10,707 results match your criteria thermogravimetric analysis


Pyrolysis of mustard oil residue: A kinetic and thermodynamic study.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 22;339:125631. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj 211004, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Critical analysis of thermogravimetric data, characterization of the biomass, and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses are crucial in the design of efficient biomass pyrolysis systems. In this study, characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic analysis was performed for pyrolysis of mustard oil residue (MOR). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with differential thermal analysis (DTA) was applied to study thermal decomposition behaviour of MOR at 10, 20, and 30 °C/min. Read More

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Investigation on the adsorption characteristics and influencing factors of diesel engine exhaust particulate matter.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Jiangsu Zhenjiang Environmental Monitoring Center Station, Zhenjiang, 212004, China.

In the exhaust pipe, the adsorption process of diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) is affected by the combination of its adsorption capacity and the environment. A diesel exhaust particle collection system was established to collect samples with different environmental conditions. The adsorption capacity of the samples was characterized by an isothermal adsorption test. Read More

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Mussel-inspired triple bionic adsorbent: Facile preparation of layered double [email protected]@metal-polyphenol networks and their selective adsorption of dyes in single and binary systems.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 9;420:126609. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Vegetables Quality and Safety Control, Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Vegetable Products, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, 100081 Beijing, China. Electronic address:

To effectively address the serious human health challenges and ecological damage caused by organic dyes in wastewater, we developed a novel bionic adsorbent ([email protected]@MPNs) for the selective adsorption and removal of malachite green (MG) and crystalline violet (CV). The adsorbent was prepared using a facile two-step method based on mussel-inspired chemistry and metal complexation. The physicochemical structure, surface morphology, and composition of the [email protected]@MPNs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Read More

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Pyrolysis of de-oiled yeast biomass of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32: Kinetics and thermodynamic parameters using thermogravimetric analysis.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 22;340:125534. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Material Resource Efficiency Division (MRED), CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur Haridwar Road, Dehradun 248005, Uttarakhand, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-HRDC Campus, Sector 19 Kamla Nagar, Ghaziabad 210002, India. Electronic address:

The increasing demand for natural resources has highlighted the need to search for unutilized carbon resource that satisfy the demand and pose a minor threat to the environment. Yeast is a microbe with large industrial applications, and the biomass leftover after fermentation needs utilization for achieving increased efficiency. De-oiled yeast biomass (DYB), the residue after yeast lipid extraction, has not yet been evaluated for its potential application in the pyrolysis process. Read More

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Smart Design of a pH-Responsive System Based on pHLIP-Modified Magnetite Nanoparticles for Tumor MRI.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences (Ural Branch), 620108 Yekaterinburg, Russia.

Magnetic FeO nanoparticles (MNPs) are often used to design agents enhancing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can be considered as one of the efficient methods for cancer diagnostics. At present, increasing the specificity of the MRI contrast agent accumulation in tumor tissues remains an open question and attracts the attention of a wide range of researchers. One of the modern methods for enhancing the efficiency of contrast agents is the use of molecules for tumor acidic microenvironment targeting, for example, pH-low insertion peptide (pHLIP). Read More

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An MSN-based synergistic nanoplatform for root canal biofilm eradication Fenton-enhanced sonodynamic therapy.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

The validity and biocompatibility of irrigating agents are imperative for the success of root canal therapy. The imperfections in the currently available irrigants highlight the fact that more advanced technologies and strategies are required for complete disinfection in endodontic treatments. In the present study, a Fenton reaction-enhanced antimicrobial sonodynamic therapy (SDT) platform was fabricated for root canal disinfection. Read More

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Recycling spent ternary lithium-ion batteries for modification of dolomite used in catalytic biomass pyrolysis - A preliminary study by thermogravimetric and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 1;337:125476. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control (AEMPC), Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST), Nanjing 210044, China. Electronic address:

This paper proposed a novel method for modification of dolomite (Do) using the leaching solution derived from the spent ternary LIBs. During catalytic pyrolysis of biomass, the modified Do showed a good performance on both reducing the activation energy and upgrading the volatile products. The apparent activation energy was decreased from 201 to 180 kJ/mol for the cellulose pyrolysis, and it was decreased from 80 to 75 kJ/mol for the lignin pyrolysis. Read More

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October 2021

Pyrolysis of almond (Prunus amygdalus) shells: Kinetic analysis, modelling, energy assessment and technical feasibility studies.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 30;337:125466. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Centre of Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow 226001, India; Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Lucknow 226 029, India.

