108,354 results match your criteria three distinct


Active, continual fine tuning of convolutional neural networks for reducing annotation efforts.

Med Image Anal 2021 Mar 24;71:101997. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of medical Informatics, Arizona State University, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA. Electronic address:

The splendid success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in computer vision is largely attributable to the availability of massive annotated datasets, such as ImageNet and Places. However, in medical imaging, it is challenging to create such large annotated datasets, as annotating medical images is not only tedious, laborious, and time consuming, but it also demands costly, specialty-oriented skills, which are not easily accessible. To dramatically reduce annotation cost, this paper presents a novel method to naturally integrate active learning and transfer learning (fine-tuning) into a single framework, which starts directly with a pre-trained CNN to seek "worthy" samples for annotation and gradually enhances the (fine-tuned) CNN via continual fine-tuning. Read More

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Picophytoplankton identification by flow cytometry and high-throughput sequencing in a clean reservoir.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 11;216:112216. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

China-UK Low Carbon College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3 Yinlian Road, Shanghai 201306, China; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Understanding picophytoplankton variations that play important roles in the material circulation and energy flow are critical to assessing overall status of waterbody, especially for clean reservoirs which remain a relatively stable community structure and high species diversity due to lower nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. However, their response to key environmental factors and tightly acting microbial remains poorly understood. Traditional quantification methods are limited, such as chlorophyll-a, turbidity and microscope. Read More

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Age dependency and lateralization in the three branches of the human superior longitudinal fasciculus.

Cortex 2021 Mar 15;139:116-133. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Center for Information and Neural Networks (CiNet), National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Osaka University, Suita, Japan; Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Japan. Electronic address:

The superior longitudinal fascicle/fasciculus (SLF) is a major white matter tract connecting the frontal and parietal cortices in humans. Although the SLF has often been analyzed as a single entity, several studies have reported that the SLF is segregated into three distinct branches (SLF I, II, and III). They have also reported the right lateralization of the SLF III volume and discussed its relationship with lateralized cortical functions in the fronto-parietal network. Read More

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Functional analyses of human LUC7-like proteins involved in splicing regulation and myeloid neoplasms.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(2):108989

Department of Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Vertebrates have evolved three paralogs, termed LUC7L, LUC7L2, and LUC7L3, of the essential yeast U1 small nuclear RNA (snRNA)-associated splicing factor Luc7p. We investigated the mechanistic and regulatory functions of these putative splicing factors, of which one (LUC7L2) is mutated or deleted in myeloid neoplasms. Protein interaction data show that all three proteins bind similar core but distinct regulatory splicing factors, probably mediated through their divergent arginine-serine-rich domains, which are not present in Luc7p. Read More

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Evidence for a visual bias when recalling complex narratives.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(4):e0249950. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Although it is understood that episodic memories of everyday events involve encoding a wide array of perceptual and non-perceptual information, it is unclear how these distinct types of information are recalled. To address this knowledge gap, we examine how perceptual (visual versus auditory) and non-perceptual details described within a narrative, a proxy for everyday event memories, were retrieved. Based on previous work indicating a bias for visual content, we hypothesized that participants would be most accurate at recalling visually described details and would tend to falsely recall non-visual details with visual descriptors. Read More

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Mechanism of Mechanical Training-Induced Self-Reinforced Viscoelastic Behavior of Highly Hydrated Silk Materials.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 393 Middle Huaxia Road, Shanghai 201210, China.

Mechanical training is an operation where a sample is cyclically stretched in a solvent. It is accepted as an effective strategy to strengthen and stiffen the highly hydrated silk materials (HHSMs). However, the detailed reinforcement mechanism of the process still remains to be understood. Read More

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The cone method: Inferring decision times from single-trial 3D movement trajectories in choice behavior.

Behav Res Methods 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Göttingen, Germany.

Ongoing goal-directed movements can be rapidly adjusted following new environmental information, e.g., when chasing pray or foraging. Read More

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Measuring and Quantifying Collateral Information in Psychiatry: Development and Preliminary Validation of the McLean Collateral Information and Clinical Actionability Scale.

