294,378 results match your criteria three children

Convolutional neural networks to identify malformations of cortical development: A feasibility study.

Seizure 2021 May 31;91:81-90. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.

Objective: To develop and test a deep learning model to automatically detect malformations of cortical development (MCD).

Methods: We trained a deep learning model to distinguish between diffuse cortical malformation (CM), periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We trained 4 different convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. Read More

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Children are safe in schools: a review of the Irish experience of reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public Health 2021 Jun 12;195:158-160. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Office of the Clinical Director for Health Protection, HSE, Ireland; Department of Public Health, HSE Midlands, Tullamore, Ireland.

Objectives: Schools in the Republic of Ireland reopened to students and staff in late August 2020. We sought to determine the test positivity rate of close contacts of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in schools during the first half-term of the 2020/2021 academic year.

Methods: National-level data from the schools' testing pathway were interrogated to determine the positivity rate of close contacts of cases of COVID-19 in Irish primary, postprimary and special schools during the first half-term of 2020/2021 academic year. Read More

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Using Participatory Design Methods to Explore Changes in the Self-Efficacy of Students with Visual Impairments After Playing Exergames.

Games Health J 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Foreign Languages, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, China.

To explore changes in task/scheduling self-efficacy in children with visual impairments after playing exergames, using the participatory design (PD) method to guide students with visual impairments to engage in the design and test of exergames. A pre-/post-test was used with two experimental groups (nine high school students with visual impairments aged 18-21, nine junior high school students with visual impairments aged 14-17). Data were analyzed by an independent-/paired-sample -test to assess changes in task/scheduling self-efficacy of different groups after gameplay. Read More

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Dark side of laundry pods: Analysis of exposure to laundry detergent capsules in children.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Paediatrics and Gastroenterology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Aim: We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristic and clinical features of laundry detergent capsule (LDC) exposure in children.

Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients hospitalised due to the exposure to LDC at the Department of Paediatrics and Gastroenterology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland, from 2014 to 2019 was conducted.

Results: During the study period, 38 children including 19 (50%) boys and 19 (50%) girls were admitted to our department due to exposure to LDC. Read More

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Risk assessment of heavy metals in marine fish and seafood from Kedah and Selangor coastal regions of Malaysia: a high-risk health concern for consumers.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

The heavy metals namely Fe, As, Cu, Cd, and Pb were investigated in two marine fishes silver pomfret (Pampus argentus) and torpedo scad (Megalaspis cordyla), and three seafoods sibogae squid (Loligo sibogae), Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus), and mud crab (Scylla serrata) by using inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) from two renowned fish harvesting coastal area of Malaysia named as Kedah and Selangor. Among the target heavy metals, highest mean concentration of As and Fe were found in Scylla serrata (72.14±7. Read More

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Assessment of the hydrochemistry, water quality, and human health risk of groundwater in the northwest of Nansi Lake Catchment, north China.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

801 Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Shandong Provincial Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Jinan, 250014, China.

In this study, the formation mechanism and water quality of groundwater in the northwest of Nansi Lake Catchment (NNLC) were analyzed through mathematical statistics, hydrochemical analysis and entropy weighted water quality index (EWQI), and the human health risk of nitrate was also evaluated. To this end, 89 wells in the NNLC were sampled, and the groundwater samples were divided into three groups (I, II, and III) according to cluster analysis results and spatial distribution. The main results are as follows: Topographically, Groups I, II, and III correspond to the alluvial plains, apron plain, and low hills and its front margin, respectively. Read More

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Hypovitaminosis D in migrant children in Switzerland: a retrospective study.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) is essentially known for its role in the phosphocalcic metabolism and its associated pathologies, such as rickets. In Switzerland, 35 to 50% of children are vitamin D deficient. Due to skin colour, poor nutrition, living conditions and cultural practices, migrant population is particularly at risk. Read More

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Na,K-ATPase α4, and Not Na,K-ATPase α1, is the Main Contributor to Sperm Motility, But its High Ouabain Binding Affinity Site is Not Required for Male Fertility in Mice.

J Membr Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas, KS, 66160, USA.