The aim of this work was to study the thermogravimetric analysis through the pyrolysis of almond (Prunus amygdalus) shells for evaluating its potential for bioenergy at different heating rates (10, 25, and 50 K min). The activation energy values for the process were of the range of 153.0, 152. Read More

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October 2021

Accounting Carbonaceous Counterfeits in Graphene Materials Using the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Approach.

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

Counterfeits in the supply chain of high-value advanced materials such as graphene and their derivatives have become a concerning problem with a potential negative impact on this growing and emerging industry. Recent studies have revealed alarming facts that a large percentage of manufactured graphene materials on market are not graphene, raising considerable concerns for the end users. The common and recommended methods for the characterization of graphene materials, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy based on spot analysis and probing properties of individual graphene particles, are limited to provide the determination of the properties of "bulk" graphene powders at a large scale and the identification of non-graphene components or purposely included additives. Read More

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Effect of brominated flame retardant on the pyrolysis products of polymers originating in WEEE.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Laboratory of Polymers and Dyes Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Chemical recycling is an environmentally friendly method, which is often used for the recycling of plastics included in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), since fuels and secondary valuable materials can be produced. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are usually added into these plastics to reduce their flammability; but they are toxic substances. The aim of this work is to examine the thermal behaviour and the products obtained after pyrolysis of polymer blends that consist of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), polycarbonate (PC) and polypropylene (PP) with composition that simulates real WEEE, in the absence and presence of a common BFR, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), in order to investigate its effect on pyrolysis products. Read More

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Precursor effects on the physical, biological, and catalytic properties of Fagonia indica Burm.f. mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

We report a facile, green and precursor-based comparative study on the biosynthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) using anticancerous Fagonia indica as effective chelating agent. Biosynthesis was carried out using zinc sulfate and zinc acetate as precursor salts to make ZnO and ZnO NPs under similar experimental conditions which were characterized extensively for physical and biological properties. Scherrer equation deduced a mean crystallite size of ~23. Read More

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Nanometal Dust Explosion in Confined Vessel: Combustion and Kinetic Analysis.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 10;6(28):17831-17838. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Energy Engineering, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor, Malaysia.

Extensive application of metal powder, particularly in nanosize could potentially lead to catastrophic dust explosion, due to their pyrophoric behavior, ignition sensitivity, and explosivity. To assess the appropriate measures preventing accidental metal dust explosions, it is vital to understand the physicochemical properties of the metal dust and their kinetic mechanism. In this work, explosion severity of aluminum and silver powder, which can be encountered in a passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) solar cell, was explored in a 0. Read More

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Synthesis of magnetic nanocomposite microparticles for binding of chlorinated organics in contaminated water sources.

J Appl Polym Sci 2020 Oct 22;137(37). Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

In this work, the development of novel magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MNMs) via free radical polymerization for their application in the remediation of contaminated water is presented. Acrylated plant-based polyphenols, curcumin multiacrylate (CMA) and quercetin multiacrylate (QMA), were incorporated as functional monomers to create high affinity binding sites for the capture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as a model pollutant. The MNMs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Read More

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October 2020

Performance evaluation of crop residue and kitchen waste-derived biochar for eco-efficient removal of arsenic from soils of the Indo-Gangetic plain: A step towards sustainable pollution management.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 23;200:111758. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Discipline of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar, 382355, India.

Biochar was produced from wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), rice straw (Oryza sativa), and kitchen waste at varying pyrolysis temperatures (300°C-700 °C). The biochars were screened depending on their production and physicochemical properties for the adsorptive removal of arsenic (As). The morphological analysis by Field emission scanning electron microscope revealed a porous biochar surface. Read More

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Synergistic effect of UV, thermal, and chemical treatment on biological degradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) by Thermomyces lanuginosus.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jul 24;193(8):513. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, 440010, India.

The present analysis deals with the ability of Thermomyces lanuginosus to degrade pre-treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The synergistic effect of UV irradiation, heat, and acid pre-treatments on the biodegradability of the polymer was thoroughly assessed. Oxidative structural modifications such as the appearance of carboxylate and carbonyl groups in LDPE chains were recorded post the UV and heat treatments. Read More

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Enhancing Physicochemical Properties and Single Cell Performance of Sulfonated Poly(arylene ether) (SPAE) Membrane by Incorporation of Phosphotungstic Acid and Graphene Oxide: A Potential Electrolyte for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 19;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Energy Storage/Conversion Engineering of Graduate School (BK21 FOUR), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Center, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Jeollabuk-do, Korea.

