474 results match your criteria third reich


The three major axes of terrestrial ecosystem function.

Nature 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany.

The leaf economics spectrum and the global spectrum of plant forms and functions revealed fundamental axes of variation in plant traits, which represent different ecological strategies that are shaped by the evolutionary development of plant species. Ecosystem functions depend on environmental conditions and the traits of species that comprise the ecological communities. However, the axes of variation of ecosystem functions are largely unknown, which limits our understanding of how ecosystems respond as a whole to anthropogenic drivers, climate and environmental variability. Read More

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September 2021

Dairying enabled Early Bronze Age Yamnaya steppe expansions.

Nature 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

During the Early Bronze Age, populations of the western Eurasian steppe expanded across an immense area of northern Eurasia. Combined archaeological and genetic evidence supports widespread Early Bronze Age population movements out of the Pontic-Caspian steppe that resulted in gene flow across vast distances, linking populations of Yamnaya pastoralists in Scandinavia with pastoral populations (known as the Afanasievo) far to the east in the Altai Mountains and Mongolia. Although some models hold that this expansion was the outcome of a newly mobile pastoral economy characterized by horse traction, bulk wagon transport and regular dietary dependence on meat and milk, hard evidence for these economic features has not been found. Read More

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September 2021

Forced to join the Waffen-SS? Chief pharmacist Victor Capesius (1907-1985) and his role in Auschwitz concentration camp.

Pharmazie 2021 Sep;76(9):455-460

Institute for the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, University (RWTH) of Aachen, Germany.

Victor Capesius (1907-1985) attained sad fame as chief pharmacist in the Auschwitz concentration camp. After the war he outlined himself as a victim of his time and claimed to have been forced into the Waffen-SS as a so-called Romanian "Volksdeutscher" (ethnic German). But does this claim stand up to critical scrutiny? What was his actual role in Auschwitz, how did his life develop in the postwar period, how did he himself evaluate his actions in the Third Reich, and to what extent do self-image and historical facts coincide? These are precisely the questions that this article explores. Read More

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September 2021

Dynamic changes in genomic and social structures in third millennium BCE central Europe.

Sci Adv 2021 Aug 25;7(35). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Institute of Archaeology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Letenská 4, Prague 1, CZ 118 01, Czech Republic.

Europe's prehistory oversaw dynamic and complex interactions of diverse societies, hitherto unexplored at detailed regional scales. Studying 271 human genomes dated ~4900 to 1600 BCE from the European heartland, Bohemia, we reveal unprecedented genetic changes and social processes. Major migrations preceded the arrival of "steppe" ancestry, and at ~2800 BCE, three genetically and culturally differentiated groups coexisted. Read More

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[A Link Between Eugenics and Law-the 'Medical-Juristic' Commentary in the Third Reich].

Authors:
Vivian Yurdakul

NTM 2021 Sep 24;29(3):285-318. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Institut für Geschichtswissenschaften, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099, Berlin, Deutschland.

Before 1933 commentaries on laws were exclusively juristic texts, written and read only by legal professionals. Beginning in 1934, scholars from different disciplines, especially medical scientists, began writing juristic commentaries. The essay examines the reasons for this development and explores how it changed the genre, using the example of the most important commentary on the Blutschutz- and Ehegesundheitsgesetz, which resulted from the collaboration of two medical professionals and a legal professional. Read More

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September 2021

[Perpetrator or victim? The orthodontist Gustav Korkhaus (1895-1978) and his actual role in the Third Reich].

J Orofac Orthop 2021 Sep 30;82(5):345-355. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institut für Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin, Medizinische Fakultät, RWTH Aachen University, 52074, Aachen, Deutschland.

Purposes: Gustav Korkhaus is widely regarded as the most important German orthodontist of the post-war period; in contrast, his relationship to National Socialism is much less well defined. Against this background, this article sheds light on the concrete scientific and (professional) political significance of Korkhaus; special attention is paid to his role in the Third Reich.

Methods: The study is based on primary sources from the Federal Archives Berlin, the State Archives North Rhine-Westphalia (Department Rhineland), and the University Archives Bonn. Read More

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September 2021

A Randomized Control Trial of Using Baby Books to Reduce New Mothers' Feelings of Stress and Depression.

Matern Child Health J 2021 Oct 30;25(10):1615-1625. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

University of California, Irvine, USA.

