27,669 results match your criteria three isoforms


Grapevine TPS (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) family genes are differentially regulated during development, upon sugar treatment and drought stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 30;164:54-62. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Agriculture, Forest and Food Sciences, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095, Grugliasco, Italy.

Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) performs the first step in the biosynthetic pathway of trehalose-6-phosphate and trehalose. These two molecules play key roles in the control of carbon allocation and of stress responses in plants. We investigated the organization of the TPS gene family and its developmental and environmental expression regulation in grapevine, a major horticultural crop. Read More

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Developmental up-regulation of NMDA receptors in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mGlu5 receptor knock-out mice.

Mol Brain 2021 May 7;14(1):77. Epub 2021 May 7.

IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, IS, Italy.

mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors are highly expressed and functional in the early postnatal life, and are known to positively modulate NMDA receptor function. Here, we examined the expression of NMDA receptor subunits and interneuron-related genes in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mGlu5 mice and wild-type littermates at three developmental time points (PND9, - 21, and - 75). We were surprised to find that expression of all NMDA receptor subunits was greatly enhanced in mGlu5 mice at PND21. Read More

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Variance in expression and localization of sex-related genes CgDsx, CgBHMG1 and CgFoxl2 during diploid and triploid Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas gonad differentiation.

Gene 2021 May 4:145692. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Several evolutionarily conserved classes of transcriptional regulators were involved in diverse sex determination and differentiation pathways across taxa, whereas their roles in most mollusks is still limited. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a dioecious bivalve with sex reversal, could be an ideal model for this issue because of its complex sexuality and potential disruption of sex differentiation in triploid individuals. Here, two mRNA splicing isoforms of a DM domain gene CgDsx and two isoforms of a novel sex-related CgBHMG1 (ortholog of BHMG1 in mammals) were identified in C. Read More

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Effects of CXCL12 isoforms in a pancreatic pre-tumour cellular model: Microarray analysis.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(15):1616-1629

Department of Specialistic Clinical and Odontostomatological Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona 60126, Italy.

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of death among cancers, it is characterized by poor prognosis and strong chemoresistance. In the PDAC microenvironment, stromal cells release different extracellular components, including CXCL12. The CXCL12 is a chemokine promoting the communication between tumour and stromal cells. Read More

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Immunolocalization of Fertilin β, IZUMO1, and P34H in Ram Spermatozoa.

Biopreserv Biobank 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

According to various reports, current methods of sperm freezing destroy the integrity of the sperm plasma membrane and acrosome. This study aimed to determine the changes in the existence and location of three proteins, namely fertilin β, IZUMO1, and P34H, in ram spermatozoa. By using frozen-thawed spermatozoa, ejaculated fresh spermatozoa, and testicular and epididymal spermatozoa (obtained from caput, corpus, and caudal regions), the localizations of the mentioned proteins were performed using signal labeling with indirect immunofluorescence, and the quantification of these proteins was compared using Western blot analyses. Read More

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Elucidating the Regulatory Elements for Transcription Termination and Posttranscriptional Processing in the Streptomyces clavuligerus Genome.

mSystems 2021 May 4;6(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea

Identification of transcriptional regulatory elements in the GC-rich genome is essential for the production of novel biochemicals from secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs). Despite many efforts to understand the regulation of transcription initiation in smBGCs, information on the regulation of transcription termination and posttranscriptional processing remains scarce. In this study, we identified the transcriptional regulatory elements in β-lactam antibiotic-producing ATCC 27064 by determining a total of 1,427 transcript 3'-end positions (TEPs) using the term-seq method. Read More

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Structure and Expression Analysis of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Invertase Gene Families in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Vegetables/College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SUS) and invertase (INV) are all encoded by multigene families. In tomato (), a comprehensive analysis of structure characteristics of these family genes is still lacking, and the functions of individual isoforms of these families are mostly unclear under stress. Here, the structure characteristics of the three families in tomato were analyzed; moreover, as a first step toward understanding the functions of isoforms of these proteins under stress, the tissue expression pattern and stress response of these genes were also investigated. Read More

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Bi-allelic KARS1 pathogenic variants affecting functions of cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms are associated with a progressive and multi-system disease.

Hum Mutat 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Translational Medicine, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.