JMIR Ment Health 2021 Apr 14;8(4):e25050. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, United States.

Background: The review of collateral information is an essential component of patient care. Although this is standard practice, minimal research has been done to quantify collateral information collection and to understand how collateral information translates to clinical decision making. To address this, we developed and piloted a novel measure (the McLean Collateral Information and Clinical Actionability Scale [M-CICAS]) to evaluate the types and number of collateral sources viewed and the resulting actions made in a psychiatric setting. Read More

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Complexity of species causing take-all root rot of St. Augustinegrass in Texas.

Mycologia 2021 Apr 14:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.

var. () has been the etiological agent of take-all root rot (TARR) in St. Augustinegrass () and root decline of the other warm-season turfgrasses. Read More

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Hemostatic rebalance in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis with citrin deficiency.

Pediatr Int 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, 634-8522, Japan.

Background: Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis with citrin deficiency (NICCD) results in coagulopathy due to decreased levels of vitamin (V)K-dependent clotting factors, similar to biliary atresia (BA). However, the involvement of VK-independent coagulant and anticoagulant factor(s) remains unknown.

Aims: To examine relationships between coagulant and anticoagulant potential, with addition to the influence of nutritional treatment, in NICCD. Read More

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Frontotemporal dementia subtypes based on behavioral inhibition deficits.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 6;13(1):e12178. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Paris Brain Institute Sorbonne Universités Paris France.

Introduction: We aimed to investigate phenotypic heterogeneity in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) through assessment of inhibition deficits.

Methods: We assessed occurrences of 16 behavioral inhibition deficits from video recordings of 15 bvFTD patients (early stage) and 15 healthy controls (HC) in an ecological setting. We extracted dimensions of inhibition deficit and analyzed their correlations with cognitive and clinical measures. Read More

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Data of common and species-specific transcriptional host responses to pathogenic fungi.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 4;35:106928. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboudumc Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Using a comparative RNA-Sequencing based transcriptional profiling approach, responses of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to common human pathogenic fungi have been characterized (Bruno et al. Computational and Structural Biology Journal). Primary human PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with the fungi , and after which RNA was isolated and sequenced. Read More

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Characterization of extracellular vesicles and synthetic nanoparticles with four orthogonal single-particle analysis platforms.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 Apr 6;10(6):e12079. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore Maryland USA.

We compared four orthogonal technologies for sizing, counting, and phenotyping of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and synthetic particles. The platforms were: single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensing (SP-IRIS) with fluorescence, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) with fluorescence, microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS), and nanoflow cytometry measurement (NFCM). EVs from the human T lymphocyte line H9 (high CD81, low CD63) and the promonocytic line U937 (low CD81, high CD63) were separated from culture conditioned medium (CCM) by differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) or a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot (WB). Read More

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Visualization of Toyoura sand-grown plant roots by X-ray computer tomography.

Plant Biotechnol (Tokyo) 2020 Dec;37(4):481-484

Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan.

Plants establish their root system as a three-dimensional structure, which is then used to explore the soil to absorb resources and provide mechanical anchorage. Simplified two-dimensional growth systems, such as agar plates, have been used to study various aspects of plant root biology. However, it remains challenging to study the more realistic three-dimensional structure and function of roots hidden in opaque soil. Read More

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December 2020

Pattern of inflammatory immune response determines the clinical course and outcome of COVID-19: unbiased clustering analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 13;11(1):8080. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, South Korea.

The objective of the study was to identify distinct patterns in inflammatory immune responses of COVID-19 patients and to investigate their association with clinical course and outcome. Data from hospitalized COVID-19 patients were retrieved from electronic medical record. Supervised k-means clustering of serial C-reactive protein levels (CRP), absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) was used to assign immune responses to one of three groups. Read More

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Cell-type-specific profiling of loaded miRNAs from Caenorhabditis elegans reveals spatial and temporal flexibility in Argonaute loading.

