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The topology of data: Opportunities for cancer research.

Bioinformatics 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5BN, United Kingdom.

Motivation: Topological methods have recently emerged as a reliable and interpretable framework for extracting information from high-dimensional data, leading to the creation of a branch of applied mathematics called Topological Data Analysis (TDA). Since then, TDA has been progressively adopted in biomedical research. Biological data collection can result in enormous datasets, comprising thousands of features and spanning diverse datatypes. Read More

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Regulation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by a lncRNA: a potential underlying mechanism explaining the association between CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A metabolism.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

The cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme is the most abundant drug-metabolizing enzyme in the liver, displaying large inter-person variability with unknown causes. In this study, we found that the expression of CYP3A4 is negatively correlated with AC069294.1 (ENSG00000273407, ENST00000608397. Read More

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Clozapine metabolism may be affected by Gilbert's syndrome: case report and discussion.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Cumbria, Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust.

A 34-year-old man with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and Gilbert's syndrome was treated with clozapine and found to have unusually slow and fluctuating metabolism of clozapine, resulting in difficulty achieving a well-tolerated and stable plasma clozapine level. Gilbert's syndrome is a relatively common (3-10% prevalence) genetic condition which results in altered hepatic metabolism. This case report demonstrates in vivo the finding of previous in-vitro research suggesting that the UGT1A1 7/7 mutation most commonly associated with Gilbert's syndrome may result in decreased clozapine excretion. Read More

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Blast Wound Dehiscence During Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Rebubbling in a Previous Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Case Report.

Cornea 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Department of Clinical Science and Translational Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurological and Vision Sciences, Eye Clinic, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; Department of Eye and Vision Science, Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; and Instituto Universitario Fernandez-Vega, Universidad de Oviedo and Fundacion de Investigacion Oftalmologica, Oviedo, Spain.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe a rare complication of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) rebubbling.

Methods: An 86-year-old woman with bilateral penetrating keratoplasty (PK) performed 20 years previously for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy underwent DMEK surgery for endothelial corneal decompensation in the left eye. Surgery was complicated in the postoperative period by repeated DMEK graft detachments requiring rebubbling. Read More

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Risks of Laparoscopic Harvest of Free Intestinal Flaps for Esophageal Reconstruction.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, FL Plastic Surgery Unit, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Performing ablative surgery using an laparoscope is a common practice. However, its use in the harvest of a segment of intestine for reconstruction has 2 major challenges: risk of damage to the vascular pedicle of the flap as well as to the vessels of other parts of the intestine that remain in the peritoneal cavity and risk of damage to the intestinal flap while pulling it out through a small opening in the abdominal wall. The aim of this study was to report advantages and disadvantages of harvesting free intestinal flaps using the laparoscopic method, explaining the challenges faced and lessons learned from this experience. Read More

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Postconcussion Exercise Volume Associations With Depression, Anxiety, and Dizziness Symptoms, and Postural Stability: Preliminary Findings.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Children's Hospital Colorado and Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (Dr Howell); Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (Ms Hunt and Drs Oldham and Meehan); and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Drs Aaron and Tan).

Objective: To examine the association between postconcussion exercise volume and changes in depression, anxiety, dizziness, and postural stability.

Design: Secondary analysis of a single-site prospective clinical trial.

Setting: Cerebrovascular research laboratory. Read More

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Reasons PAs leave their jobs.

JAAPA 2021 Aug;34(8):43-47

Harrison Reed practices critical care medicine at George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C., is an assistant professor in the PA program at George Washington University, and is a clinical editor for JAAPA. Kari Bernard is a child and adolescent psychiatry PA with Orion Behavioral Health Network in Eagle River, Ala. Noël Smith is research director at the American Academy of PAs in Alexandria, Va. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Purpose: Employee turnover is an important indicator that carries a heavy financial cost for healthcare organizations. Although previous research has highlighted some factors associated with turnover, the reasons physician assistants (PAs) leave their jobs are not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the most common reasons behind PA turnover. Read More

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Single-Sided Deafness Cochlear Implant Sound-Localization Behavior With Multiple Concurrent Sources.

