299,873 results match your criteria therapies improved

Barriers and potential solutions to international collaboration in neuro-oncology clinical trials: Challenges from the Australian perspective.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Cooperative Trials Group for Neuro-Oncology, National Health and Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Centre, Sydney, Australia.

Aim: The neuro-oncology community in Australia is well positioned to collaborate internationally, with a motivated trials group, strong regulatory bodies and an attractive fiscal environment. We sought to identify gaps in the Australian neuro-oncology clinical trials landscape and describe strategies to increase international trial access in Australia.

Methods: We searched clinical trial registries to identify active adult primary brain cancer trials. Read More

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Pharmacotherapy Considerations in Heart Failure with Mildly-Reduced Ejection Fraction.

J Pharm Pract 2021 Jun 24:8971900211027315. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

22357Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, NC, USA.

Heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) has been classified using various definitions since its first mention in the literature in 2014. This group was most recently defined in the as HF with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 41% to 49%. An increasing emphasis has been placed on HFmrEF over the past several years, with many recent publications suggesting that common therapies used in HF with reduced ejection fraction provide benefit in this population as well. Read More

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Fundamentals of Capillary Electrophoretic Migration and Separation of SDS Proteins in Borate Cross-Linked Dextran Gels.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Barnett Institute, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.

Recent progress in the development and production of new, innovative protein therapeutics require rapid and adjustable high-resolution bioseparation techniques. Sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary gel electrophoresis (SDS-CGE) using a borate (B) cross-linked dextran (D) separation matrix is widely employed today for rapid consistency analysis of therapeutic proteins in manufacturing and release testing. Transient borate cross-linking of the semirigid dextran polymer chains leads to a high-resolution separation gel for SDS-protein complexes. Read More

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3D Adipose Tissue Culture Links the Organotypic Microenvironment to Improved Adipogenesis.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 24:e2100106. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 171 77, Sweden.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and impaired adipogenesis. Understanding the molecular underpinnings that control adipogenesis is thus of fundamental importance for the development of novel therapeutics against metabolic disorders. However, translational approaches are hampered as current models do not accurately recapitulate adipogenesis. Read More

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Practical guidance on the initiation, titration, and switching of basal insulins: a narrative review for primary care.

Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):998-1009

University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Many patients with type 2 diabetes will ultimately require the inclusion of basal insulin in their treatment regimen. Since most people with type 2 diabetes are managed in the community, it is important that primary care providers understand and correctly manage the initiation and titration of basal insulins, and help patients to self-manage insulin injections. Newer, long-acting basal insulins provide greater stability and flexibility than older preparations and improved delivery systems. Read More

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December 2021

The modern approach to esophageal palliative and emergency surgery.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):905

Division of Thoracic Surgery, CETOC-CHUM Endoscopic Tracheo-Bronchial and Oesophageal Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Thoracic surgeons currently have multiple options and strategies to guide treatment in esophageal palliative and emergency conditions. To guide the selection of an individualized palliative approach, physicians, including thoracic surgeons, must take into consideration many factors including prognosis, performance status and comorbidities of patients. For dysphagia more specifically, esophageal stent placement is the most widely used intervention for rapidly relieving dysphagia in inoperable esophageal cancer patients. Read More

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History of esophagectomy for cancer of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):897

Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

The introduction of anesthesia in 1846 created unseen opportunities for surgeons. By the end of the 19th century limited esophageal resection outside the chest had already been performed and the race for successful intrathoracic esophagectomy was on. The credit for the first successful esophagectomy for an intrathoracic cancer goes to Franz Torek of New York in 1913. Read More

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Butyrate ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver disease via reducing endotoxemia and inhibiting liver gasdermin D-mediated pyroptosis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):873

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Background: Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis and carries an elevated risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanism of AFLD has not been elucidated thoroughly, and there are still no efficient therapies in clinic. Notably, butyrate, one kind of short-chain fatty acids produced by gut microbiota, has been shown to improve methionine-choline-deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Read More

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Adoptive Natural Killer Cell Immunotherapy for Canine Osteosarcoma.

Front Vet Sci 2021 7;8:672361. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, United States.

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in both humans and dogs. It is a highly metastatic cancer and therapy has not improved significantly since the inclusion of adjuvant chemotherapy into disease treatment strategies. Osteosarcoma is an immunogenic tumor, and thus development of immunotherapies for its treatment, especially treatment of microscopic pulmonary metastases might improve outcomes. Read More

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Convalescent Plasma Therapy for COVID-19: A Graphical Mosaic of the Worldwide Evidence.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 7;8:684151. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Convalescent plasma has been used worldwide to treat patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and prevent disease progression. Despite global usage, uncertainty remains regarding plasma efficacy, as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have provided divergent evidence regarding the survival benefit of convalescent plasma. Here, we argue that during a global health emergency, the mosaic of evidence originating from multiple levels of the epistemic hierarchy should inform contemporary policy and healthcare decisions. Read More

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Cyclophosphamide Exposure Causes Long-Term Detrimental Effect of Oocytes Developmental Competence Through Affecting the Epigenetic Modification and Maternal Factors' Transcription During Oocyte Growth.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:682060. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Assisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is widely used in various cancer therapies and in immunosuppression, and patients can still have babies after CTX chemotherapy. CTX directly causes primordial follicle loss with overactivation and DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that maternal exposure to CTX before conception increases the incidence of birth abnormalities and alters the methylation of genes in the oocytes of offspring. Read More

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Liver transplantation in acute liver failure: Dilemmas and challenges.

