of variability and gait dynamics in spatiotemporal variables between different self-paced treadmill control modes.

J Biomech 2020 09 31;110:109979. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

This study investigates the effects of treadmill control algorithms on spatiotemporal variables when walking on a self-paced (SP) treadmill. Ten healthy subjects walked at their preferred walking speed for 15 min under three different treadmill control modes. Stride time, stride length, and stride speed were measured using an inertial measurement unit. Read More

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September 2020