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Caregiver Burden, Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict, and Mental Health of Caregivers: A Mediational Longitudinal Study.

Work Stress 2021 14;35(3):217-240. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612.

Caregivers are responsible for the care of another, such as a young adult, disabled child, elderly parent, or sick spouse. Individuals who have caregiving responsibilities must blend the often-contradictory behavioral expectations from the different roles in which they reside. Building on the theoretical foundations of Conservation of Resources theory, this study tests a mediational model explicating the process through which caregiver burden impacts mental health through work-family conflict among a community sample of 1,007 unpaid caregivers in the greater Chicago area who responded to a mail survey at three time points. Read More

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October 2020

Fixed-dose combination therapies with and without aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: an individual participant data meta-analysis.

Lancet 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: In randomised controlled trials, fixed-dose combination treatments (or polypills) have been shown to reduce a composite of cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary prevention. However, whether or not aspirin should be included, effects on specific outcomes, and effects in key subgroups are unknown.

Methods: We did an individual participant data meta-analysis of large randomised controlled trials (each with ≥1000 participants and ≥2 years of follow-up) of a fixed-dose combination treatment strategy versus control in a primary cardiovascular disease prevention population. Read More

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Combined smoking and alcohol cues: Effects on craving, drug-seeking, and consumption.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Background: Alcohol and cigarettes are commonly used together, but little is known about their joint motivational impact. Cue reactivity studies have customarily examined alcohol and smoking cues in isolation, despite the potential for cues to elicit stronger motivational responses when combined. This study used a validated cue reactivity procedure (Choice Behavior Under Cued Conditions) systematically to disentangle the separate and joint effects of alcohol and cigarette cues on substance use motivation. Read More

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September 2021

Social skills moderate the time-varying association between aggression and peer rejection among children with and without ADHD.

Aggress Behav 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Although childhood aggression is typically associated with peer rejection, some children concurrently employ coercive and socially skilled behavior and successfully avoid negative peer outcomes. However, research on children's dual use of coercive and social behavior has largely employed cross-sectional designs with nonclinical populations and, as a result, little is known about the covariation of aggression with social skills, particularly among high-risk samples. We directly addressed this limitation by testing childhood aggression and social skills as separate time-varying predictors of prospective change in peer rejection in a sample of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Read More

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Effects of fatty acid salts on fermentation characteristics, bacterial diversity and aerobic stability of mixed silage prepared with alfalfa, rice straw and wheat bran.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Agronomy, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China.

Background: The objective was to determine effects of potassium diformate (PD), sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) on dynamics of microbial community, fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of silage comprised of a mixture of alfalfa (AF), rice straw (RS) and wheat bran (MF). Treatments included control (C), PD [5.5 g kg fresh weight (FW)], SD (7 g kg FW), and CAP (10 g kg FW), which were ensiled for 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, 30 and 45 days in vacuum-sealed polythene bags. Read More

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Implementation of Outpatient Pharmacist-led Hypertension Management for Under-Resourced Patients: A Pilot Study.

Innov Pharm 2021 27;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine and Integrative Biosciences Center, Wayne State University.

Background: The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a pharmacist-led hypertension (HTN) program for under-resourced patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) or screened at community health events who are lacking a regular primary care provider (PCP) relationship.

Methods: This was a single arm, prospective, pilot study to recruit patients from the Detroit Medical Center (DMC) Sinai Grace Hospital (SGH) ED and community health events. The outpatient pharmacist-led transitional care clinic (TCC) was implemented through a collaborative practice agreement (CPA) with ED physicians. Read More

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Testing daily-level drinking and negative consequences as predictors of next-day drinking cognitions.

Addict Behav 2021 11 8;122:107042. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Health Behavior and Health Systems, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd. Fort Worth, TX 76107, United States.

Objective: Limited research has examined how alcohol use and related consequences affect drinking-related cognitions, which is important as these cognitions may contribute to future drinking. The current study examines daily associations between alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences with next-day Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) social reaction pathway cognitions.

Method: Participants ages 15-25 years (N = 124, Mean age 18. Read More

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November 2021

Inflammatory Markers and Duration of Symptoms Have a Close Connection With Diagnosis and Staging of Acute Appendicitis in Children.