Nat Commun 2021 04 13;12(1):2194. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Multicellularity has coincided with the evolution of microRNAs (miRNAs), small regulatory RNAs that are integrated into cellular differentiation and homeostatic gene-regulatory networks. However, the regulatory mechanisms underpinning miRNA activity have remained largely obscured because of the precise, and thus difficult to access, cellular contexts under which they operate. To resolve these, we have generated a genome-wide map of active miRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans by revealing cell-type-specific patterns of miRNAs loaded into Argonaute (AGO) silencing complexes. Read More

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Pseudomonas syringae pv. Uses Distinct Modes of Stationary-Phase Persistence To Survive Bacteriocin and Streptomycin Treatments.

mBio 2021 Apr 13;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Plant Pathology and Ecology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Antimicrobial treatment of bacteria often results in a small population of surviving tolerant cells, or persisters, that may contribute to recurrent infection. Antibiotic persisters are metabolically dormant, but the basis of their persistence in the presence of membrane-disrupting biological compounds is less well understood. We previously found that the model plant pathogen pv. Read More

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Complete genome sequence of a novel nege-like virus in aphids (genus Indomegoura).

Virol J 2021 Apr 13;18(1):76. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Background: Aphids are important vectors of numerous plant viruses. Besides plant viruses, a number of insect specific viruses (ISVs), such as nege/nege-like viruses, have been recently discovered in aphids of the genera Aphis, Rhopalosiphum, and Sitobion.

Findings: In this study, the complete genome sequence of a novel nege-like virus, tentatively named "Indomegoura nege-like virus 1" (INLV1), was identified in aphids of the genus Indomegoura. Read More

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Comprehensive analyses of m6A regulators and interactive coding and non-coding RNAs across 32 cancer types.

Mol Cancer 2021 Apr 13;20(1):67. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China.

N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is an RNA modification that interacts with numerous coding and non-coding RNAs and plays important roles in the development of cancers. Nonetheless, the clinical impacts of m6A interactive genes on these cancers largely remain unclear since most studies focus only on a single cancer type. We comprehensively evaluated m6A modification patterns, including 23 m6A regulators and 83 interactive coding and non-coding RNAs among 9,804 pan-cancer samples. Read More

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Analysis of whole-genome re-sequencing data of ducks reveals a diverse demographic history and extensive gene flow between Southeast/South Asian and Chinese populations.

Genet Sel Evol 2021 Apr 13;53(1):35. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Background: The most prolific duck genetic resource in the world is located in Southeast/South Asia but little is known about the domestication and complex histories of these duck populations.

Results: Based on whole-genome resequencing data of 78 ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and 31 published whole-genome duck sequences, we detected three geographic distinct genetic groups, including local Chinese, wild, and local Southeast/South Asian populations. We inferred the demographic history of these duck populations with different geographical distributions and found that the Chinese and Southeast/South Asian ducks shared similar demographic features. Read More

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Effects of taxol on neuronal differentiation of postnatal neural stem cells cultured from mouse subventricular zone.

Differentiation 2021 Apr 8;119:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Pharmacy, Inje University, Gimhae, 50834, South Korea.

Taxol (paclitaxel), a chemotherapeutic agent for several cancers, can adversely affect the peripheral nervous system. Recently, its negative impact on cognitive function in cancer patients has become evident. In rodents, taxol impaired learning and memory, with other possible negative effects on the brain. Read More

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Steps and Challenges in Creating and Managing Quarantine Capacity During a Global Emergency - Qatar's Experience.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Feb 9;14(5):598-600. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar and New York, NY, USA.

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the lack of adequate and appropriate quarantine capacity globally. Most countries lack the knowledge and/or capacity to set up and manage quarantine facilities at a national scale.

