30 results match your criteria thimerosal-containing hepatitis

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Premature Puberty and Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccination: A Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink.

Toxics 2018 Nov 15;6(4). Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Court, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

Studies suggest a relationship between exposure to endocrine disrupters, such as mercury (Hg), and premature puberty. Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine, administered at specific intervals within the first six months of life, and the child's long-term risk of being diagnosed with premature puberty (ICD-9 code: 259.1), was retrospectively examined, using a hypothesis-testing, longitudinal case-control design on prospectively collected data, in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). Read More

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November 2018

A cross-sectional study of the relationship between infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2018 Mar 8;46:1-9. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a marked pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is inconsistent with developmental level and interferes with normal functioning in at least two settings. This study evaluated the hypothesis that infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HepB) exposure would increase the risk of an ADHD diagnosis. This cross-sectional study examined 4393 persons between 13 and 19 years of age from the combined 1999-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) by analyzing demographic, immunization, socioeconomic, and health-related variables using the SAS system. Read More

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A Cross-Sectional Study of the Association between Infant Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure in Boys and the Risk of Adverse Effects as Measured by Receipt of Special Education Services.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 01 12;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

The National Center for Education Statistics reported that between 1990-2005 the number of children receiving special education services (SES) rose significantly, and then, from 2004-2012, the number declined significantly. This coincided with the introduction of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in 1991, and the subsequent introduction of Thimerosal-reduced hepatitis B vaccine in the early 2000s. This study examined the potential relationship between infant exposure to mercury from three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of boys being adversely affected (as measured by receipt of SES). Read More

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January 2018

Increased risk for an atypical autism diagnosis following Thimerosal-containing vaccine exposure in the United States: A prospective longitudinal case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Jul 9;42:18-24. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, 20905, United States; CoMeD, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, 20905, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Thimerosal is an organic-mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55% Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative and still added to some vaccines today. Concerns about the toxic effects from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the risk of an atypical autism diagnosis were evaluated in this study. Read More

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Thimerosal exposure and disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence: A case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database.

Brain Inj 2017 19;31(2):272-278. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

a The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring , MD , USA.

Background: This study evaluated Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the risk of a diagnosis called disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence (ED). Thimerosal is an organic-mercury (Hg)-containing compound used in some vaccines.

Methods: A hypothesis-testing prospective, longitudinal case-control study evaluated Hg exposure from Thimerosal in hepatitis B vaccines administered at specific times within the first 6 months of life and its association with medically diagnosed ED (313. Read More

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January 2018

Thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure is Highly Associated with Childhood Obesity: A Case-control Study Using the Vaccine Safety Datalink.

N Am J Med Sci 2016 Jul;8(7):297-306

Department of Research, Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc., MD, USA; Department of Research, CoMeD, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Background: Obesity among children and adolescents in the United States has tripled since 1980, and has become a major public health concern.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines and the children's subsequent risk of an obesity diagnosis.

Materials And Methods: A hypothesis-testing, case-control study was undertaken to evaluate exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines, which were administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months of life, among cases diagnosed with childhood obesity and controls by examining automated medical records for children born from 1991 to 2000 who were continuously enrolled in the Vaccine Safety Datalink database. Read More

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Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine.

Vaccine 2016 08 26;34(38):4572-4578. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Intravacc (Institute for Translational Vaccinology), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, P.O. Box 450, 3720 AL Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick injuries, and (iii) ensure better protection against pertussis as compared to vaccines containing acellular pertussis antigens. An approach to obtain a hexavalent vaccine might be reconstituting lyophilized polio vaccine (IPV-LYO) with liquid pentavalent vaccine just before intramuscular delivery. The potential limitations of this approach were investigated including thermostability of IPV as measured by D-antigen ELISA and rat potency, the compatibility of fluid and lyophilized IPV in combination with thimerosal and thimerosal containing hexavalent vaccine. Read More

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Impact of organic mercury exposure and home delivery on neurodevelopment of Amazonian children.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2016 08 9;219(6):498-502. Epub 2016 May 9.

Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 70919-970 DF, Brazil. Electronic address:

In the transitioning Amazon, we addressed birth environment (home vs hospital) and associated perinatal organic-Hg exposures: methylmercury (MeHg) from maternal fish consumption and ethylmercury (EtHg) from pediatric Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) taken systematically during hospital delivery. We studied 365 children in relation to linear growth at 60 months and neurodevelopment (milestone achievements, Bayley Scale of Infant Development/BSID at 24 months, and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests at 60 months). Mothers delivered in hospitals vs those gave birth at home had significantly (p<0. Read More

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Thimerosal-Preserved Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood.

Brain Sci 2016 Mar 15;6(1). Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

(1) BACKGROUND: Hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (HKSoC) is an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) category in which the majority of the children are also diagnosed under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), where the umbrella term is "Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders". The diagnostic criteria for HKSoC are developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Some studies have implicated mercury (Hg) exposure as a risk factor. Read More

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A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2016 06 9;6(2):105-18. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg) exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n=49,835) using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (T-HBVs) administered at specific intervals in the first 6months of life and specific delays in development [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9): 315.xx] among children born between 1991 and 1994 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 5. Read More

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Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2015 Jun;8(2):68-76

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

A hypothesis testing, case-control study evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life among cases diagnosed with a tic disorder (TD) or cerebral degeneration (CD) (an outcome not biologically plausibly linked to TM exposure) in comparison to controls; both cases and controls were continuously enrolled from birth (born from 1991-2000) within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database. TD cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (odds ratio (OR)=1.59, p<0. Read More

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Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and the risk for diagnosed specific delays in development in the United States: a case-control study in the vaccine safety datalink.

N Am J Med Sci 2014 Oct;6(10):519-31

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Background: Within the first 3 years of life, the brain develops rapidly. Its development is characterized by critical developmental periods for speech, vision, hearing, language, balance, etc.; and alteration in any of the processes occurring in those critical periods can lead to specific delays in development. Read More

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October 2014

A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014 Sep 5;11(9):9156-70. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Ct., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-mercury (Hg) exposure from thimerosal-containing (49.55% Hg by weight) vaccines on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Automated medical records were examined to identify cases and controls enrolled from their date-of-birth (1991-2000) in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project. Read More

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September 2014

Early exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines and children's cognitive development. A 9-year prospective birth cohort study in Poland.

Eur J Pediatr 2015 Mar 5;174(3):383-91. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7a St, 31-034, Krakow, Poland,

Unlabelled: The controversial topic of the early exposure to mercury is regarding ethylmercury, which is present in the thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the early exposure to TCVs and cognitive development in children during the first 9 years of life. The cohort included 318 children vaccinated in an early period (neonatal and up to 6 months) against hepatitis B and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) using formulation with or without thimerosal. Read More

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A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States.

Transl Neurodegener 2013 Dec 19;2(1):25. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc, 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by standardized criteria of qualitative impairments in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. A significant number of children diagnosed with ASD suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, which is suggestive of neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological pathogenic basis occurring after birth. To date, the etiology of ASD remains under debate, however, many studies suggest toxicity, especially from mercury (Hg), in individuals diagnosed with an ASD. Read More

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December 2013

[Lack of association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism].

Przegl Epidemiol 2011 ;65(3):491-5

Katedra Epidemiologii i Medycyny Zapobiegawczej, Uniwersytet Jagielloński - Collegium Medicum, Kraków.

In Poland, administered childhood vaccines still contain thimerosal as a preservative. Despite the access to mercury free formulas, the most of children are still vaccinated by thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) owing to economical reasons. That circumstances caused the rising discussion on potential harmful influence of TCVs on children health. Read More

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January 2012

Speciation of methyl- and ethyl-mercury in hair of breastfed infants acutely exposed to thimerosal-containing vaccines.

Clin Chim Acta 2011 Aug 7;412(17-18):1563-6. Epub 2011 May 7.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Different chemical forms of mercury occur naturally in human milk. The most controversial aspect of early post-natal exposure to organic mercury is ethylmercury (EtHg) in thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) still being used in many countries. Thus exclusively breastfed infants can be exposed to both, fish derived methylmercury (MeHg) in maternal diets and to EtHg from TCV. Read More

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Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine: influence of gestational age and birth weight.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2010 ;73(19):1298-313

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

This study examined whether acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn rhesus macaques was influenced by receipt of a single neonatal dose of hepatitis B vaccine containing the preservative thimerosal (Th). Hepatitis B vaccine containing a weight-adjusted Th dose was administered to male macaques within 24 h of birth (n = 13). Unexposed animals received saline placebo (n = 4) or no injection (n = 3). Read More

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September 2010

WITHDRAWN: Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight.