Mammalian sperm express two Na,K-ATPase (NKA) isoforms, Na,K-ATPase α4 (NKAα4) and Na,K-ATPase α1 (NKAα1). While NKAα4 is critical to sperm motility, the role of NKAα1 in sperm movement remains unknown. We determined this here using a genetic and pharmacological approach, modifying the affinity of NKAα1 and NKAα4 for the inhibitor ouabain to selectively block the function of each isoform. Read More

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Feasibility and accuracy of printed models of complex cardiac defects in small infants from cardiac computed tomography.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Pediatric and Congenital Cardiology, Children's Hospital, CHU Toulouse, 330 avenue de Grande Bretagne, TSA 70034, 31059, Toulouse Cedex 9, France.

Background: Three-dimensional (3-D) printed models are increasingly used to enhance understanding of complex anatomy in congenital heart disease.

Objective: To assess feasibility and accuracy of 3-D printed models obtained from cardiac CT scans in young children with complex congenital heart diseases.

Materials And Methods: We included children with conotruncal heart anomalies who were younger than 2 years and had a cardiac CT scan in the course of their follow-up. Read More

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Free-breathing Accelerated Cardiac MRI Using Deep Learning: Validation in Children and Young Adults.

Radiology 2021 Jun 15:202624. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

From the Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 725 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA 94305 (E.J.Z., A.K., S.S.V.); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif (C.M.S.); and Global MR Applications and Workflow, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, Calif (P.L.).

Background Obtaining ventricular volumetry and mass is key to most cardiac MRI but challenged by long multibreath-hold acquisitions. Purpose To assess the image quality and performance of a highly accelerated, free-breathing, two-dimensional cine cardiac MRI sequence incorporating deep learning (DL) reconstruction compared with reference standard balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP). Materials and Methods A DL algorithm was developed to reconstruct custom 12-fold accelerated bSSFP cardiac MRI cine images from coil sensitivity maps using 15 iterations of separable three-dimensional convolutions and data consistency steps. Read More

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Allergen extract- and component-based diagnostics in children of the ALLIANCE asthma cohort.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Pediatric Pneumology, Allergology and Neonatology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, BREATH German Center for Lung Research (DZL) ), Germany.

Background: Current in vitro allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) detection assays measure IgE against allergen extracts or molecules in a single- or multiplex approach. Direct comparisons of the performance of such assays among young children with common presentations of allergic diseases regardless of sensitization status are largely missing.

Objectives: The aim of this study was a comparison of the analytical and diagnostic performance for common clinical questions of three commonly used technologies which rely upon different laboratory methodologies among children of the All Age Asthma (ALLIANCE) cohort (clinicaltrials. Read More

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Carrageenan nasal spray may double the rate of recovery from coronavirus and influenza virus infections: Re-analysis of randomized trial data.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 08;9(4):e00810

School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

In this individual patient data meta-analysis we examined datasets of two randomized placebo-controlled trials which investigated the effect of nasal carrageenan separately on children and adults. In both trials, iota-carrageenan was administered nasally three times per day for 7 days for patients with the common cold and follow-up lasted for 21 days. We used Cox regression to estimate the effect of carrageenan on recovery rate. Read More

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Impact of the model of long-term follow-up care on adherence to guideline-recommended surveillance among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Toronto, Institute of Medical Science, Toronto, Canada.

Purpose: Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors require lifelong healthcare to address the late effects of therapy. We examined the impact of different provider models of long-term follow-up (LTFU) care on adherence to recommended surveillance.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada. Read More

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Follow-up of the Cool Little Kids translational trial into middle childhood.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Emotional Health, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Public health advocates have highlighted internalising problems as a leading cause of global burden of disease. Internalising problems (anxiety/depression) affect up to 20% of school-age children and can impact peer relations, school engagement and later employment and mortality. This translational trial aimed to determine whether a selective/indicated parenting group programme to prevent internalising distress in shy/inhibited preschool children had sustained effects in middle childhood. Read More

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The early course and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in very young children: diagnostic prevalence and predictors in hospital-attending children and a randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial of trauma-focused cognitive therapy, for 3- to 8-year-olds.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: The introduction of developmentally adapted criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has improved the identification of ≤6-year-old children with clinical needs. Across two studies, we assess predictors of the development of PTSD in young children (PTSD-YC), including the adult-led acute stress disorder (ASD) diagnosis, and provide proof of principle for cognitive-focused therapy for this age range, with the aim of increasing treatment options for children diagnosed with PTSD-YC.