Methods: The State of Qatar developed a systematic plan to create and manage quarantine facilities for persons with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection or returning travelers and residents. Read More

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February 2021

A Novel Color-Coded Liver Metastasis Mouse Model to Distinguish Tumor and Adjacent Liver Segment.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 10;264:327-333. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California; Department of Surgery, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California. Electronic address:

Background: It is difficult to distinguish between a tumor and its liver segment with traditional use of indocyanine green (ICG) alone. In the present study, a method was used to limit ICG to the liver segment adjacent to a tumor. A spectrally-distinct fluorescently-labeled tumor-specific antibody against human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell-adhesion molecules was used to label the metastatic tumor in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft mouse model to enable color-coded visualization and distinction of a colon-cancer liver metastases and its adjacent liver segment. Read More

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Depression mediates the relationship between smoking and pain: Evidence from a nationally representative study in a low- and middle-income country.

Addict Behav 2021 Mar 30;119:106937. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, China. Electronic address:

Evidence from high-income countries suggests that depressive symptoms may mediate the relationship between smoking and pain. However, the relationship remains poorly understood for the population in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), who account for 80% of the current tobacco consumers. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative longitudinal survey in China, this study conducted the mediation analysis within the structural equation model (SEM) framework. Read More

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Highly divergent neuropeptide - non-coding RNA regulatory networks underpin variant host-finding behaviours in Steinernema species infective juveniles.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK; Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Belfast, UK.

We conducted a transcriptomic and small RNA analysis of infective juveniles (IJs) from three behaviourally distinct Steinernema species. Substantial variation was found in the expression of shared gene orthologues, revealing gene expression signatures that correlate with behavioural states. Ninety-seven percent of predicted microRNAs are novel to each species. Read More

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Successful implementation of managed alcohol programs in the San Francisco Bay Area during the COVID-19 crisis.

Subst Abus 2021 Apr 13:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Nursing-Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

The COVID-19 crisis presents new challenges and opportunities in managing alcohol use disorders, particularly for people unable to shelter in place due to homelessness or other reasons. Requiring abstinence for shelter engagement is impractical for many with severe alcohol use disorders and poses a modifiable barrier to self-isolation orders. Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) have successfully increased housing adherence for those with physical alcohol dependence in Canada, but to our knowledge, they have not been implemented in the United States. Read More

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Changes in nutrient balance, methane emissions, physiologic biomarkers and production performance in goats fed different forage-to-concentrate ratios during lactation.

J Anim Sci 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Animal Sciences, Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.

The objective was to determine the effect forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and stage of lactation on methane emissions, digestibility, nutrient balance, lactation performance, and metabolic responses in lactating goats. Twenty Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used in an experiment divided into three periods: early (30 d), mid (100 d) and late (170 d) lactation. All goats were fed a diet with 35:65 F:C (FCL) during early-lactation. Read More

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Grassland fairy rings of Leucocalocybe mongolica represent the center of a rich soil microbial community.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Plant Protection, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, 130118, Jilin, China.

Background: The ecological phenomenon of fungal fairy rings is usually found in grasslands and caused by the growth of specific fairy ring fungi in soil. The fairy rings are classified into three zones (DARK, DEAD, and OUT), and they have the potential to increase crop yield. Among these fairy rings, distinct characteristics of type I fairy rings can be seen in the rings formed by Leucocalocybe mongolica (LM). Read More

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Profiles of Ethnic-Racial Identity, Socialization, and Model Minority Experiences: Associations with Well-Being Among Asian American Adolescents.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.

Ethnic-racial identity, ethnic-racial socialization, and racialized experiences are fundamental to the development of youth of color. However, most prior studies have examined their developmental impact in isolation. The present study fills this gap using a person-centered approach to elucidate patterns of ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and model minority experiences among 145 Asian American adolescents (M = 14. Read More

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Identifying classes of the pain, fatigue, and depression symptom cluster in long-term prostate cancer survivors-results from the multi-regional Prostate Cancer Survivorship Study in Switzerland (PROCAS).

Support Care Cancer 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and Registration (NICER), c/o University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: Aside from urological and sexual problems, long-term (≥5 years after initial diagnosis) prostate cancer (PC) survivors might suffer from pain, fatigue, and depression. These concurrent symptoms can form a cluster. In this study, we aimed to investigate classes of this symptom cluster in long-term PC survivors, to classify PC survivors accordingly, and to explore associations between classes of this cluster and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Read More

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