World J Transplant 2021 Jun;11(6):187-202

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna 801507, Bihar, India.

Acute liver failure (ALF) refers to a state of severe hepatic injury that leads to altered coagulation and sensorium in the absence of pre-existing liver disease. ALF has different causes, but the clinical characteristics are strikingly similar. In clinical practice, however, inconsistency in the definition of ALF worldwide and confusion regarding the existence of pre-existing liver disease raise diagnostic dilemmas. Read More

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Ongoing challenges in implementation of lung cancer screening.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 May;10(5):2347-2355

Radiology Department, Hôpital Cochin, APHP.Centre-Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and around the world. Although available therapies have undergone considerable development in the past decades, the five-year survival rate for lung cancer remains low. This sobering outlook results mainly from the advanced stages of cancer most patients are diagnosed with. Read More

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A biocompatible stapling reaction for generation of constrained peptides.

Chem Sci 2020 Nov 4;12(2):669-674. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University Canberra ACT 2601 Australia

Constrained peptides are promising next-generation therapeutics. Peptide stapling is a particularly attractive technique to generate constrained macrocycles with improved biological activity and metabolic stability. We introduce a biocompatible two-component stapling approach based on the reagent 2,6-dicyanopyridine and a pseudo-cysteine amino acid. Read More

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November 2020

Combination of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab in the Treatment of HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer: A Review of the Emerging Clinical Data.

Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press) 2021 14;13:393-407. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Solid Tumor Oncology and Investigational Therapeutics, Levine Cancer Institute, Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is a relevant and effective target in breast cancer. The development of monoclonal antibodies against HER2 has revolutionized the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. The humanized monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, was the first in its class to be widely adopted. Read More

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Local ablation of pancreatic tumors: State of the art and future perspectives.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun;27(23):3413-3428

Department of Surgery, Istituto Nazionale Tumori -IRCCS- Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples 80131, Italy.

Background: Currently, the technologies most commonly used to treat locally advanced pancreatic cancer are radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation, and irreversible (IRE) or reversible electroporation combined with low doses of chemotherapeutic drugs.

Aim: To report an overview and updates on ablative techniques in pancreatic cancer.

Methods: Several electronic databases were searched. Read More

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Clinical characteristics, time course, treatment and outcomes of patients with immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated myocarditis.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jun;9(6)

CPL Associates, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have emerged as a front-line therapy for a variety of solid tumors. With the widespread use of these agents, immune-associated toxicities are increasingly being recognized, including fatal myocarditis. There are limited data on the outcomes and prognostic utility of biomarkers associated with ICI-associated myocarditis. Read More

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A questionnaire validated using local treatment guidelines may better predict future asthma risk: MARGIN study.

Respir Investig 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohnohigashi, Osakasayama, Osaka, 589-8511, Japan; Kinki Hokuriku Airway Disease Conference, 377-2 Ohnohigashi, Osakasayama, Osaka, 589-8511, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Asthma patients often feel satisfied with their current treatment, even when they have been diagnosed as uncontrolled by physicians. The present study investigated the differences in the evaluation of asthma control levels between patients and physicians, and the prediction of future risks.

Methods: Asthma patients receiving inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-2 agonists for 4 weeks or more were enrolled and followed-up for 24 weeks. Read More

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Role of the intestinal microbiome and microbial-derived metabolites in immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy of cancer.

Genome Med 2021 Jun 23;13(1):107. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are monoclonal antibodies that block immune inhibitory pathways. Administration of ICIs augments T cell-mediated immune responses against tumor, resulting in improved overall survival in cancer patients. It has emerged that the intestinal microbiome can modulate responses to ICIs via the host immune system and that the use of antibiotics can lead to reduced efficacy of ICIs. Read More

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Patient-derived cell lines and orthotopic mouse model of peritoneal carcinomatosis recapitulate molecular and phenotypic features of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 23;40(1):207. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Gastric adenocarcinoma with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is therapy resistant and leads to poor survival. To study PC in depth, there is an urgent need to develop representative PC-derived cell lines and metastatic models to study molecular mechanisms of PC and for preclinical screening of new therapies.

Methods: PC cell lines were developed from patient-derived PC cells. Read More

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Network Meta-Analysis of Ticagrelor for Stroke Prevention in Patients at High Risk for Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular Events.

Stroke 2021 Jun 24:STROKEAHA120032670. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Interventional Cardiology Department, Heart Institute, Medical School, University of Pécs, Hungary.