Method: Study 1 (N = 105) assessed ASD and PTSD-YC diagnosis in 3- to 8-year-old children within one month and at around three months following attendance at an emergency room. Read More

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Performance-Based Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Training.

Acad Psychiatry 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the application of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to the assessment of competency among child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) residents and to analyze the feedback from the residents and the examiners.

Methods: The OSCE was administered to 53 CAP residents based on three seniority levels over a 14-year period. The results of 147 OSCEs applied to residents and the feedback received were evaluated. Read More

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Resting Heart Rate Mediates the Relationship between Parenting Style and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Chinese Children.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychology, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

Despite increasing knowledge of social and biological risk factors for callous-unemotional (CU) traits, relatively less is known about how these two sets of risk factors combine to affect these traits. The current longitudinal study investigated pathways from parenting style to CU traits via resting heart rate in a three-year project. Parents of 382 children completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire at Time 1 (children Mean age = 9. Read More

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Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: phenotypic and genotypic description of four unrelated patients and structural analysis of corresponding missense mutations.

Neurogenetics 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Rehabilitation, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is an underdiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder which is characterized by specific facial features, early-onset developmental delay, and moderate to severe intellectual disability. The genetic cause, a deficiency of the TCF4 gene, has been established; however, the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease are still unclear. Herein, we report four unrelated children with different de novo mutations (T606A, K607E, R578C, and V617I) located at highly conserved sites and with clinical phenotypes which present variable degrees of developmental delay and intellectual disability. Read More

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Evolution of surgical attitudes to paediatric thalamic tumours: the alder hey experience.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Paediatric Neurosurgery, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.

Purpose: Attitudes to surgery for paediatric thalamic tumours have evolved due to improved preoperative imaging modalities and the advent of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) as well as enhanced understanding of tumour biology. We review the developments in our local practice over the last three decades with particular attention to the impact of iMRI.

Methods: We identified all paediatric patients from a prospectively maintained neuro-oncology database who received surgery for a thalamic tumour (n = 30). Read More

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Caregiver burden in pediatric dialysis: application of the Paediatric Renal Caregiver Burden Scale.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Caring for a child with kidney failure on dialysis profoundly impacts caregivers' lives, yet the depth of this burden is not well understood. The Paediatric Renal Caregiver Burden Scale (PR-CBS) is a recently validated instrument used to measure caregiver burden in this population.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of caregiver burden for caregivers of children with kidney failure receiving dialysis at three pediatric centers. Read More

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Technical standardization of ICG near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for duplex kidney in pediatric patients.

World J Urol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Purpose: This study aimed to standardize the operative technique of indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and compare it with the standard technique.

Methods: In the last 4 years, we performed 22 LPN (14 right-sided, 8 left-sided) in children with non-functioning moiety of duplex kidney. Patients included 12 girls and 10 boys with a median age of 3. Read More

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Social dialogue triggers biobehavioral synchrony of partners' endocrine response via sex-specific, hormone-specific, attachment-specific mechanisms.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12421. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Developmental Social Neuroscience, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Herzliya, Israel.

Social contact is known to impact the partners' physiology and behavior but the mechanisms underpinning such inter-partner influences are far from clear. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we examined how social dialogue shapes the partners' multi-system endocrine response as mediated by behavioral synchrony. To address sex-specific, hormone-specific, attachment-specific mechanisms, we recruited 82 man-woman pairs (N = 164 participants) in three attachment groups; long-term couples (n = 29), best friends (n = 26), and ingroup strangers (n = 27). Read More

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Systematic analysis of safety profile for darunavir and its boosted agents using data mining in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System database.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12438. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pharmacy, Chongqing Health Center for Women and Children, Chongqing, 400021, China.