Ear Hear 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

National Military Audiology and Speech Pathology Center, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Objectives: For listeners with one deaf ear and the other ear with normal/near-normal hearing (single-sided deafness [SSD]) or moderate hearing loss (asymmetric hearing loss), cochlear implants (CIs) can improve speech understanding in noise and sound-source localization. Previous SSD-CI localization studies have used a single source with artificial sounds such as clicks or random noise. While this approach provides insights regarding the auditory cues that facilitate localization, it does not capture the complex nature of localization behavior in real-world environments. Read More

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Diet Quality and the Risk of Impaired Speech Reception Threshold in Noise: The UK Biobank cohort.

Ear Hear 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-IdiPaz and CIBERESP (CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health), Madrid, Spain Université de Paris, Inserm U1153, Epidemiology of Ageing and Neurodegenerative diseases, Paris, France IMDEA-Food Institute. CEI UAM+CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: Previous studies have examined the association between several diet quality indexes and risk of hearing loss, based on self-reported information or on audiometry test, with inconsistent results. However, the impact of healthy diets on the capacity to listening in noise, a proxy of disability due to hearing loss, is unknown. This research assessed the prospective association between five diet quality indexes and the speech reception threshold in noise in the UK Biobank study. Read More

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Recurrence Rate and Risk Factors of Recurrence in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: a Single-Center Long-Term Prospective Study With a Large Cohort.

Ear Hear 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Myongji Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea These authors contributed equally to this work.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the long-term recurrence rate and correlations between recurrence and potential risk factors in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

Design: A total of 548 consecutive patients who demonstrated typical posterior or horizontal BPPV between January 2010 and December 2012 were included in this prospective study. All patients were contacted by phone every 6 months for 5 years and were asked to revisit the clinic when they experienced positional vertigo to be reexamined for recurrence. Read More

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Effects of food restriction on the conditioned reinforcing properties of an opioid-associated stimulus.

Behav Pharmacol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Food restriction promotes drug self-administration; however, the effects of food restriction on the conditioned reinforcing properties of drug-associated stimuli are less clear. We tested the extent to which food restriction modified the conditioned reinforcing properties of a remifentanil-associated stimulus following conditioning with 3.2 or 1. Read More

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Pre-existing Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertension Increased the Risk of Cardiotoxicity among Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Anti-Cancer Drugs.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Faculty of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC School of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Public Health, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Clinical Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: This population-based study was to investigate the potential risk factors of cardiotoxicity among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with anti-cancer drugs.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database to identify the CRC patients receiving chemotherapy (CT) alone or chemotherapy combined with targeted therapies (CCT) between 2000 and 2013. The patients enrolled were those who had the first diagnosis of CRC established ≥20 years and had no cancer history three years prior to the incident diagnosis of CRC. Read More

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Image-enhanced endoscopy for detection of second primary esophageal neoplasms in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer: prevalence, risk factors, and characteristics.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC School of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Endoscopy Center for Diagnosis and Treatment, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Esophageal second primary neoplasms (ESPNs) are common in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) patients and are associated with poor prognoses. The effectiveness of image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) has not been well established.

Methods: We reviewed the patients between April 2016 and April 2018 with HPSCC receiving ESPNs screening via white-light imaging, narrow-band imaging, and Lugol chromoendoscopy. Read More

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Renal Outcomes of Dialysis-Dependent Acute Kidney Injury in Noncritically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Study.

Blood Purif 2021 Jul 28:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Unit of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication among hospitalized patients, potentially affecting short- and long-term clinical outcomes. In this retrospective study, we evaluated renal outcomes in noncritically ill patients who required acute hemodialysis (HD) because of an AKI episode occurring during hospitalization.