KARS1 encodes a lysyl-transfer RNA synthetase (LysRS) that links lysine to its cognate tRNA. Two different KARS1 isoforms exert functional effects in cytosol and mitochondria. Bi-allelic pathogenic variants in KARS1 have been associated to sensorineural hearing and visual loss, neuropathy, seizures, and leukodystrophy. Read More

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Structural basis for positive allosteric modulation of AMPA and kainate receptors.

J Physiol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK- 2100, Denmark.

Key Points: AMPA and kainate receptors belong to the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that are responsible for mediating the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission. These receptors have been related to brain diseases, e.g. Read More

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The Role of PDE8 in T Cell Recruitment and Function in Inflammation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:636778. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Immunology, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, United States.

Inhibitors targeting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) expressed in leukocytes have entered clinical practice to treat inflammatory disorders, with three PDE4 inhibitors currently in clinical use as therapeutics for psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, atopic dermatitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In contrast, the PDE8 family that is upregulated in pro-inflammatory T cells is a largely unexplored therapeutic target. It was shown that PDE8A plays a major role in controlling T cell and breast cancer cell motility, including adhesion to endothelial cells under physiological shear stress and chemotaxis. Read More

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Aurora kinase inhibitors in cancer.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Quality Assurance, Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, SVKM's Dr, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Aurora kinases (AURKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that play a critical role during cell proliferation. Three isoforms of AURKs reported in mammals include AURKA, AURKB, AURKC, and all share a similar C-terminal catalytic domain with differences in their sub-cellular location, substrate specificity, and function. Recent research reports indicate an elevated expression of these kinases in several cancer types highlighting their role as oncogenes in tumorigenesis. Read More

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AKT ISOFORMS-AS160-GLUT4: The defining axis of insulin resistance.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110016, India.

The Akt isoforms-AS160-GLUT4 axis is the primary axis that governs glucose homeostasis in the body. The first step on the path to insulin resistance is deregulated Akt isoforms. This could be Akt isoform expression, its phosphorylation, or improper isoform-specific redistribution to the plasma membrane in a specific tissue system. Read More

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A Proteomic Study for the Discovery of Beef Tenderness Biomarkers and Prediction of Warner-Bratzler Shear Force Measured on Muscles of Young Limousin-Sired Bulls.

Foods 2021 Apr 27;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Food Quality and Sensory Science Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, D15 KN3K Dublin 15, Ireland.

Beef tenderness is of central importance in determining consumers' overall liking. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of tenderness and be able to predict it, this study aimed to apply a proteomics approach on the (LT) muscle of young Limousin-sired bulls to identify candidate protein biomarkers. A total of 34 proteins showed differential abundance between the tender and tough groups. Read More

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LeishIF4E-5 Is a Promastigote-Specific Cap-Binding Protein in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 12;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel.

parasites cycle between sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, transforming from extracellular promastigotes that reside in the vectors' alimentary canal to obligatory intracellular non-motile amastigotes that are harbored by macrophages of the mammalian hosts. The transition between vector and host exposes them to a broad range of environmental conditions that induces a developmental program of gene expression, with translation regulation playing a key role. The genome encodes six paralogs of the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Read More

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AKT Inhibitors: The Road Ahead to Computational Modeling-Guided Discovery.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 11;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

LAQV@REQUIMTE/Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

AKT, is a serine/threonine protein kinase comprising three isoforms-namely: AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3, whose inhibitors have been recognized as promising therapeutic targets for various human disorders, especially cancer. In this work, we report a systematic evaluation of multi-target Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (mt-QSAR) models to probe AKT' inhibitory activity, based on different feature selection algorithms and machine learning tools. The best predictive linear and non-linear mt-QSAR models were found by the genetic algorithm-based linear discriminant analysis (GA-LDA) and gradient boosting (Xgboost) techniques, respectively, using a dataset containing 5523 inhibitors of the AKT isoforms assayed under various experimental conditions. Read More

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An Increase in the Levels of Middle Surface Antigen Characterizes Patients Developing HBV-Driven Liver Cancer Despite Prolonged Virological Suppression.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Tor Vergata University, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) contains three surface glycoproteins-Large-HBs (L-HBs), Middle-HBs (M-HBs), and Small-HBs (S-HBs), known to contribute to HBV-driven pro-oncogenic properties. Here, we examined the kinetics of HBs-isoforms in virologically-suppressed patients who developed or did not develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study enrolled 30 chronically HBV-infected cirrhotic patients under fully-suppressive anti-HBV treatment. Read More