The development of potential and novel proton exchange membranes (PEMs) is imperative for the further commercialization of PEM fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this work, phosphotungstic acid (PWA) and graphene oxide (GO) were integrated into sulfonated poly(arylene ether) (SPAE) through a solution casting approach to create a potential composite membrane for PEMFC applications. Thermal stability of membranes was observed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the SPAE/GO/PWA membranes exhibited high thermal stability compared to pristine SPAE membranes, owing to the interaction between SPAEK, GO, and PWA. Read More

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Structure/Properties Relationship of Anionically Synthesized Diblock Copolymers "" Chemically Modified Graphene.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 14;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Materials Science Engineering, University Campus-Dourouti, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece.

A novel approach to obtaining nanocomposite materials using anionic sequential polymerization and post-synthetic esterification reactions with chemically modified graphene sheets (CMGs) is reported. The anionically synthesized diblock copolymer precursors of the PS--PI-OH type were grafted to the chemically modified -COOH groups of the CMGs, giving rise to the final composite materials, namely polystyrene--poly(isoprene)--CMGs, which exhibited enhanced physicochemical properties. The successful synthesis was determined through multiple molecular characterization techniques together with thermogravimetric analysis for the verification of increased thermal stability, and the structure/properties relationship was justified through transmission electron microscopy. Read More

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Metal Organic Frameworks Derived Sustainable Polyvinyl Alcohol/Starch Nanocomposite Films as Robust Materials for Packaging Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 14;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

U.S.-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy (USPCAS-E), National University of Science and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

Bio-nanocomposites-based packaging materials have gained significance due to their prospective application in rising areas of packaged food. This research aims to fabricate biodegradable packaging films based upon polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and starch integrated with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or organic additives. MOFs offer unique features in terms of surface area, mechanical strength, and chemical stability, which make them favourable for supporting materials used in fabricating polymer-based packaging materials. Read More

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Photodynamic Inactivation of by PHEMA Films Loaded with Rose Bengal: Potentiation Effect of Potassium Iodide.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica, Universitat Jaume I, Av. V. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón, Spain.

Four formulations have been used to produce different poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) thin films, containing singlet oxygen photosensitizer Rose Bengal (). The polymers have been characterized employing Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and UV-vis Absorption Spectroscopy. When irradiated with white light (400-700 nm) films generated singlet oxygen (O), as demonstrated by the reactivity with O trap 9,10-dimethylanthracene (). Read More

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Synthesis and Antimicrobial Properties of Highly Cross-Linked pH-Sensitive Hydrogels through Gamma Radiation.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico.

The design of new polymeric systems for antimicrobial drug release focused on medical/surgical procedures is of great interest in the biomedical area due to the high prevalence of bacterial infections in patients with wounds or burns. For this reason, in this work, we present a new design of pH-sensitive hydrogels copolymerized by a graft polymerization method (gamma rays), intended for localized prophylactic release of ciprofloxacin and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for potential topical bacterial infections. The synthesized hydrogels were copolymerized from acrylic acid (AAc) and agar. Read More

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Polypropylene/Lignin/POSS Nanocomposites: Thermal and Wettability Properties, Application in Water Remediation.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 15;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

Compositing is an interesting strategy that has always been employed to introduce or enhance desired functionalities in material systems. In this paper, sponges containing polypropylene, lignin, and octavinyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OV-POSS) were successfully prepared via an easy and elegant strategy called thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). To fully explore the behaviour of different components of prepared sponges, properties were characterized by a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared measurement (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Read More

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Iron-Based Water Treatment Residuals: Phase, Physicochemical Characterization, and Textural Properties.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 14;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland.

Groundwater treatment residuals (GWTRs) are safe waste materials generated during drinking water treatment. GWTRs are mainly deposited in landfills, but the preferred solution should be reused or utilized for some components. To ensure proper sludge management, it is important to provide quality, chemical composition, and texture characteristics of GWTRs. Read More

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Sol-Gel Synthesis of the Double Perovskite SrFeMoO by Microwave Technique.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Unidad Morelia, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Antigua carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, Morelia 58190, Mexico.