Methods: Sixty-three hemodynamically stable patients with AKI undergoing acute intermittent HD were included. Read More

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CYP24A1 and SLC34A1 Pathogenic Variants Are Uncommon in a Canadian Cohort of Children with Hypercalcemia or Hypercalciuria.

Horm Res Paediatr 2021 Jul 28:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Objectives: Biallelic pathogenic variants in CYPA24A1 and SLC34A1 are causes of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Pathogenic variants in both may also give rise to hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis without previous hypercalcemia (renal group). Our objective was to examine the frequency of CYP24A1 or SLC34A1 variants in children with early hypercalcemia or late-onset hypercalciuria. Read More

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Emerging nanotechnology role in the development of innovative solutions against COVID-19 pandemic.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan, Faisalabad, 38000, PAKISTAN.

The COVID-19 outbreak is creating severe impressions on all facets of the global community. Despite strong measures worldwide to try and re-achieve normalcy, the ability of SARS-Cov-2 to survive sturdy ecological settings may contribute to its rapid spread. Scientists from different aspects of life are working together to develop effective treatment strategies against SARS-Cov-2. Read More

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Sex differences in zonulin in affective disorders and associations with current mood symptoms.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 21;294:441-446. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Departement for Psychiatry and Psychotherapeutic Medicine, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.

Introduction: The bidirectional connection between the brain and the gut within psychiatric entities has gained increasing scientific attention over the last years. As a regulator of intestinal permeability, zonulin acts as a key player on the interface of this interplay. Like several psychiatric disorders, intestinal permeability was associated with inflammation in previous findings. Read More

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Familial resemblance in mental health symptoms, social and cognitive vulnerability, and personality: A study of patients with depressive and anxiety disorders and their siblings.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 1;294:420-429. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, Psychiatry, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Investigating siblings of probands with affective disorders enables the identification of psychopathology-related risk features. Leveraging data from an older adult sample, as compared to most previous sibling studies, enabled us to study more definitive clinical profiling across the lifespan. We examined prevalence of depressive/anxiety disorders in siblings, proband-sibling resemblance in psychopathology-related features, and whether unaffected siblings showed higher levels of these features than healthy controls. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology and clinical risk factors for rifaximin-nonsusceptible Clostridioides difficile infection in South Korea: a prospective multicenter observational study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jul 25. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study was designed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile in South Korea, and to evaluate the risk factors of rifaximin-nonsusceptible C. difficile infections (CDI).

Methods: A total of 413 patients with CDI from two sentinel hospitals in South Korea were enrolled in this study. Read More

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Dose-dependent transcriptional effects of lithium and adverse effect burden in a psychiatric cohort.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 25:110408. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

NORMENT, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Lithium is the first-line treatment for bipolar disorder (BD), but there is a large variation in response rate and adverse effects. Although the molecular effects of lithium have been studied extensively, the specific mechanisms of action remain unclear. In particular, the molecular changes underlying lithium adverse effects are little known. Read More

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Cross-neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and P.1 variants in vaccinated, convalescent and P.1 infected.

J Infect 2021 Jul 25. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, "Santa Maria della Misericordia" Hospital, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Objectives: The emergence of new variants of concern (VOCs) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world significantly complicated the exit from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum neutralizing activity of three cohorts.

Methods: BNT162b2-elicited serum (N=103), candidates as hyper-immune plasma donors (N=90) and patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 P. Read More

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Right atrial papillary fibroelastoma arising from the Chiari network detected by echocardiography: a case report and literature review.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2021 Jul 25:107372. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Ultrasound, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China; Department of Ultrasound, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences. Electronic address:

Purpose: To improve our understanding of cardiac papillary fibroelastoma(PFE)and provide evidence for its treatment and prognosis.

Materials And Methods: We report a 54-year-old Chinese male who was hospitalized for a 14-day headache with a previous vertebral aneurysm history. A right atrial mass arising from the CN was detected by echocardiography and complete tumor resection was performed finally. Read More

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Accommodative response to ocular surface pain.

