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The effectiveness of natalizumab vs fingolimod-A comparison of international registry studies.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 8;53:103012. Epub 2021 May 8.

KTU Medical Faculty Farabi Hospital, Trabzon, Turkey.

Background: Natalizumab and fingolimod were the first preparations recommended for disease breakthrough in priorly treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Of three published head-to-head studies two showed that natalizumab is the more effective to prevent relapses and EDSS worsening.

Methods: By re-analyzing original published results from MSBase, France, and Denmark using uniform methodologies, we aimed at identifying the effects of differences in methodology, in the MS-populations, and at re-evaluating the differences in effectiveness between the two drugs. Read More

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Evaluating a social marketing campaign on healthy nutrition and lifestyle among primary-school children: A mixed-method research design.

Eval Program Plann 2021 Jun 1;89:101965. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Marketing and International Business, Toulouse Business School, 1 Place Alphonse Jourdain - CS 66810, 31068, Toulouse Cedex 7, France. Electronic address:

Italy has one of the highest levels of childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. Therefore, preventing children from becoming overweight is a major public health challenge. Here, we used a mixed-method research approach - including a quasi-experimental design and three surveys - to create a formative evaluation of a social marketing campaign on healthy nutrition and lifestyle in Italian primary school children. Read More

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Projecting palliative and end-of-life care needs in Central Lancashire up to 2040: an integrated palliative care and public health approach.

Public Health 2021 Jun 8;195:145-151. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust, Preston, England, UK.

Objectives: A collaborative study was undertaken by palliative care and public health on behalf of Chorley & South Ribble and Greater Preston Clinical Commissioning Groups. Going beyond a traditional needs assessment by providing projections of local palliative and end-of-life care needs in all conditions over 20 years, the study will support locality commissioning and development of appropriate health care services.

Study Design: Population-based needs assessment involving secondary analysis of routinely available regional mortality and population data for Central Lancashire (2017). Read More

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Rapid determination of viable but non-culturable Campylobacter jejuni in food products by loop-mediated isothermal amplification coupling propidium monoazide treatment.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jun 1;351:109263. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Food Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Ste Anne de Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada. Electronic address:

Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne human diarrhea worldwide. This microbe in the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state can evade detection by routinely used culture-based methods and remain viable for extended periods of time. Bacteria in this dormancy state can resume their metabolic activity and virulence by resuscitation under favorable conditions, and subsequently cause infections. Read More

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Association of short-term fine particulate matter exposure with pulmonary function in populations at intermediate to high-risk of cardiovascular disease: A panel study in three Chinese cities.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 8;220:112397. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China; Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100037, China. Electronic address:

Background: Decline in pulmonary function contributes to increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although adverse effects of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) on pulmonary function have been recognized in healthy people or patients with respiratory disease, these results were not well illustrated among people with elevated CVD risk.

Materials And Methods: A panel study was conducted in three Chinese cities with three repeated visits among populations at intermediate to high-risk of CVD, defined as treated hypertension patients or those with blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mmHg, who met any of the three conditions including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Read More

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Left ventricle motion estimation for cine MR images using sparse representation with shape constraint.

Phys Med 2021 Jun 8;87:49-64. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Purpose: To propose a left ventricle (LV) motion estimation method based on sparse representation, in order to handle the spatial-varying intensity distortions caused by tissue deformation.

Methods: For each myocardial landmark, an adaptive dictionary was generated by learning transformations from a training dataset. Then the landmark was tracked using sparse representation. Read More

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A tailored telehealth group tobacco cessation treatment program for people with HIV: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 8:106475. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Smoking-related illnesses are the leading cause of death among people with HIV (PWH). Yet, there are few effective evidence-based interventions that help PWH quit smoking. The group-based program Positively Smoke Free is a biobehavioral cessation intervention for PWH with a growing evidence base. Read More

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Treatments and outcomes of generalized pustular psoriasis: a cohort of 1516 patients in a nationwide inpatient database in Japan.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Because generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is uncommon, there are few studies reporting treatments and outcomes for large numbers of patients.

Objective: To report treatments and outcomes in a large cohort of hospitalized patients with GPP.

Methods: Using a Japanese national inpatient database, we identified 1516 patients with GPP who required hospitalization from July 2010 to March 2019. Read More

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Characterising non-linear associations between airborne pollen counts and respiratory symptoms from the AirRater smartphone app in Tasmania, Australia: A case time series approach.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 8:111484. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7000, Australia; Public Health Services, Department of Health, Hobart, TAS, 7000, Australia. Electronic address:

Pollen is a well-established trigger of asthma and allergic rhinitis, yet concentration-response relationships, lagged effects, and interactions with other environmental factors remain poorly understood. Smartphone technology offers an opportunity to address these challenges using large, multi-year datasets that capture individual symptoms and exposures in real time. We aimed to characterise associations between six pollen types and respiratory symptoms logged by users of the AirRater smartphone app in Tasmania, Australia. Read More

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Identifying research priorities to improve the health of incarcerated populations: results of citizens' juries in Australian prisons.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Population Health, University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Health disparities in incarcerated populations should guide investment in the health care and research of these communities. Although users of health-care services are important in providing input into decisions about research, the voices of people in prison are absent regarding research into their health. In this Health Policy paper, we present priorities for research into the health of people in prison according to people in prison themselves. Read More

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Practice-guided public health philosophy.