Objective: To determine whether embedding educational information about child development and optimal parenting practices from the Bright Futures Guidelines for Health Supervision into baby books can reduce women's depressive symptoms and parenting stress during the first 18 months of motherhood.

Methods: A sample of 167 low-income, primarily African-American, first-time mothers were randomized into three conditions while pregnant: an educational book group, a non-educational book group, or a no-book group. Depressive symptoms and parenting stress were assessed using two questionnaires during home visits when women were in their third trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and when their child was 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Read More

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October 2021

Prohibition of the attachment bond in the Third Reich.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 08;119(4):221-223

Grupo de Trabajo en Trastornos del Sueño y Muerte Súbita del Lactante. Comité de Pediatría Social, Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

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Non-motor phenotypic subgroups in adult-onset idiopathic, isolated, focal cervical dystonia.

Brain Behav 2021 08 21;11(8):e2292. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Maindy Road, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK.

Background: Non-motor symptoms are well established phenotypic components of adult-onset idiopathic, isolated, focal cervical dystonia (AOIFCD). However, improved understanding of their clinical heterogeneity is needed to better target therapeutic intervention. Here, we examine non-motor phenotypic features to identify possible AOIFCD subgroups. Read More

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[The pathologist Hans Klein (1912-1984) : Autopsy of his role in the "Third Reich"].

Pathologe 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institut für Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin, Medizinische Fakultät, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Aachen, Deutschland.

The role of pathologist Hans Klein during the National Socialist era and his career in post-war Germany have hardly received systematic attention. During World War II, Hans Klein worked in two medical institutions, where he collaborated with individuals who were significantly involved in Nazi crimes. Klein's participation initially extended mainly to his work as an employed pathologist at the Rudolf Virchow Hospital in Berlin. Read More

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Political continuity or a new beginning? The re-foundation of the "German Society for Pathology" and its politics in postwar Germany.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Aug 28;224:153491. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics in Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

In 1948, about 70 pathologists decided to reconstitute the "Deutsche Pathologische Gesellschaft" (German Pathological Society). With Arnold Lauche, a new president was elected; at the same time, the organization was renamed the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pathologie" (German Society of Pathology). But did these two obvious changes really mark a new beginning, a conscious turning away from the Nazi ideology that had significantly shaped the policies of the professional associations until 1945? The present paper pursues this very question. Read More

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Just "one of so many"? The pathologist Theodor Fahr (1877-1945) and his ambivalent relationship to National Socialism.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Aug 23;224:153488. Epub 2021 May 23.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics in Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, Aachen, D-52074, Germany. Electronic address:

Theodor Fahr is well known as a pioneer in renal pathology and the eponym of "Fahr's disease". While his professional merits are undisputed, his relationship to National Socialism remains unclear. On the one hand, he signed the public "oath of allegiance" of German professors to Adolf Hitler, on the other hand, he appeared as a mentor to his Jewish colleague Paul Kimmelstiel. Read More

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Novel AI driven approach to classify infant motor functions.

Sci Rep 2021 05 10;11(1):9888. Epub 2021 May 10.

University Medical Center Göttingen, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

The past decade has evinced a boom of computer-based approaches to aid movement assessment in early infancy. Increasing interests have been dedicated to develop AI driven approaches to complement the classic Prechtl general movements assessment (GMA). This study proposes a novel machine learning algorithm to detect an age-specific movement pattern, the fidgety movements (FMs), in a prospectively collected sample of typically developing infants. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Among Healthcare Workers by Job Function and Work Location in a New York Inner-City Hospital.

J Hosp Med 2021 May;16(5):282-289

Department of Family Medicine, Bronx-Care Health System Bronx, NY.

Objective: To describe the seroprevalence and risk for SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers (HCWs) by job function and work location following the pandemic's first wave in New York City (NYC).

Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted between May 18 and June 26, 2020, during which HCWs at a large inner-city teaching hospital in NYC received voluntary antibody testing. The main outcome was presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies indicating previous infection. Read More

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"A Revolution in Favor of Reproduction"? Gynecology and Obstetrics in the "Third Reich".

