49,157 results match your criteria thought higher


Children's understanding of economic demand: A dissociation between inference and choice.

Cognition 2021 May 7;214:104747. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Boston University, USA; Center for Systems Neuroscience, Boston University, USA. Electronic address:

Adults infer that resources that become scarce over time are in higher demand, and use this "demand inference" to guide their own economic decisions. However, it is unclear when children begin to understand and use economic demand. In six experiments, we investigated the development of demand inference and demand-based economic decisions in 4- to 10-year-old children and adults in the United States. Read More

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Taste-induced facial responses in black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

Behav Processes 2021 May 7:104417. Epub 2021 May 7.

IFM Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Taste-induced facial expressions are thought to reflect the hedonic valence of an animal's gustatory experience. We therefore assessed taste-induced facial responses in six black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) to water, sucrose, caffeine, citric acid and aspartame, representing the taste qualities sweet, bitter, and sour, respectively. We decided not to include salty-tasting substances as the concentrations of such tastants found in the fruits consumed by spider monkeys are below their taste preference threshold. Read More

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COVID-19 in the tonsillectomised population.

Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

ENT Clinic and Regional Center for Head and Neck Cancer, University of Padova Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Department of Neurosciences, Treviso Regional Hospital, Treviso, Italy.

Objective: Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue are thought to influence the manifestations of COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether a previous history of tonsillectomy, as a surrogate indicator of a dysfunctional pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue, could predict the presentation and course of COVID-19.

Methods: Multicentric cross-sectional observational study involving seven hospitals in Northern and Central Italy. Read More

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Long-term continuous cropping affects ecoenzymatic stoichiometry of microbial nutrient acquisition: A case study from a Chinese Mollisol.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Mollisols Agroecology, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, 150081.

Background: Soil- and plant-produced extracellular enzymes drive nutrient cycling in soils and are thought to be regulated supply and demand for carbon (C) and nutrients within the soil. Thus, agriculture management decisions that alter the balance of plant and supplemental nutrients should directly alter extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs), and EEA stoichiometry in predictable ways. We used a 12-year experiment varying three major continuous grain crops (wheat, soybean, and maize) each crossed with mineral fertilizer (WCF, SCF, and MCF, respectively) or not fertilized (WC, SC, and MC, respectively, as controls). Read More

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Usability and Acceptance of Wearable Biosensors in Forensic Psychiatry: Cross-sectional Questionnaire Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 May 10;5(5):e18096. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Psychology, Health and Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.

Background: The use of wearable biosensor devices for monitoring and coaching in forensic psychiatric settings yields high expectations for improved self-regulation of emotions and behavior in clients and staff members. More so, if clients have mild intellectual disabilities (IQ 50-85), they might benefit from these biosensors as they are easy to use in everyday life, which ensures that clients can practice with the devices in multiple stress and arousal-inducing situations. However, research on (continuous) use and acceptance of biosensors in forensic psychiatry for clients with mild intellectual disabilities and their caretakers is scarce. Read More

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Microwave treatment to modify textural properties of high protein gel applicable as dysphagia food.

J Texture Stud 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

The study aimed to formulate a high protein base as a dysphagia food and investigate the possibility of textural modification by applying microwave treatments. The formulated mixture contained 41.7% pea protein (dry basis), which exhibited shear thinning behavior. Read More

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Historical Loss: Implications for Health of American Indians in the Blackfeet Community.

Ann Behav Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Montana State University, Center for American Indian and Rural Health Equity, Bozeman, MT, USA.

Background: Historical loss in American Indians (AIs) is believed to contribute to high incidence of mental health disorders, yet less is known about the associations between historical loss and physical health.

Purpose: To investigate whether frequency of thought about historical loss predicts risk factors for chronic physical health conditions in an AI community.

Methods: Using Community Based Participatory research (CBPR) and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), we measured frequency of thoughts about historical loss in 100 AI adults residing on the Blackfeet reservation. Read More

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EEG Signal Diversity Varies With Sleep Stage and Aspects of Dream Experience.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:655884. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Brain Signalling Lab, Division of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Several theories link consciousness to complex cortical dynamics, as suggested by comparison of brain signal diversity between conscious states and states where consciousness is lost or reduced. In particular, Lempel-Ziv complexity, amplitude coalition entropy and synchrony coalition entropy distinguish wakefulness and REM sleep from deep sleep and anesthesia, and are elevated in psychedelic states, reported to increase the range and vividness of conscious contents. Some studies have even found correlations between complexity measures and facets of self-reported experience. Read More

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Intensified Job Demands and Cognitive Stress Symptoms: The Moderator Role of Individual Characteristics.