Health Promot Int 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Culture and Society, University of Aarhus, Denmark.

Although highly relevant, philosophical theory and philosophical competences are rarely integrated in empirical public health research. We suggest a variant of applied philosophy that is valuable for the development and improvement of public health research. We call it practice-guided public health philosophy because: (i) research questions derive from public health challenges, i. Read More

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Treating Insomnia Symptoms with Medicinal Cannabis: A Randomized, Cross-Over Trial of the Efficacy of a Cannabinoid Medicine Compared with Placebo.

Sleep 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centre for Sleep Science, School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia.

Study Objectives: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two-weeks of nightly sublingual cannabinoid extract (ZTL-101) in treating chronic insomnia (symptoms ≥three months).

Methods: Co-primary study endpoints were safety of the medication based on adverse event reporting and global insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index; ISI). Secondary endpoints included: self-reported (sleep diary), actigraphy-derived and polysomnography measurements of sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE); and self-reported assessments of sleep quality (sSQ) and feeling rested upon waking. Read More

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High rate of completion for weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid treatment in Chinese children with latent tuberculosis infection-A single center study.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253159. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Three months of weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid (3HP) is a short course regimen for latent tuberculosis infection treatment with satisfied safety and efficacy. However, research on its use in children is limited. In this study, we evaluated the completion rate and safety of the 3HP regimen among children in China. Read More

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Impact of vitamin D status and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide on adults with active pulmonary TB globally: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252762. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Tuberculosis remains a global threat and a public health problem that has eluded attempts to eradicate it. Low vitamin D levels have been identified as a risk factor for tuberculosis infection and disease. The human cathelicidin LL-37 has both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties and is dependent on vitamin D status. Read More

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Trust levels within categories of information and communication technology companies.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252773. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

The arguable claims of levels of trust in politics and business situations motivated this study, which investigates the degree of trust within micro, small, and medium categories of Hungarian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) companies. Different sizes of companies have varying interactions between internal members and their business partners. This study concentrated on exploring Hungarian ICT companies due to their significant role in supporting Industry 4. Read More

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Compassionate and respectful care among outpatient clients at public health facilities in Northwest Ethiopia: A mixed-methods study.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252444. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Compassionate and respectful care is a pillar for improving health-seeking behaviour. It has given much attention globally, following the concerns that healthcare often falls significantly; however, less research emphasis was paid in the last decade. Therefore, this study aims to assess compassionate and respectful care and associated factors among outpatient clients at public health facilities in Northwest Ethiopia, 2020. Read More

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Assessment of mortality and performance status in critically ill cancer patients: A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252771. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Intensive Care, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Given clinicians' frequent concerns about unfavourable outcomes, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) triage decisions in acutely ill cancer patients can be difficult, as clinicians may have doubts about the appropriateness of an ICU admission. To aid to this decision making, we studied the survival and performance status of cancer patients 2 years following an unplanned ICU admission.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study in a large tertiary referral university hospital in the Netherlands. Read More

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Longitudinal changes in IgG levels among COVID-19 recovered patients: A prospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0251159. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Pulmonology Department, Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Objectives: To quantify SARS-CoV2 IgG antibody titers over time and assess the longevity of the immune response in a multi-ethnic population setting.

Setting: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Abu Dhabi city, UAE, among COVID-19 confirmed patients. The virus-specific IgG were measured quantitatively in serum samples from the patients during three visits over a period of 6 months. Read More

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Cost of illness for severe and non-severe diarrhea borne by households in a low-income urban community of Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 11;15(6):e0009439. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The illness cost borne by households, known as out-of-pocket expenditure, was 74% of the total health expenditure in Bangladesh in 2017. Calculating economic burden of diarrhea of low-income urban community is important to identify potential cost savings strategies and prioritize policy decision to improve the quality of life of this population. This study aimed to estimate cost of illness and monthly percent expenditure borne by households due diarrhea in a low-income urban settlement of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Read More

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Organ failure, aetiology and 7-day all-cause mortality among acute adult patients on arrival to an emergency department: a hospital-based cohort study.

Eur J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Odense Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Odense Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark Department of Emergency Medicine, Hospital of South West Jutland, Esbjerg Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark.

Background: Organ failure is both a frequent and dangerous condition among adult patients on arrival to an emergency department (ED). The risk of an unfavourable outcome could depend on the underlying aetiology. Knowledge of the relation between aetiology and prognosis could improve the risk stratification at arrival. Read More

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"We're Moving in the Right Direction. Still a Long Way to Go": Experiences and Perceptions of the Climate for LGBTQ+ Employees at a Pediatric Hospital.