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2020 19;85(6):472-500. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institut für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

During the "Third Reich," the majority of German gynecologists and obstetricians did not hesitate to put themselves at the service of those in power. In 1933, many gynecologists initially only focused on the fact that the biopolitical objectives of the National Socialists matched their own long-standing demands for population policy measures and the early detection and prevention of cancer. In addition, cooperating with the Nazis promised the political advancement of the profession, personal advantages, and the honorary title of Volksgesundheitsführer (national health leaders). Read More

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From emigration to remigration: The Jewish pathologist Fritz Meyer (1875-1953) and his extraordinary life course.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 May 19;221:153411. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics in Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.

Fritz Meyer (1875-1953) is undoubtedly one of the most enigmatic pathologists and internists of his time: He emerged early as a major researcher in the field of infectious diseases. Later, he also focused on heart and lung diseases and became a celebrity doctor who treated ambassadors and prominent contemporaries of the United States. The course of his life was as unusual as his professional activities: At the beginning of the Third Reich, Meyer experienced far-reaching repression due to his Jewish ancestry, which led to forced emigration to the USA. Read More

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From scientific exploitation to individual memorialization: Evolving attitudes towards research on Nazi victims' bodies.

Bioethics 2021 07 21;35(6):508-517. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Ethics, Collections, and History of Medicine (Josephinum), Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

During the Third Reich, state-sponsored violence was linked to scientific research on many levels. Prisoners were used as involuntary subjects for medical experiments, and body parts from victims were used in anatomy and neuropathology on a massive scale. In many cases, such specimens remained in scientific collections and were used until long after the war. Read More

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"I have had an exceedingly beautiful life" The Jewish gynecopathologist Robert Meyer (1864-1947) and his extraordinary response to Nazi repression.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 18;220:153391. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Germany.

The Jewish scientist Robert Meyer received worldwide professional recognition as a pioneer gynecopathologist. Before his death, he wrote a memoir in which he gave an entirely positive assessment of his life. The latter, however, is at odds with the fact that he was disenfranchised by the National Socialists and driven into emigration. Read More

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Facts and fiction: The pathologist Gerhard Seifert (1921-2014) and his dealings with National Socialism.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 27;220:153375. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Gerhard Seifert is considered one of the leading German pathologists of his time. He was not only an outstanding scientist but also shaped the politics of university pathology like hardly anyone else. In the context of a national research project on the role of German pathologists in the Third Reich, it was recently discovered that Seifert had joined the Nazi Party. Read More

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The controversial Third Reich history of Hans Creutzfeldt: was he a supporter or just another adept of the "hand washing policy"?

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2021 01;79(1):84-87

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Neurologia, São Paulo SP, Brazil.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy whose initial description is associated with two German authors, Alfons Maria Jakob and Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt. As polemic as the issue about the Creutzfeldt's merit in the first description of the disease, is his history during the Third Reich. Some evidence pointed to the idea that he was essentially against the Nazi ideology, though some did not. Read More

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January 2021

Genomic insights into the formation of human populations in East Asia.

Nature 2021 03 22;591(7850):413-419. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The deep population history of East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a lack of ancient DNA data and sparse sampling of present-day people. Here we report genome-wide data from 166 East Asian individuals dating to between 6000 BC and AD 1000 and 46 present-day groups. Hunter-gatherers from Japan, the Amur River Basin, and people of Neolithic and Iron Age Taiwan and the Tibetan Plateau are linked by a deeply splitting lineage that probably reflects a coastal migration during the Late Pleistocene epoch. Read More

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Incorporation of Korean Electronic Data Interchange Vocabulary into Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Vocabulary.

Healthc Inform Res 2021 Jan 31;27(1):29-38. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Objectives: We incorporated the Korean Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) vocabulary into Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) vocabulary using a semi-automated process. The goal of this study was to improve the Korean EDI as a standard medical ontology in Korea.

Methods: We incorporated the EDI vocabulary into OMOP vocabulary through four main steps. Read More

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January 2021

Blind in the right eye? The practice of awarding honorary memberships by German and Austrian dental societies (1949-1993) to Nazi dentists: A study on the role of National Socialism in post-war dentistry.