Neurotoxicology 2009 Oct 2. Epub 2009 Oct 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX 78746, United States.

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www. Read More

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October 2009

Effectiveness of a bivalent Haemophilus influenzae type B-hepatitis B vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection among children born to hepatitis B e antigen-positive carrier mothers.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009 Sep;28(9):777-81

Monash Medical Centre, Monash University/Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Background: This observational study evaluated a modified immunoprophylactic regimen (hepatitis B immune globulin [HBIG]) and a dose of thimerosal-free monovalent hepatitis B (HB) vaccine shortly after birth followed by doses of thimerosal-free bivalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-HB vaccine at 2 and 4 months of age, and a booster at 12 months of age) in infants at high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (mothers HBeAg+).

Methods: Children >or=6 months of age vaccinated in routine clinical practice were tested twice (>or=6 months apart) for HBV antigens surface antigen (HBsAg) and "e" antigen, and for antibody to HBsAg. Partial nucleotide sequence analysis was performed on HBV DNA isolated from infants identified with a breakthrough chronic HBV infection. Read More

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September 2009

Mercury levels in premature and low birth weight newborn infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines.

J Pediatr 2009 Oct 26;155(4):495-9. Epub 2009 Jun 26.

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

Objective: We conducted a population-based pharmacokinetic study to assess blood levels and elimination of mercury after vaccination of premature infants born at > or =32 and <37 weeks of gestation and with birth weight > or =2000 but <3000 g.

Study Design: Blood, stool, and urine samples were obtained before vaccination and 12 hours to 30 days after vaccination from 72 premature newborn infants. Total mercury levels were measured by atomic absorption. Read More

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October 2009

Neonate exposure to thimerosal mercury from hepatitis B vaccines.

Am J Perinatol 2009 Aug 12;26(7):523-7. Epub 2009 Mar 12.

Universidade de Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Infant exposure to ethylmercury (EtHg) has not only increased but is starting earlier as a result of the current immunization schedule that uses thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). Although vaccination schedule varies considerably between countries, infants in less-developed countries continue to be exposed to EtHg derived from more affordable TCVs. We studied the exposure of newborns to EtHg from hepatitis B vaccines; hospital records (21,685) were summarized for the years 2001 to 2005 regarding date of birth, vaccination date, and birth weight. Read More

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Mercury levels in newborns and infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines.

Pediatrics 2008 Feb;121(2):e208-14

Department of Microbiology/Immunology, Pediatrics, and Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

Objectives: Thimerosal is a mercurial preservative that was widely used in multidose vaccine vials in the United States and Europe until 2001 and continues to be used in many countries throughout the world. We conducted a pharmacokinetic study to assess blood levels and elimination of ethyl mercury after vaccination of infants with thimerosal-containing vaccines.

Methods: Blood, stool, and urine samples were obtained before vaccination and 12 hours to 30 days after vaccination from 216 healthy children: 72 newborns (group 1), 72 infants aged 2 months (group 2), and 72 infants aged 6 months (group 3). Read More

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February 2008

Principal component analysis and discrimination of variables associated with pre- and post-natal exposure to mercury.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2008 Oct 21;211(5-6):606-14. Epub 2007 Dec 21.

Fundação Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil.

The variance of variables associated with neurodevelopment at 180 days, pre-natal variables (Hg in placenta, blood and hair) and post-natal Hg exposure (including Thimerosal-containing vaccines, TCV) were examined in 82 exclusively breastfed infants using principal component analysis (PCA). This multivariate method was applied to identify hierarchy and sets of interrelated variables. The PCA yielded a two-factor solution, explaining 92% of variance and summarizing most of the relevant information in the dataset matrix: the first component represented birth weight and vaccine (first doses of Hepatitis B and DTP) variability and explained 57% of variance; the second component represented a gradient of neurodevelopment (Gesell scores) and explained 35% of variance. Read More

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October 2008

Time of perinatal immunization, thimerosal exposure and neurodevelopment at 6 months in breastfed infants.