Front Pediatr 2021 4;9:583719. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pediatric General Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

For children with acute appendicitis (AA), a clear diagnosis is a challenge. The purpose of this study is to explore whether inflammatory markers in the blood combined with symptom duration are helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and in predicting the severity of acute appendicitis. All the selected patients underwent appendectomy between November 10, 2011 and November 15, 2019, in whom preoperative WBCC, CRP, and NE% had been measured in a short time. Read More

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Individual differences in the associations between risk factors for alcohol use disorder and alcohol use-related outcomes.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Aug 10;35(5):501-513. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry.

Background: Family history of alcohol use disorder; AUD (FH +) and impulsivity-related traits are known risk factors for problem drinking that have been investigated in predominately White samples. This cross-sectional study examined whether these risk factors vary by sex in the overall, majority White sample and in a Black subsample.

Method: A model building regression procedure was used to investigate the combined effect of FH + and impulsivity-related traits on alcohol quantity, frequency, and problems by sex (overall sample: = 757, 50% female, 73% White, age = 33. Read More

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Self in the Service: Self-Identification Moderates the Association between Perceived Drinking Norms and Own Drinking among Veterans.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 26;56(10):1428-1438. Epub 2021 May 26.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, USA.

Purpose: Drinking is common among young adult veterans. Previous research has established that veterans' drinking is more strongly associated with veteran versus civilian drinking norms. The present research extends these findings by examining the influence of self-identification both with other veterans and with civilians as moderators of the association between perceived norms and drinking. Read More

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Brief Screening Tool for Stepped-Care Management of Mental and Substance Use Disorders.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 Aug 17;72(8):891-897. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City (Lovero, Basaraba, Greene, Fiks Salem, Mootz, Duarte, Wall, Wainberg); Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York City (Basaraba, Wall); Health Directorate of Maputo City, Ministry of Health, Maputo, Mozambique (Khan, Mabunda); Universidade Eduardo Mondlane School of Medicine, Maputo, Mozambique (Khan, Mabunda, dos Santos, Fumo, Mandlate, Mocumbi, Gouveia); Health Directorate of Nampula Province, Ministry of Health, Nampula, Mozambique (Suleman, Feliciano); Nampula Psychiatric Hospital, Nampula, Mozambique (Suleman, Feliciano); Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Maputo, Mozambique (dos Santos, Fumo, Mandlate, Gouveia); National Institutes of Health, Marracuene, Mozambique (Mocumbi); Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (Oquendo).

Objective: Stepped mental health care requires a rapid method for nonspecialists to detect illness. This study aimed to develop and validate a brief instrument, the Mental Wellness Tool (mwTool), for identification and classification.

Methods: Cross-sectional development and validation samples included adults at six health facilities in Mozambique. Read More

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Case-Control Study of Nodding Syndrome in Acholiland: Urinary Multi-Mycotoxin Screening.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

This case-control study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the medical, nutritional, and environmental factors associated with Nodding Syndrome (NS), a seizure disorder of children and adolescents in northern Uganda. Past research described a significant association between NS and prior history of measles infection, dependence on emergency food and, at head nodding onset, subsistence on moldy maize, which has the potential to harbor mycotoxins. We used LC-MS/MS to screen for current mycotoxin loads by evaluating nine analytes in urine samples from age-and-gender matched NS cases (n = 50) and Community Controls (CC, n = 50). Read More

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Acute Responses to Oxygen Delivery via High Flow Nasal Cannula in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-HFNC and Severe COPD.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 21;10(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, NE4 208, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Differences in oxygen delivery methods to treat hypoxemia have the potential to worsen CO retention in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Oxygen administration using high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has multiple physiological benefits in treating respiratory failure including reductions in PaCO in a flow-dependent manner. We hypothesized that patients with COPD would develop worsening hypercapnia if oxygen fraction was increased without increasing flow rate. Read More

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[Effects and mechanisms of polycaprolactone-cellulose acetate nanofiber scaffold loaded with rat epidermal stem cells on wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in rats].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2021 May;37(5):460-468

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, Xi'an 710038, China.

To explore the effects and mechanisms of polycaprolactone-cellulose acetate (PCL-CA) nanofiber scaffold loaded with rat epidermal stem cells (ESCs) on wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in rats. The experiment research method was applied. The primary ESCs were isolated from 1-3 d old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (undefined gender) by rapid adherent method and cultured by rapid adherent method. Read More

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Insights from a Pan India Sero-Epidemiological survey (Phenome-India Cohort) for SARS-CoV2.