The effect of microwave radiation on the hydrothermal synthesis of the double perovskite SrFeMoO has been studied based on a comparison of the particle size and structural characteristics of products from both methods. A temperature, pressure, and pH condition screening was performed, and the most representative results of these are herein presented and discussed. Radiation of microwaves in the hydrothermal synthesis method led to a decrease in crystallite size, which is an effect from the reaction temperature. Read More

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Effective Sorption of Europium Ions by Interpolymer System Based on Industrial Ion-Exchanger Resins Amberlite IR120 and AB-17-8.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

JSC "Institute of Chemical Sciences after A.B. Bekturov", Sh. Valikhanov Str. 106, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan.

The research is aimed at checking the impact of a remote interaction phenomenon on growth of sorption properties of ion-exchange resins during sorption of europium ions. Industrial ion exchangers Amberlite IR120 and AB-17-8 were selected as objects for the study. Investigation was undertaken using the following physico-chemical methods of analysis: conductometry, pH-metry, colorimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and atomic emission spectroscopy. Read More

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Comparative Analysis of Polyurethane Drive Belts with Different Cross-Section Using Thermomechanical Tests for Modeling the Hot Plate Welding Process.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 8;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute of Machine Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3 Street, 61-138 Poznań, Poland.

The paper presents a comparative analysis of the circular and flat cross-section belts using measurements of a set of thermomechanical parameters, contributing to research about hot plate welding of drive belts. On the basis of thermogravimetric and spectrophotometric tests, information about the same chemical composition of the two belts was obtained. Dynamic thermomechanical analysis and scanning differential calorimetry provided information about a small difference between belts, which disappeared when the material was placed in a state of increased temperature and mechanical stress. Read More

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Experimental Study on Activated Carbon-MIL-101(Cr) Composites for Ethanol Vapor Adsorption.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 8;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Pingleyuan Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100124, China.

In this study, the hydrothermal method was used to synthesize MIL-101(Cr), and activated carbon (AC) with different content was incorporated in to MIL-101(Cr), thereby obtaining AC-MIL-101(Cr) composite material with a huge specific surface area. The physical properties of MIL-101(Cr) and AC-MIL-101(Cr) were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption and desorption and specific surface area testing, and ethanol vapor adsorption performance testing. The results show that with the increase of activated carbon content, the thermal stability of AC-MIL-101(Cr) is improved. Read More

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Lignin Quantification of Papyri by TGA-Not a Good Idea.

Molecules 2021 Jul 20;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry for Renewable Resources, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, A-3430 Tulln, Austria.

Papyri belong to the oldest writing grounds in history. Their conservation is of the highest importance in preserving our cultural heritage, which is best achieved based on an extensive knowledge of the materials' constituents to choose a tailored conservation approach. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) has been widely employed to quantify cellulose and lignin in papyrus sheets, yielding reported lignin contents of 25% to 40%. Read More

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Heat Capacities of l-Histidine, l-Phenylalanine, l-Proline, l-Tryptophan and l-Tyrosine.

Molecules 2021 Jul 15;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic.

In an effort to establish reliable thermodynamic data for proteinogenic amino acids, heat capacities for l-histidine (CAS RN: 71-00-1), l-phenylalanine (CAS RN: 63-91-2), l-proline (CAS RN: 147-85-3), l-tryptophan (CAS RN: 73-22-3), and l-tyrosine (CAS RN: 60-18-4) were measured over a wide temperature range. Prior to heat capacity measurements, thermogravimetric analysis was performed to determine the decomposition temperatures while X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to identify the initial crystal structures and their possible transformations. Crystal heat capacities of all five amino acids were measured by Tian-Calvet calorimetry in the temperature interval from 262 to 358 K and by power compensation DSC in the temperature interval from 307 to 437 K. Read More

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Expanding the Chemical Space of Benzimidazole Dicationic Ionic Liquids.

Molecules 2021 Jul 11;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno 33, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Benzimidazole dicationic ionic liquids (BDILs) have not yet been widely explored in spite of their potential. Therefore, two structurally related families of BDILs, paired with either bromide or bistriflimide anions and bearing alkyl spacers ranging from C3 to C6, have been prepared. Their thermal properties have been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), while their electrical properties have been assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Read More

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Thermochemical and Toxic Element Behavior during Co-Combustion of Coal and Municipal Sludge.

Molecules 2021 Jul 9;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Resource and Environment Engineering, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei 230601, China.

The thermochemical and kinetic behavior of co-combustion of coal, municipal sludge (MS) and their blends at different ratios were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Simulation experiments were performed in a vacuum tube furnace to determine the conversion behavior of toxic elements. The results show that the combustion processes of the blends of coal and municipal sludge are divided into three stages and the combustion curves of the blends are located between those of individual coal and municipal sludge samples. Read More

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