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:607172. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Intensified job demands (IJDs) originate in the general accelerated pace of society and ever-changing working conditions, which subject workers to increasing workloads and deadlines, constant planning and decision-making about one's job and career, and the continual learning of new professional knowledge and skills. This study investigated how individual characteristics, namely negative and positive affectivity related to competence demands, and multitasking preference moderate the association between IJDs and cognitive stress symptoms among media workers ( = 833; 69% female, mean age 48 years). The results show that although IJDs were associated with higher cognitive stress symptoms at work, that is, difficulties in concentration, thinking clearly, decision-making, and memory, competence demands-related negative affectivity explained the most variance in cognitive stress symptoms. Read More

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Co-design of mini games for learning computational thinking in an online environment.

Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) 2021 May 5:1-35. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Digital Media, Ajou University, 16499 Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Understanding the principles of computational thinking (CT), e.g., problem abstraction, decomposition, and recursion, is vital for computer science (CS) students. Read More

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Visual Performance with Spherical and Multifocal Contact Lenses in a Pediatric Population.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

The Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, Ohio

Significance: This pilot study compared subjective and objective vision of children wearing single-vision and +2.00, +3.00, and +4. Read More

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Mutagenicity in haploid yeast meiosis resulting from repair of DSBs by the sister chromatid.

Curr Genet 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Genetics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904, Jerusalem, Israel.

Mutations in diploid budding yeast occur in meiosis at higher frequencies than in cells grown vegetatively. Such meiotic mutations are thought to result from the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in meiosis, during the process of recombination. Here, we report studies of mutagenicity in haploid strains that may undergo meiosis due to the expression of both mating-type alleles, MATa and MATα. Read More

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Echo intensity is more useful in predicting hospital-associated complications than conventional sarcopenia-related parameters in acute hospitalized older patients.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 6:111397. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Community Healthcare and Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan.

Background: Hospital-associated complications are associated with adverse outcomes after discharge, and a method to help predict the occurrence of these complications needs to be established. Sarcopenia is thought to be one of the factors associated with hospital-associated complication, but sarcopenia assessment in hospitalized patients is often difficult. Focus has recently been placed on morphological and qualitative evaluation of muscle by ultrasound as an index of sarcopenia. Read More

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Phenotypic classification of knee osteoarthritis according to pain mechanisms; a clinical observational study.

J Orthop Sci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Japan.

Background: Pain in knee osteoarthritis is considered to be nociceptive. Recently, involvement of neuropathic pain and psychosocial factors in knee osteoarthritis has been reported. However, the following details are unclear: 1) How often are neuropathic pain and psychosocial factors involved? And 2) Which patients are associated with neuropathic pain and psychosocial factors?

Methods: In 104 patients with knee osteoarthritis, we evaluated neuropathic pain factor with a painDETECT questionnaire and catastrophic thinking using the pain catastrophizing scale. Read More

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Accuracy of Consumer-marketed smartphone-paired alcohol breath testing devices: A laboratory validation study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Although alcohol breath testing devices that pair with smartphones are promoted for the prevention of alcohol-impaired driving, their accuracy has not been established.

Methods: In a within-subjects laboratory study, we administered weight-based doses of ethanol to two groups of 10 healthy, moderate drinkers aiming to achieve a target peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.10%. Read More

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Multidisciplinary Approach in Teaching Diagnostic Radiology to Medical Students: The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Virtual Educational Model.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of an online multidisciplinary approach for teaching diagnostic radiology to medical students.

Methods: An online 10-session case-based learning course was designed and taught by a multidisciplinary team of radiologists, surgeons, and internists. Session topics included common clinical case scenarios for different systems and were hosted on a videoconferencing platform. Read More

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Differences in single positive formal thought disorder symptoms between closely matched acute patients with schizophrenia and mania.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of English and Linguistic, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Formal thought disorders (FTD) are a hallmark diagnostic feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and (bipolar) mania (MA). FTD can be separated into positive (pFTD) and negative dimensions. It is unclear whether there are differences in pFTD on a single symptom level between acutely ill patients with SZ and MA, which cannot be attributed to cognitive impairment. Read More

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The debatable presence of PIWI-interacting RNAs in invasive breast cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, and Translational Cancer Research Area, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Numerous factors influence breast cancer (BC) prognosis, thus complicating the prediction of outcome. By identifying biomarkers that would distinguish the cases with poorer response to therapy already at the time of diagnosis, the rate of survival could be improved. Lately, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been introduced as potential cancer biomarkers, however, due to the recently raised challenges in piRNA annotations, further evaluation of piRNAs' involvement in cancer is required. Read More

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A Novel User Emotional Interaction Design Model Using Long and Short-Term Memory Networks and Deep Learning.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:674853. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Design, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Emotional design is an important development trend of interaction design. Emotional design in products plays a key role in enhancing user experience and inducing user emotional resonance. In recent years, based on the user's emotional experience, the design concept of strengthening product emotional design has become a new direction for most designers to improve their design thinking. Read More

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Joint Goals in Older Couples: Associations With Goal Progress, Allostatic Load, and Relationship Satisfaction.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:623037. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Older adults often have long-term relationships, and many of their goals are intertwined with their respective partners. Joint goals can help or hinder goal progress. Little is known about how accurately older adults assess if a goal is joint, the role of over-reporting in these perceptions, and how joint goals and over-reporting may relate to older partners' relationship satisfaction and physical health (operationally defined as allostatic load). Read More

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Changes in Plasma Renin Activity after Renal Artery Sympathetic Denervation.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Background: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation and is the target of several anti-hypertensive medications. Renal denervation (RDN) is thought to interrupt the sympathetic-mediated neurohormonal pathway as part of its mechanism of action to reduce BP.