Clin Exp Optom 2021 Jul 28:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

Clinical Relevance: The discovery of an accommodative response to ocular surface stimulation could inform clinicians and patients that optical effects may occur due to ocular discomfort and perhaps an assessment of the accommodative system after carrying out interventions impacting the ocular surface, may be warranted.

Background: There have been no previous reports evaluating the effect of noxious stimulation on accommodation. Here, the accommodative response of healthy participants after the application of noxious corneal stimulation is characterised. Read More

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Notch1 signaling enhances collagen expression and fibrosis in mouse uterus.

Biofactors 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by abnormal activation of fibroblasts with increased synthesis of extracellular matrix components, including collagens. It may lead to loss of proper tissue architecture and organ function in clinical diseases such as systemic sclerosis and liver fibrosis. Excess accumulation of collagens is considered the primary indicator of fibrosis. Read More

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External valıdatıon of a prostate cancer nomogram on magnetıc resonance/transrectal ultrasound fusıon bıopsy ın men wıth prıor negatıve systematıc bıopsy.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jul 28:e14654. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To observe how the nomogram, which was created by Truong et al., works in an independent patient group by performing external validation.

Patients And Methods: One hundred eighty-one patients who had at least one prior negative 12-core standard systematic biopsy and lesions with PI-RADS scores of 3 or higher that were detected as a result of mpMRI were included in the study. Read More

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Dopaminergic neurons establish a distinctive axonal arbor with a majority of non-synaptic terminals.

FASEB J 2021 Aug;35(8):e21791

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Chemical neurotransmission typically occurs through synapses. Previous ultrastructural examinations of monoamine neuron axon terminals often failed to identify a pre- and postsynaptic coupling, leading to the concept of "volume" transmission. Whether this results from intrinsic properties of these neurons remains undefined. Read More

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Characteristic endoscopic images of gallbladder lesions in resected post-cholecystectomy specimens.

Dig Endosc 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University.

Gallbladder (GB) lesions are usually diagnosed using imaging modalities since even the bile cytology has a limited accuracy rate . Newly developed cholangioscopies enable targeted biopsy of bile duct lesions and classify benign and malignant lesions based on a speculum of biliary imaging findings . In our previous experience using cholangioscopy for diagnosing GB carcinoma , we expected that several GB lesions may be also endoscopically distinguished. Read More

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DE-ETIOLATED1 has a role in the circadian clock of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Plant Ecology and Evolution, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre and the Linnean Centre for Plant Biology in Uppsala, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-75236, Uppsala, Sweden.

Previous studies of plant circadian clock evolution have often relied on clock models and genes defined in Arabidopsis. These studies identified homologs with seemingly conserved function, as well as frequent gene loss. In the present study, we aimed to identify candidate clock genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha using a more unbiased approach. Read More

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Chimeric antigen receptor-modified human regulatory T cells that constitutively express IL-10 maintain their phenotype and are potently suppressive.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

MRC Centre for Transplantation Immunology, School of Immunology and Microbial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Clinical trials of regulatory T cell therapy in transplantation are currently entering phases IIa and IIb, with the majority of these employing polyclonal Treg populations which harbour a broad specificity. Enhancing Treg specificity is possible with the use of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR), which can be customized to respond to a specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA). In this study, we build on our previous work in the development of HLA-A2 CAR-Tregs by further equipping cells with the constitutive expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and an imaging reporter as additional payloads. Read More

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Dietary Patterns and Years Living in the United States by Hispanic/Latino Heritage in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

J Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Previous diet findings in Hispanics/Latinos rarely reflect differences in commonly consumed and culturally relevant foods across heritage groups and by years lived in the United States.

Objectives: We aimed to identify and compare a posteriori heritage-specific dietary patterns (DPs) and evaluate their associations with "healthfulness" [using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010)] and years living in the United States.

Methods: We used baseline data from a population-based cohort of 14,099 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 y in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Read More

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