Elife 2021 Apr 20;10. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, India.

To understand the spread of SARS-CoV2, in August and September 2020, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India) conducted a serosurvey across its constituent laboratories and centers across India. Of 10,427 volunteers, 1058 (10.14%) tested positive for SARS-CoV2 anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies, 95% of which had surrogate neutralization activity. Read More

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Neural correlates of alcohol use disorder severity among nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers: An examination of the incentive salience and negative emotionality domains of the alcohol and addiction research domain criteria.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 06 6;45(6):1200-1214. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: The Alcohol and Addiction Research Domain Criteria (AARDoC) propose that alcohol use disorder is associated with neural dysfunction in three primary domains: incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function. Prior studies in heavy drinking samples have examined brain activation changes associated with alcohol and negative affect cues, representing the incentive salience and negative emotionality domains, respectively. Yet studies examining such cue-induced changes in functional connectivity (FC) are relatively sparse. Read More

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The link between planning and doing: Daily-level associations between college students' plans for and use of alcohol-related protective behavioral strategies.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Aug 15;35(5):577-586. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Objective: The current study expands the literature on alcohol-related protective behavioral strategies (PBS) that individuals may use to reduce risk of intoxication and/or consequences. This study used daily data collected prospectively to test (a) the extent to which college students' plans for using different types of PBS on a given day were associated with actual PBS use and (b) whether drinking intentions moderated the strength of the association between PBS plans and use.

Method: College students ages 18-24 ( = 189; mean () = 20. Read More

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Vicarious racial discrimination, racial identity, and alcohol-related outcomes among Black young adults: An experimental approach.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 May 11;35(3):283-294. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Psychology.

Racial discrimination is a known risk factor for alcohol-related outcomes among young Black American adults. However, vicarious racial discrimination's associations with alcohol-related outcomes and the role of racial identity in these associations remain unknown. This within-subject experiment study tested whether associations of vicarious racial discrimination with alcohol craving and attentional bias differed by three components of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard). Read More

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Sphingosine-1-phosphate: A mediator of the ARB-MI paradox?

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 4;333:40-42. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute of Molecular Medicine III, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) are important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The "ARB-MI paradox" implies that no risk reduction of myocardial infarction (MI) was found in ARB-treated patients despite target blood pressure control. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a cardioprotective sphingolipid which is released by platelets during activation. Read More

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Foetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D moderates the association of prenatal air pollution exposure with foetal glucolipid metabolism disorder and systemic inflammatory responses.

Environ Int 2021 06 1;151:106460. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; MOE Key Laboratory of Population Health Across Life Cycle, Hefei, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Study on Abnormal Gametes and Reproductive Tract, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Population Health and Aristogenics, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies have indicated that systemic inflammation may play an important role in the association between air pollution exposure and glucolipid metabolism disorders, and vitamin D supplementation was beneficial in improving systemic inflammation and glucolipid metabolism. However, the role of foetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the association between prenatal air pollution exposure and foetal glucolipid metabolism disorders is still not clear.

Objective: To verify whether foetal 25(OH)D can improve glucolipid metabolism disorders induced by prenatal air pollution exposure by inhibiting the systemic inflammation. Read More

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An fMRI investigation of neural activation predicting memory formation in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 11;30:102532. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Child Development Research Laboratory, University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town, South Africa; Child Development Research Laboratory, University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Cape Town, South Africa; Child Development Research Laboratory, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with physical anomalies, growth restriction, and a range of neurobehavioral deficits. Although declarative memory impairment has been documented extensively in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), this cognitive process has been examined in only one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, and mechanisms underlying this impairment are not well understood. We used an event-related fMRI design to examine neural activations during visual scene encoding that predict subsequent scene memory in 51 right-handed children (age range = 10-14 years, M = 11. Read More

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Quantifying Worsened Glycemic Control During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Feb;34(Suppl):S192-S195

From the Department of Family Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (CJWL); Department of Family Medicine, Augusta University, Augusta, GA (CR, EW, CW, KA, JB, AA, DAS).

Aims: We hypothesized that glycemic control in outpatients, measured by HbA1c, was worse during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic than in 2019. We sought to quantify how much worse and to determine if social determinants of health were associated with these differences.