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Endogenous Opioid Peptides and Alternatively Spliced Mu Opioid Receptor Seven Transmembrane Carboxyl-Terminal Variants.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

There exist three main types of endogenous opioid peptides, enkephalins, dynorphins and β-endorphin, all of which are derived from their precursors. These endogenous opioid peptides act through opioid receptors, including mu opioid receptor (MOR), delta opioid receptor (DOR) and kappa opioid receptor (KOR), and play important roles not only in analgesia, but also many other biological processes such as reward, stress response, feeding and emotion. The MOR gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing, generating multiple splice variants or isoforms. Read More

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Protease Inhibitors Purified from the Canola Meal Extracts of Two Genetically Diverse Genotypes Exhibit Antidiabetic and Antihypertension Properties.

Molecules 2021 Apr 4;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Graham Centre (an Alliance between Charles Sturt University and the NSW Department of Primary Industries), Boorooma Street, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

Valorization of vegetable oil waste residues is gaining importance due to their high protein and polyphenol contents. Protease inhibitors (PIs), proteins from these abundantly available waste residues, have recently gained importance in treating chronic diseases. This research aimed to use canola meal of genetically diverse genotypes, BLN-3347 and Rivette, to identify PIs with diverse functionalities in therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Read More

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Modulation of Renal Function in a Metabolic Syndrome Rat Model by Antioxidants in L.

Molecules 2021 Apr 4;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Biomedicine, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología "Ignacio Chávez", Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico.

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is the association of three or more pathologies among which obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are included. It causes oxidative stress (OS) and renal dysfunction. L. Read More

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Chemical and Bioactive Features of L. Flowers and Optimized Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Betalains.

Foods 2021 Apr 5;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

The vibrant colours of many plants are due to secondary metabolites, such as nitrogen-containing compounds, where betacyanins are included. These compounds can be found in plants such as L. that, due to their high nutritional benefits, have been overproduced, which leads to the accumulation of large amounts of bio-residues. Read More

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Meat quality, post-mortem proteolytic enzymes, and myosin heavy chain isoforms of different Thai native cattle muscles.

Anim Biosci 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Objective: This study investigated the meat quality characteristics, endogenous proteolytic enzymes, collagen content, and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms of different muscles of Thai native cattle.

Methods: Infraspinatus (IF), Longissimus thoracis (LT), and Supraspinatus (SS) muscles were obtained from two Thai native cattle (TNC) breeds, Kho-Lan (KL, n = 7) and Kho-Isaan (KI, n = 7). The muscle and meat characteristics of TNC breeds and their relationship with myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression were examined. Read More

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Conserved allosteric ensembles in a disordered protein using TROSY/Anti-TROSY R-filtered spectroscopy.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biology; T.C. Jenkins Department of Biophysics. Electronic address:

Defining the role of intrinsic disorder in proteins in the myriad of biological processes with which it is involved represents a significant goal in modern biophysics. Toward this end, nuclear magnetic resonance is uniquely suited for molecular studies of dynamic and disordered regions, but studying these regions in concert with their more structured domains and binding partners presents spectroscopic challenges. Here we investigate the interactions between the structured and disordered regions of the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Read More

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A high-throughput cell-based gaussia luciferase reporter assay for measurement of CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 induction.

Xenobiotica 2021 May 3:1-12. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Radiation Medicine Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

The induction of cytochrome P450s can result in reduced drug efficacy and lead to potential drug-drug interactions. The xenoreceptors-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-play key roles in CYP induction by xenobiotics. In order to be able to rapidly screen for the induction of three enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4), we generated a stable AhR-responsive HepG2 cell line, a stable CAR-responsive HepG2 cell line, and a stable PXR-responsive HepG2 cell line. Read More

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Role of phosphodiesterase 1 in the pathophysiology of diseases and potential therapeutic opportunities.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 22;226:107858. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Cardiology, Pauley Heart Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0204, USA. Electronic address:

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are superfamily of enzymes that regulate the spatial and temporal relationship of second messenger signaling in the cellular system. Among the 11 different families of PDEs, phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) sub-family of enzymes hydrolyze both 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in a mutually competitive manner. The catalytic activity of PDE1 is stimulated by their binding to Ca/calmodulin (CaM), resulting in the integration of Ca and cyclic nucleotide-mediated signaling in various diseases. Read More

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Cellular FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via suppressing apoptosis and autophagy simultaneously.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, 443003, China.