Endeavour 2020 Dec 10;44(4):100751. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, MTI I, 52074, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

According to ongoing public discourse, the dental profession in Germany and Austria has found it rather difficult to come to terms with the National Socialist past. Against this background, this study focuses on the practice of awarding honorary memberships by German and Austrian dental societies in the years 1949-1993. In particular, it examines how previous memberships in the Nazi party or other Nazi organisations were handled. Read More

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December 2020

Maxillofacial surgeons in the Third Reich and their connection to National Socialism.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 6;49(4):329-335. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Institute for the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, D-52074, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

This study examines the political role of German and Austrian maxillofacial surgeons in the Third Reich. It is based on archival sources, most of which have been evaluated for the first time - including the National Socialist Workers' Party membership files in the Federal Archives in Berlin. The examinations yielded five key findings: (1) A total of 187 specialist surgeons were identified; 116 (62%) of these were members of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). Read More

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Transfusions and neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low gestation neonates enrolled in the PENUT Trial: a randomized clinical trial.

Pediatr Res 2021 Jul 11;90(1):109-116. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Outcomes of extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGANs) may be adversely impacted by packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions. We investigated the impact of transfusions on neurodevelopmental outcome in the Preterm Erythropoietin (Epo) Neuroprotection (PENUT) Trial population.

Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of 936 infants 24-0/6 to 27-6/7 weeks' gestation enrolled in the PENUT Trial. Read More

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Program Report: KidneyPRO, a Web-based Training Module for Patient Engagement in Kidney Research.

Can J Kidney Health Dis 2020 21;7:2054358120979255. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Can-SOLVE CKD Network, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Purpose Of Report: Over the recent years, there has been increasing support and traction for patient-oriented research (POR). Such an approach ensures that health research is focused on what matters most: improving outcomes for patients. Yet the realm of health research remains enigmatic for many patients in Canada who are not familiar with research terms and practices, highlighting the need for focused capacity-building efforts, including the development of novel educational tools to support patients to meaningfully engage in the research enterprise. Read More

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December 2020

The Unexpected Problem List: A Pre-Pandemic Reflection.

Authors:
Amanda L Reich

Acad Med 2021 03;96(3):470

A.L. Reich is a third-year pediatrics resident, Kravis Children's Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; email:

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[125 Years German Central Committee for the Fight against Tuberculosis (DZK)].

Pneumologie 2020 Nov 17;74(11):719-741. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Deutsches Zentralkomitee zur Bekämpfung der Tuberkulose e. V. (DZK), Berlin.

The German Central Committee for the Fight against Tuberculosis (DZK) celebrates this year its 125 birthday. On this occasion, the DZK as one of the oldest TB organizations worldwide is looking back on the development during its history and records the results in a comprehensive book, summarized in this article. In the book, the various political changes with their impact on the DZK are mirrored, starting with the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the so-called "Third Reich", the two German states separated after the Second World War and the current FRG. Read More

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November 2020

A fragmented career? Life and work of the Jewish pathologist Kurt Aterman (1913-2002).

Pathol Res Pract 2020 Dec 17;216(12):153246. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics in Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Kurt Aterman (1913-2002) is regarded one of the leading experimental pathologists of his time with a strong focus on pediatric and hepatopathology. Without doubt, he is also one of the most international representatives of his field: Grown up in the German-speaking area, he studied medicine in the former Czechoslovakia and the United Kingdom, and then taught at universities and hospitals in the USA and Canada. Less well known is the fact that he was persecuted by the Nazi regime because of his Jewish decent after the Nazis started their annexation policy. Read More

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December 2020

Virchow medallists and honorary members of the German Society of Pathology and their relationship with National Socialism : A cross-sectional study.

Pathologe 2020 Oct 21. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Institute for the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Wendlingweg 2, MTI II, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

The present study focuses on the group of pathologists who (1) were appointed honorary members or bearers of the Rudolf Virchow Medal by the German Society for Pathology (DGP) and (2) experienced the Third Reich as a citizen of the Third Reich. In particular, it examines the relationship between those distinguished persons and National Socialism, and, at the same time, the criteria of the professional society when awarding such honors. Specifically, it is important to clarify what role the DGP officials ascribed to the political stance or experience of the candidates in the Nazi dictatorship during the selection process: were there victims of the Nazis among the honorees whose repressive experiences and personal fates were intended to be acknowledged in this way? Of equal interest is the counter-question: were pathologists honored who had made (party) political commitments to National Socialism during the Third Reich?A total of nine Virchow medallists and three honorary members met the inclusion criteria. Read More

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October 2020