Background And Purpose: Preventive antiplatelet therapy is recommended for patients with cardiac or cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. Ticagrelor has an improved safety and efficacy profile in patients with acute coronary syndrome; however, data regarding stroke prevention remain controversial. We conducted a network meta-analysis to compare ticagrelor with other receptor antagonists (P2Y12) inhibitors and aspirin in monotherapy or combination in the treatment of patients with high risk for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, defined as coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, stroke or transient ischemic attack, or peripheral artery disease. Read More

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Immune checkpoint blockade reprograms systemic immune landscape and tumor microenvironment in obesity-associated breast cancer.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(12):109285

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA; UTHSC Center for Cancer Research, College of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Electronic address:

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has improved outcomes in some cancers. A major limitation of ICB is that most patients fail to respond, which is partly attributable to immunosuppression. Obesity appears to improve immune checkpoint therapies in some cancers, but impacts on breast cancer (BC) remain unknown. Read More

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Luspatercept as a therapy for myelodysplastic syndromes with ring sideroblasts.

Expert Rev Hematol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Introduction: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell diseases characterized by cell dysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis and risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The median age of 75 years at diagnosis is associated with the presence of comorbidities, which preclude intensive therapies like allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in most MDS patients. Risk stratification using the (Revised) International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS/IPSS-R) is necessary to plan individualized treatment. Read More

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Favorable response to second-line atezolizumab and bevacizumab following progression on nivolumab in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report demonstrating that anti-VEGF therapy overcomes resistance to checkpoint inhibition.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26471

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology.

Rationale: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a deadly disease in part due to decades of limited therapeutic options. With recent advances in our understanding of the tumor biology, several promising treatment strategies involving targeted and immunotherapies have emerged. However, enhancing their modest efficacy in HCC and other gastrointestinal malignancies is essential to improving survival. Read More

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The epigenetics of breast cancer - Opportunities for diagnostics, risk stratification and therapy.

Epigenetics 2021 Jun 23:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Hematology/Oncology/Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

The stage and molecular pathology-dependent prognosis of breast cancer, the limited treatment options for triple-negative carcinomas, as well as the development of resistance to therapies illustrate the need for improved early diagnosis and the development of new therapeutic approaches. Increasing data suggests that some answers to these challenges could be found in the area of epigenetics. In this study, we focus on the current research of the epigenetics of breast cancer, especially on the potential of epigenetics for clinical application in diagnostics, risk stratification and therapy. Read More

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Water-soluble gold(III)-Metformin complex alters mitochondrial bioenergetics in breast cancer cells.

ChemMedChem 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

University of Kentucky, Chemistry, UNITED STATES.

Chemical control of mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics can unravel fundamental biological mechanisms and therapeutics for several diseases including, diabetes and cancer. We synthesized stable, water-soluble gold(III) complexes (Auraformin) supported by biguanide metformin or phenylmetformin for efficacious inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. The new compounds were characterized following the reaction of [C^N]-cyclometalated gold(III) compounds with respective biguanides. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory activity of ginger modulates macrophage activation against the inflammatory pathway of monosodium glutamate.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jun 22:e13819. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Immunology, Zoology and Entomology Department, Faculty of Science (for Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been traditionally used as a flavor enhancer and is added to many foods. The chronic consumption of MSG has been suggested as causing toxicity, inflammation, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and pre-malignant changes. The use of medicinal plants and their products, such as ginger, against the effects of MSG has been suggested to have a protective effect. Read More

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The Effectiveness of the Bacteria Derived Extremolyte Ectoine for the Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 1;2021:5562623. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

CRI Ltd, Genter Str. 7, 50672 Cologne, Germany.

Nonpharmacological therapies with a good tolerability and safety profile are of interest to many patients with allergic rhinitis, as a relevant proportion of them have reservations about guideline-concordant pharmacological therapies due to their local irritations and side effects. Ectoine is a bacterial-derived extremolyte with an ability to protect proteins and biological membranes against damage caused by extreme conditions of salinity, drought, irradiation, pH, and temperature. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies attests its effectiveness in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, including allergic rhinitis. Read More

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The WISHED Randomized Controlled Trial: Impact of an Interactive Health Communication Application on Home Dialysis Use in People With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Can J Kidney Health Dis 2021 4;8:20543581211019631. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: While home dialysis therapies are more cost effective and may offer improved health-related quality of life, uptake compared to in-center hemodialysis remains low.

Objective: To test whether a web-based interactive health communication application (IHCA) compared to usual care would increase home dialysis use.

Design: Randomized control trial. Read More

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Use of transcranial direct current stimulation in poststroke postural imbalance.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 22;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Ritsumeikan University Graduate School of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Kyoto, Japan.

Independent gait following stroke is ultimate goal of rehabilitation. Non-invasive neuromodulation achieving it has never been reported. A 74-year-old woman suffered from subarachnoid haemorrhage, followed by hydrocephalus. Read More

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