771 results match your criteria theories define


Emotion, rationality, and social identity: a theoretical-methodological proposal for a cognitive approach.

Authors:
Paolo Totaro

Cogn Process 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil.

Humberto Maturana's biology of cognition and the studies of neuroscientist Antonio Damasio have proposed theories that indicate the role of emotion in cognitive processes. Emotion lies at the basis of any behavior. An emotional transition defines a transition from one domain of actions to the other, while emotions shared in human interaction define collective domains of action and thus also social identity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantum Solvers for Plane-Wave Hamiltonians: Abridging Virtual Spaces Through the Optimization of Pairwise Correlations.

Front Chem 2021 18;9:603019. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Quantum Computing Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.

For many-body methods such as MCSCF and CASSCF, in which the number of one-electron orbitals is optimized and independent of the basis set used, there are no problems with using plane-wave basis sets. However, for methods currently used in quantum computing such as select configuration interaction (CI) and coupled cluster (CC) methods, it is necessary to have a virtual space that is able to capture a significant amount of electron-electron correlation in the system. The virtual orbitals in a pseudopotential plane-wave Hartree-Fock calculation, because of Coulomb repulsion, are often scattering states that interact very weakly with the filled orbitals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Understanding Older Adults' Memory Distortion in the Light of Stereotype Threat.

Front Psychol 2021 10;12:628696. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA, United States.

Numerous studies have documented the detrimental impact of age-based stereotype threat (ABST) on older adults' cognitive performance and especially on veridical memory. However, far fewer studies have investigated the impact of ABST on older adults' memory distortion. Here, we review the subset of research examining memory distortion and provide evidence for the role of stereotype threat as a powerful socio-emotional factor that impacts age-related susceptibility to memory distortion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prefrontal lesions disrupt oscillatory signatures of spatiotemporal integration in working memory.

Cortex 2021 May 12;138:113-126. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; Life-Span Cognitive Neuroscience Program, Institute of Gerontology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address:

How does the human brain integrate spatial and temporal information into unified mnemonic representations? Building on classic theories of feature binding, we first define the oscillatory signatures of integrating 'where' and 'when' information in working memory (WM) and then investigate the role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in spatiotemporal integration. Fourteen individuals with lateral PFC damage and 20 healthy controls completed a visuospatial WM task while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. On each trial, two shapes were presented sequentially in a top/bottom spatial orientation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unique scales preserve self-similar integrate-and-fire functionality of neuronal clusters.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5331. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

College of Information and Computer Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

Brains demonstrate varying spatial scales of nested hierarchical clustering. Identifying the brain's neuronal cluster size to be presented as nodes in a network computation is critical to both neuroscience and artificial intelligence, as these define the cognitive blocks capable of building intelligent computation. Experiments support various forms and sizes of neural clustering, from handfuls of dendrites to thousands of neurons, and hint at their behavior. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A State-of-the-Art Survey of Tasks for Tree Design and Evaluation with a Curated Task Dataset.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Mar 5;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

In the field of information visualization, the concept of tasks is an essential component of theories and methodologies for how a visualization researcher or a practitioner understands what tasks a user needs to perform and how to approach the creation of a new design. In this paper, we focus on the collection of tasks for tree visualizations, a common visual encoding in many domains ranging from biology to computer science to geography. In spite of their commonality, no prior efforts exist to collect and abstractly define tree visualization tasks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Polycythaemia vera: molecular genetics, diagnostics and therapeutics.

Vox Sang 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

International Consultancy in Innovative Manufacturing and Quality/Safety of Blood - Derived Bioproducts, London, UK.

Polycythaemia vera is one of several classical myeloproliferative neoplasms that may occur in a juvenile onset or late-onset adult forms. It is linked to specific genetic mutations that cause a deleterious elevation in the patient's red cell mass. The discourse on genetics includes an exposé on the molecular biology of the disease and how a shared JAK2 V617F mutation can co-exist among three distinct neoplasms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The conceptualization of emotions across cultures: a model based on interoceptive neuroscience.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 22;125:314-327. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

College of Foreign Languages, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China.

Mental processes are recognized to be embodied, hence dependent upon functions of the body. Interoception (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Whiplash Injuries. Current State of Knowledge.

Authors:
Piotr Godek

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2020 Oct;22(5):293-302

Sutherland Medical Center, Warszawa.

Due to the rapid development of transport and a significant increase in the number of road users, whiplash injuries are a global health problem and a significant financial burden for both health care systems and insurance systems. The rich symptomatology of whiplash injuries with their impact on the somatic and emotional-behavioral sphere prompts us to define a new disease entity, namely Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD). The mechanism of whiplash injury is still under debate and theories explaining the pathogenesis of WAD are very diverse, ranging from purely biomechanical and hydrostatic to neurophysiological, emphasizing sensitization and dysfunctional neuromodulation of pain after whiplash injuries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Gerotranscendence and Alaska Native Successful Aging in the Aleutian Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

J Cross Cult Gerontol 2021 Mar 10;36(1):43-67. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

University of Minnesota Medical School, 624 E. 1st. Street, Suite 201, Duluth, MN, 55805, USA.