Objectives: To evaluate plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone before and after RDN and to assess whether these baseline neuroendocrine markers predict response to RDN. Read More

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Contrasting Mind-Wandering, (Dark) Flow, and Affect During Multiline and Single-Line Slot Machine Play.

J Gambl Stud 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Slot machines are a very popular form of gambling in which a small proportion of gamblers experience gambling-related problems. These players refer to a trance-like state that researchers have labelled 'dark flow'-a pleasurable, but maladaptive state where players become completely occupied by the game. We assessed 110 gamblers for mindfulness (using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale), gambling problems (using the Problem Gambling Severity Index), depressive symptoms (using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale), and boredom proneness (using the Boredom Proneness Scale). Read More

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Interprofessional collaboration and health policy: results from a Quebec mixed method legal research.

J Interprof Care 2021 May 6:1-8. Epub 2021 May 6.

Health-Hub - Politics, Organizations and Law, University of Montreal, CRCHUM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is central to effective care. This practice is structured by an array of laws, regulations and policies but the literature on their impact on IPC is scarce. This study aims to illustrate the gap between the texts and clinicians' knowledge of the legal framework using an anonymous web-based survey. Read More

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Sex-Related Differences in the Incidence, Severity, and Recovery of Concussion in Adolescent Student-Athletes Between 2009 and 2019.

Am J Sports Med 2021 May 6:3635465211008596. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The sex of an athlete is thought to modulate concussion incidence; however, the effects of sex on concussion severity and recovery are less clear.

Purpose: To evaluate sex differences in concussion severity and recovery using a large, heterogeneous sample of young student-athletes with the goal of understanding how sex affects concussion outcomes in young athletes.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Read More

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New insights in diagnostic thresholds for total serum bile acid (TSBA) in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP).

Authors:
C Manzotti

BJOG 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122, Milan, Italy.

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy specific liver disorder known to be associated with fetal adverse events, in particular stillbirth. At present, an effective treatment to reduce the risk of stillbirth, does not exist. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is often given in clinical practice to reduce maternal symptom of pruritus but without strong evidence (Walker KF et al. Read More

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Inspiratory Muscle Responses to Sudden Airway Occlusion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Australiagrid.250407.4.

Brief airway occlusion produces a potent reflex inhibition of inspiratory muscles that is thought to protect against aspiration. Its duration is prolonged in asthma and obstructive sleep apnea. We assessed this inhibitory reflex (IR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Read More

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Conjuring up creativity: the effect of performing magic tricks on divergent thinking.

PeerJ 2021 15;9:e11289. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

Research suggests that learning to perform magic tricks can promote both physical and psychological wellbeing. The current study extended this work by examining the impact of learning magic tricks on divergent thinking. A group of 10- to 11-year-old children completed Guilford's Alternate Uses Test both before and after participating in either a magic-based, or art-based, activity. Read More

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A higher De Ritis ratio (AST/ALT) is a risk factor for progression in high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Oncotarget 2021 Apr 27;12(9):917-922. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Urology, Yokohama Minami Kyousai Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is thought to be associated with a higher risk of recurrence and progression. A recent study revealed that a high De Ritis ratio was a risk factor in some solid malignancies. This study examined the importance of the De Ritis ratio as a prognostic marker in high-risk NMIBC. Read More

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Use of Silicone Membrane Permeation to Assess Thermodynamic Activities of Ionic Liquids and Their Component Cation and Anion.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2021 ;69(5):481-487

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai International University.

Ionic liquid (IL) was prepared by mixing lidocaine and ibuprofen as a cation and anion, respectively, at various ratios. We determined the permeation of both compounds from the IL through a silicone membrane selected as a model biological membrane, and mathematically analyzed the permeation data from the viewpoint of the thermodynamic activities of lidocaine, ibuprofen, and the IL. As a result, IL and ibuprofen diffusely permeated through the membrane in the case of applying IL preparations with a molar fraction of ibuprofen of 0. Read More

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January 2021

Should a hotter paramagnet transform quicker to a ferromagnet? Monte Carlo simulation results for Ising model.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Theoretical Sciences Unit and School of Advanced Materials, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India.

For quicker formation of ice, before inserting inside a refrigerator, heating up of a body of water can be beneficial. We report first observation of a counterpart of this intriguing fact, referred to as the Mpemba effect (ME), during ordering in ferromagnets. By performing Monte Carlo simulations of a generic model, we have obtained results on relaxation of systems that are quenched to sub-critical state points from various temperatures above the critical point. Read More

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