Acta Paediatr 2007 Jun 27;96(6):864-8. Epub 2007 Apr 27.

Fundação Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO, Brasil.

Aim: Brazilian newborns immunized with hepatitis-B (thimerosal containing vaccine, TCV) receive the first dose within 24 h if delivered in public hospitals, but at a later time if born in private hospitals. We compared neurodevelopment (ND) in infants born in a state hospital (immunized within 24 h) and in privately run hospitals (immunized 2-4 days postnatally).

Methods: We used the Gesell Developmental Schedules in 82 healthy exclusively breastfed infants at 6 months to assess motor skills, language development, comprehension capacity and social skills. Read More

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Perinatal hepatitis B transmission and vaccination timing in a managed care cohort: assessment of the temporary delay in newborn hepatitis B vaccination due to thimerosal content.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007 Apr;26(4):329-33

Division of Epidemiology, Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

Background: From July to September 1999, due to a concern of toxicity from exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines, the American Academy of Pediatrics and U.S. Public Health Service temporarily recommended delaying the administration of first dose of hepatitis B vaccine until the age of 2-6 months for infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen negative mothers. Read More

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Hair mercury in breast-fed infants exposed to thimerosal-preserved vaccines.

Eur J Pediatr 2007 Sep 20;166(9):935-41. Epub 2007 Jan 20.

Fundação Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil.

Because of uncertainties associated with a possible rise in neuro-developmental deficits among vaccinated children, thimerosal-preserved vaccines have not been used since 2004 in the USA (with the exception of thimerosal-containing influenza vaccines which are routinely recommended for administration to pregnant women and children), and the EU but are widely produced and used in other countries. We investigated the impact of thimerosal on the total Hg in hair of 82 breast-fed infants during the first 6 months of life. The infants received three doses of the hepatitis-B vaccine (at birth, 1 and 6 months) and three DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) doses at 2, 4 and 6 months, according to the immunization schedule recommended by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Read More

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September 2007

Vaccine safety controversies and the future of vaccination programs.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005 Nov;24(11):953-61

Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board, WHO Collaborating Centre for Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium.

In the years following the hepatitis B vaccination/multiple sclerosis controversy, a number of new issues regarding vaccine safety have been raised, in some cases leading to more debate and confusion. Against this background, an international group of experts was convened to review the current points of view concerning the use of thimerosal as a preservative and its potential risks; the suggested link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the alleged association between aluminum-containing vaccines/macrophagic myofasciitis and general systemic complaints; a possible link between vaccination and autoimmune pathology; and a hypothetical link between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism. At present, there are no data to conclude that childhood vaccines, and in particular hepatitis B vaccine, pose a serious health risk or justify a change in current immunization practice. Read More

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November 2005

Immunizations, neonatal jaundice, and animal-induced injuries.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2004 Aug;16(4):450-60

Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Published studies during the past year about three topics important to the pediatric clinician-- immunizations, neonatal jaundice, and animal-induced injuries-are concisely reviewed.

Recent Findings: Recent updates regarding vaccines including the questionable link with autism, implementation of universal influenza vaccination for young children, the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine against invasive disease, and new information on pertussis, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, and rotavirus vaccination are discussed. No association between measles/mumps/rubella vaccine or thimerosal-containing pertussis vaccine and autism is evident. Read More

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Autism and thimerosal-containing vaccines: lack of consistent evidence for an association.

Am J Prev Med 2003 Aug;25(2):101-6

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: In 1999, concerns were raised that vaccines containing the preservative Thimerosal might increase the risk of autism and/or other neurodevelopmental disorders.

Methods: Between the mid-1980s through the late-1990s, we compared the prevalence/incidence of autism in California, Sweden, and Denmark with average exposures to Thimerosal-containing vaccines. Graphic ecologic analyses were used to examine population-based data from the United States (national immunization coverage surveys and counts of children diagnosed with autism-like disorders seeking special education services in California); Sweden (national inpatient data on autism cases, national vaccination coverage levels, and information on use of all vaccines and vaccine-specific amounts of Thimerosal); and Denmark (national registry of inpatient/outpatient-diagnosed autism cases, national vaccination coverage levels, and information on use of all vaccines and vaccine-specific amounts of Thimerosal). Read More

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