Materials And Methods: Data were extracted from the electronic medical records of 2 cohorts of patients seen in the family medicine clinic of a southeastern academic health center. Read More

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February 2021

Daily Associations Among Alcohol Intoxication, Partner Familiarity, Participant Effortful Control, Urgency, and PrEP Uptake on Sexual Behavior in Men Who Have Sex with Men.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication and its interaction with contextual or situation (partner familiarity) and individual differences variables (effortful control, urgency, and whether taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) medication) on sexual behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM), a subgroup for whom HIV continues to be a major public health problem in the U.S. The participants were 236 men recruited from two northeastern U. Read More

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February 2021

Functional phenotyping of the CYP2D6 probe drug codeine in the horse.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Feb 13;17(1):77. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

K.L. Maddy Equine Analytical Pharmacology Laboratory, University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, 620 West Health Science Drive, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Background: In humans, the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic resulting in substantial differences in the metabolism of drugs including anti-arrhythmics, neuroleptics, and opioids. The objective of this study was to phenotype a population of 100 horses from five different breeds and assess differences in the metabolic activity of the equine CYP2D6 homolog using codeine as a probe drug. Administration of a probe drug is a common method used for patient phenotyping in human medicine, whereby the ratio of parent drug to metabolite (metabolic ratio, MR) can be used to compare relative enzyme function between individuals. Read More

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February 2021

Comparison of functional properties of porous starches produced with different enzyme combinations.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 27;174:110-119. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, School of Food Sciences and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

To obtain porous starch granules with higher absorption capacities, three types of enzyme combinations were adopted to modify wheat and maize starches: (1) sequential α-amylase (AA) → glucoamylase (GA); (2) sequential branching enzyme (BE) → GA; and (3) sequential AA→BE→GA. The results indicated that AA→BE→GA treatment had a most optimal influence on porous starches. Compared to AA→GA and BE→GA, the mesopores in wheat starch granules treated with AA→BE→GA decreased by 52. Read More

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The Differential Effect of First-Time Single-Point Cane Use between Healthy Young and Older Adults.

PM R 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

Background: Walking aids are often introduced to older adults to enable independent mobility. Single-point canes are the most common device used. Benefits are tempered by research suggesting that walking aids increase fall risk. Read More

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January 2021

Pathological and immunological differences of arterial thrombi and wall caused by three different periodontal bacterial injections in rat models and proposals on the pathogeneses of vascular diseases.

Clin Exp Dent Res 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Periodontology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: Periodontal bacteria that have been studied show a strong connection to various vascular diseases. Among the many kinds of periodontal bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is well examined in the general aspects and in a rat model. However, whether other periodontal bacteria work or react differently is not studied well. Read More

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January 2021

Alopecia areata treated with topical and systemic brevilin A: A case series.

Dermatol Ther 2021 03 10;34(2):e14778. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Dermatologic Unit, Department of Clinical Internal, Anesthesiological and Cardiovascular Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune T CD8 cell mediated condition clinically characterized by hair loss from single or few small patches to complete hair loss. The management of AA is challenging and all available therapies does not ensure a long-term remission. To assess the safety and efficacy of both systemic and topical brevilin A, a natural compound, in AA patients not responding to other treatments. Read More

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DNA methylation signatures of aggression and closely related constructs: A meta-analysis of epigenome-wide studies across the lifespan.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8;26(6):2148-2162. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center-Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, 33520, Finland.

DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 participants from 18 cohorts with mean ages ranging from 7 to 68 years, 13 methylation sites were significantly associated with aggression (alpha = 1. Read More

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Hongsoonwoonella zoysiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Stappiaceae isolated from a tidal mudflat.

Arch Microbiol 2021 May 2;203(4):1335-1343. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Hannam University, Daejon, 34054, Republic of Korea.

A Gram stain-negative bacterial strain, designated SY4-7, was isolated from rhizosphere mudflat of a halophyte (Zoysia sinica) collected around Seonyu Island, Republic of Korea. Cells of the organism were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, non-motile rods and grew at 20-42 °C, pH 6-8 and 1-6% (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain SY4-7 formed an independent cluster separated from the recognized genera of the family Stappiaceae, which was also supported by phylogenomic analysis-based 92-core gene sequences. Read More

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