This current investigation was aimed to generate signals for adverse events (AEs) of darunavir-containing agents by data mining using the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). All AE reports for darunavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or darunavir/cobicistat between July 2006 and December 2019 were identified. The reporting Odds Ratio (ROR), proportional reporting ratio (PRR), and Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN) were used to detect the risk signals. Read More

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Improving Executive Function of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Cycling Skill Acquisition.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1417-1424

Department of Health and Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Ting Kok, HONG KONG.

Purpose: Executive dysfunction has been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although studies have clearly documented the cognitive benefits of physical exercise on cognition in children, similar studies in children with ASD are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cognitively engaging exercise and noncognitively engaging exercise on executive function in children with ASD. Read More

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Risk factors for antibody formation in children with hemophilia: methodological aspects and clinical characteristics of the HEMFIL cohort study.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands Hemocentro de Belo Horizonte, Fundação HEMOMINAS, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Up to 35% of patients with hemophilia A and 5% with hemophilia B develop neutralizing antibodies which can inhibit the therapeutic activity of factor replacement (inhibitors). Despite the clinical relevance of antifactor VIII and IX neutralizing antibodies, there is still a major gap on the knowledge of risk factors for their development. Furthermore, most of the studies on risk factors for inhibitor development come from Caucasian and Afro-American populations. Read More

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Variation in definitions of burn wound infection limits the validity of systematic review findings in burn care: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

Burns 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Centre for Academic Child Health, University of Bristol, 1-5 Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 1NU, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Systematic reviews (SR) of high-quality randomised controlled trials can identify effective treatments for burn wound infections (BWIs). Clinical heterogeneity in outcome definitions can prevent valid evidence synthesis, which may limit the reliability of the findings of SRs affected by this heterogeneity. This SR aimed to investigate whether there is variation BWI definitions across studies in SRs of burn care interventions and its impact on identification of effective treatments for patients with burn injuries. Read More

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Classification and treatment strategies for condylar fractures in children.

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Sep 12. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and the Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan, China; The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

In this study, we aimed to describe a classification method (position and displacement (PD) classification) and the corresponding treatment strategies for condylar fractures in children, based on the anatomical position and displacement of the fractures. Moreover, we aimed to explore the effect of the treatment strategies for condylar fractures in children. Such fractures were classified into the following three types by PD classification: condylar head fracture (type A), mildly displaced condylar neck and base fracture (type B), and severely displaced condylar neck and base fracture (type C). Read More

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September 2020

Treating Comorbid Childhood Bipolar Disorder and ADHD.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):172

Neuropsychology Center of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Objectives: Pediatric mania is difficult to distinguish from childhood hyperactivity. Both share 3 common symptoms: distractibility, motoric hyperactivity, and talkativeness. Oftentimes, children are referred from their pediatrician due to a lack of appropriate response to stimulant medication. Read More

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Performance of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for identifying cardiometabolic risk in children: a meta-analysis.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2021 Jun 14;13(1):66. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Clinical Trial Unit, National Children's Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 201102, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To provide the latest evidence of performance and robustness of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in discriminating clusters of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRs) and promote WHtR in routine primary health care practice in children, a meta-analysis was used.

Methods: Searches was performed in eight databases from inception to July 03, 2020. Inclusion criteria were: (1) observational study, (2) children and adolescents, (3) provided WHtR measurements, (4) had CMRs as outcomes, and (5) diagnostic studies. Read More

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Evaluating the clinical utility of early exome sequencing in diverse pediatric outpatient populations in the North Carolina Clinical Genomic Evaluation of Next-generation Exome Sequencing (NCGENES) 2 study: a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jun 14;22(1):395. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box #7295, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7295, USA.

Background: Exome sequencing (ES) has probable utility for shortening the diagnostic odyssey of children with suspected genetic disorders. This report describes the design and methods of a study evaluating the potential of ES as a routine clinical tool for pediatric patients who have suspected genetic conditions and who are in the early stages of the diagnostic odyssey.

Methods: The North Carolina Clinical Genomic Evaluation by Next-generation Exome Sequencing (NCGENES) 2 study is an interdisciplinary, multi-site Phase III randomized controlled trial of two interventions: educational pre-visit preparation (PVP) and offer of first-line ES. Read More

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