Background And Aims: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI) is a result of coronary revascularization, and often increases cell apoptosis and autophagy. Downregulated cellular FADD-like-IL-1β-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) was associated with development of several myocardial diseases, whether overexpression of cFLIP can attenuate MI/RI remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effects of cFLIP on apoptosis and autophagy in MI/RI. Read More

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TGF beta -1, -2 and -3 in the modulation of fibrosis in the cornea and other organs.

Authors:
Steven E Wilson

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 22;207:108594. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

The Cole Eye Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

The TGF beta-1, -2 and -3 isoforms are transcribed from different genes but bind to the same receptors and signal through the same canonical and non-canonical signal transduction pathways. There are numerous regulatory mechanisms controlling the action of each isoform that include the organ-specific cells producing latent TGF beta growth factors, multiple effectors that activate the isoforms, ECM-associated SLRPs and basement membrane components that modulate the activity and localization of the isoforms, other interactive cytokine-growth factor receptor systems, such as PDGF and CTGF, TGF beta receptor expression on target cells, including myofibroblast precursors, receptor binding competition, positive and negative signal transduction effectors, and transcription and translational regulatory mechanisms. While there has long been the view that TGF beta-1and TGF beta-2 are pro-fibrotic, while TGF beta-3 is anti-fibrotic, this review suggests that view is too simplistic, at least in adult tissues, since TGF beta-3 shares far more similarities in its modulation of fibrotic gene expression with TGF beta-1 and TGF beta-2, than it does differences, and often the differences are subtle. Read More

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New monoclonal antibodies that recognize an unglycosylated, conserved, extracellular region of CD44 in vitro and in vivo, and can block tumorigenesis.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(4):e0250175. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.

CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that binds to hyaluronic acid, plays roles in a number of cellular processes and is expressed in a variety of cell types. It is up-regulated in stem cells and cancer. Anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies affect cell motility and aggregation, and repress tumorigenesis and metastasis. Read More

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CRLF2 and IKZF1 abnormalities in Mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and recurrent gene fusions: exploring surrogate markers of signaling pathways.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Laboratorio de Genética y Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Mexico City, Mexico.

The gene fusions BCR-ABL1, TCF3-PBX1, and ETV6-RUNX1 are recurrent in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and are found with low frequency in coexistence with CRLF2 (cytokine receptor-like factor 2) rearrangements and overexpression. There is limited information regarding the CRLF2 abnormalities and dominant-negative IKZF1 isoforms associated with surrogate markers of Jak2, ABL, and Ras signaling pathways. To assess this, we evaluated 24 Mexican children with B-ALL positive for recurrent gene fusions at diagnosis. Read More

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Identification, localization and expression of NHE isoforms in the alveolar epithelial cells.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0239240. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Ruth & Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs), encoded by Solute Carrier 9A (SLC9A) genes in human, are ubiquitous integral membrane ion transporters that mediate the electroneutral exchange of H+ with Na+ or K+. NHEs, found in the kidney and intestine, play a major role in the process of fluid reabsorption together via Na+,K+-ATPase pump and Na+ channels. Nevertheless, the expression pattern of NHE in the lung and its role in alveolar fluid homeostasis has not been addressed. Read More

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Genome-wide transcriptional analysis unveils the molecular basis of organ-specific expression of isosteroidal alkaloids biosynthesis in critically endangered Fritillaria roylei Hook.

Phytochemistry 2021 Apr 16;187:112772. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, 176061, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-HRDC Campus, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201 002, India. Electronic address:

Fritillaria roylei Hook. is a critically endangered high altitude Himalayan medicinal plant species with rich source of pharmaceutically active structurally diverse steroidal alkaloids. Nevertheless, except few marker compounds, the chemistry of the plant remains unexplored. Read More

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