J Homosex 2021 Jun 11:1-19. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

A positive LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/nonbinary, queer) workplace climate is critical for healthcare employee satisfaction, productivity, and patient care. The current study assessed LGBTQ+ workplace climate among 791 employees from a large urban pediatric hospital. Several workplace climate domains were assessed in an online survey: employee attitudes, training, experiences related to working with LGBTQ+ colleagues, patients and families, and LGBTQ+-specific experiences. Read More

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Complications associated with myocardial bridging in four children without underlying cardiac disease: a case series.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2021 Jun 11:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Life Sciences and Public Health, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Myocardial bridging is largely considered to be a benign, symptomless congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries in which the intramyocardial coronary course is partially 'tunnelled' and leads to vessel compression during ventricular systole. There are few data regarding children. To report on myocardial bridging observed in children seeking medical help in the paediatric emergency room. Read More

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Prehospital Airway Management: A Systematic Review.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2021 Jun 11:1-28. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

To assess comparative benefits and harms across three airway management approaches (bag valve mask [BVM], supraglottic airway [SGA], and endotracheal intubation [ETI]) used by prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) to treat patients with trauma, cardiac arrest, or medical emergencies, and how they differ based on techniques and devices, EMS personnel and patient characteristics. We searched electronic citation databases (Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus) from 1990 to September 2020. We followed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Methods guidance. Read More

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Feasibility assessment of bentonite drilling mud to improve the physical quality of loamy sand soil and water deficit of forest plant seedlings.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Project Environmental Management Department, PTT Public Company Limited, Bangkok-10900, Thailand.

Spent drilling mud (DM), a co-product during horizontal directional drilling operations, needs proper disposal to comply with social and environmental sustainability awareness, with one option being its cost-effective reuse as a soil amendment. The possibility was investigated of DM applications to improve the physical quality of loamy sand soil. The soil was treated with increasing DM contents in a laboratory at volumetric DM-to-soil ratios of 0:100 (DM0, no DM), 25:75 (DM25), 50:50 (DM50), 75:25 (DM75), and 100:0 (DM100, no soil). Read More

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Evolving trends in risk profiles and outcomes in older adults undergoing kidney re-transplantation.

Transplantation 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

1 Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec 2 Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec 3 Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 4 Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Background: In older adults (≥65) access to and outcomes following kidney transplantation (KT) have improved over the past three decades. It is unknown if there were parallel trends in re-KT. We characterized the trends, changing landscape, and outcomes of re-KT in older adults. Read More

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"An Unchanging God in a Changing World": Sexual Practice and Decision-Making among Christian Women in South Africa.

J Relig Health 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Social and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

This study explored the relationship between sexual health and religion among young, Pentecostal Christian women navigating the transition to adulthood in Khayelitsha township, in the City of Capetown, South Africa. Between February and August 2019, eleven semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted. Thematic analysis and discourse analysis were used to analyse the data collected. Read More

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Combined selective culture and molecular methods for the detection of carbapenem-resistant organisms from fecal specimens.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Medical Microbiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Meyer B1-193, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Detection of patients with intestinal colonization of carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRO), or more specifically carbapenemase-producing (CP) CRO, can prevent their transmission in healthcare facilities and aid with outbreak investigations. The objective of this work was to further develop and compare methods that combine selective culture and/or PCR to rapidly detect and recover CRO from fecal specimens. Molecularly characterized Gram-negative bacilli (n = 62) were used to spike fecal samples to establish limit of detection (LOD; n = 12), sensitivity (n = 28), and specificity (n= 21) for 3 methods to detect CP-CRO: direct MacConkey (MAC) plate and Xpert Carba-R (Cepheid) on growth, MAC broth and Carba-R testing of the broth, and direct testing by Carba-R. Read More

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A Web Interface for Antibiotic Prescription Recommendations in Primary Care: User-Centered Design Approach.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jun 11;23(6):e25741. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, Bobigny, France.

Background: Antibiotic misuse is a serious public health problem worldwide. National health authorities release clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to guide general practitioners (GPs) in their choice of antibiotics. However, despite the large-scale dissemination of CPGs, GPs continue to prescribe antibiotics that are not recommended as first-line treatments. Read More

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Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists to prevent hyperinflammation and death from lower respiratory tract infection.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Stanford Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Stanford, United States.

In severe viral pneumonia, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the viral replication phase is often followed by hyperinflammation, which can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. We previously demonstrated that alpha-1 adrenergic receptor (⍺-AR) antagonists can prevent hyperinflammation and death in mice. Here, we conducted retrospective analyses in two cohorts of patients with acute respiratory distress (ARD, n = 18,547) and three cohorts with pneumonia (n = 400,907). Read More

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The added value of palliative day care centres: A full-population cross-sectional survey among clients and their family caregivers in Flanders, Belgium.

Health Soc Care Community 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

End-of-Life Care Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) & Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

In addition to palliative care delivery at home or in hospital, palliative day care centres occupy an in-between position in palliative care. In palliative day care centres, multidisciplinary teams provide holistic care and support for people with (chronic) life-limiting conditions, or clients, in a homely surrounding, allowing them to remain living at home while attending a specialist palliative care service. This study aims to evaluate palliative day care centres from a user perspective. Read More

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