The population of the United States is aging and by 2045 it is projected that approximately 1 in every 6 Alaskans will be 65+. Delivering healthcare and meeting the needs of older Alaskans in their community is critical to supporting healthy aging and community sustainability. Alaska Native (AN) Elders are underserved with very few studies providing an emic perspective on their experience aging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bullying and Cyberbullying among Italian Adolescents: The Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Violent Behaviours.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 6;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IRPPS), 00185 Rome, Italy.

Background: The study of adolescents' behaviours and attitudes is crucial to define interventions for the containment of deviance and social discomfort. New ways of social interaction are crystallising violent behaviours which are moving more than ever on a virtual sphere. Bullying and cyberbullying share a common behavioural matrix that has been outlined through specific environmental and individual characteristics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The Clinical, Philosophical, Evolutionary and Mathematical Machinery of Consciousness: An Analytic Dissection of the Field Theories and a Consilience of Ideas.

Cureus 2020 Dec 18;12(12):e12139. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Neurology, Flowers Medical Group, Dothan, USA.

The Cartesian model of mind-body dualism concurs with religious traditions. However, science has supplanted this idea with an energy-matter theory of consciousness, where matter is equivalent to the body and energy replaces the mind or soul. This equivalency is analogous to the concept of the interchange of mass and energy as expressed by Einstein's famous equation [Formula: see text]. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Ethical climate in contemporary paediatric intensive care.

J Med Ethics 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Ethical climate (EC) has been broadly described as how well institutions respond to ethical issues. Developing a tool to study and evaluate EC that aims to achieve sustained improvements requires a contemporary framework with identified relevant drivers. An extensive literature review was performed, reviewing existing EC definitions, tools and areas where EC has been studied; ethical challenges and relevance of EC in contemporary paediatric intensive care (PIC); and relevant ethical theories. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Nonlinear generalized functions on manifolds.

Proc Math Phys Eng Sci 2020 Dec 16;476(2244):20200640. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.

In this work, we adopt a new approach to the construction of a global theory of algebras of generalized functions on manifolds based on the concept of smoothing operators. This produces a generalization of previous theories in a form which is suitable for applications to differential geometry. The generalized Lie derivative is introduced and shown to extend the Lie derivative of Schwartz distributions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Nancy E. Betz.

Authors:

Am Psychol 2020 Dec;75(9):1339-1341

This award is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). Research involving the original development of procedures, methodologies, or technical skills that significantly improve the application of psychological knowledge and provide direct and immediate solutions to practical problem areas will be considered, as will research that has informed psychologists on how better to observe, define, predict, or control behavior. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research.

Authors:

Am Psychol 2020 Dec;75(9):1338

This award is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). Research involving the original development of procedures, methodologies, or technical skills that significantly improve the application of psychological knowledge and provide direct and immediate solutions to practical problem areas will be considered, as will research that has informed psychologists on how better to observe, define, predict, or control behavior. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Variation cascades: resource pulses and top-down effects across time scales.

Ecology 2021 04 1;102(4):e03277. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, 06520, USA.

Top-down and bottom-up theories of trophic control have been fundamental to our understanding of community dynamics and structure. However, most ecological theories have focused on equilibrium dynamics and do not provide predictions for communities' responses in temporally fluctuating environments. By deriving the frequency response of populations in different trophic communities, we extend the top-down and bottom-up theories of ecology to include how temporal fluctuations in potential primary productivity percolate up the food chain and are re-expressed as population variability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Work Flow Experience in the Light of Leader-Member Exchange and Person-Job Fit Theories.

Psychol Rep 2020 Dec 20:33294120981927. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Administrative and Economic Science, Istanbul Aydın University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Based on the positive psychology approach, the present study claims that Leader-Member Exchange Theory and Person-Job Fit Theory could be significant antecedents of flow experience in the workplace, as individuals living in the 21st century spend most of their lives at work. Flow experience is a source of high motivation for employees in terms of both cognitive and emotional functions. Therefore, the concept can cause many psychological states of well-being, such as having fun, feeling happy, or optimism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Partnering With Oppressive Institutions for Social Change: Roles, Ethics, and a Framework for Practicing Accountability.

Authors:
McKenzie Javorka

Am J Community Psychol 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Community psychology is driven by the values of social justice, action, and accountability to oppressed groups, with a large body of literature devoted to understanding how to work in partnership with communities through participatory methodologies (e.g., community-based participatory research, participatory action research). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Is the oral cavity a reservoir for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding?

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jan 24;146:110419. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Private Practice for Oral, Maxillofacial and Facial Reconstructive Surgery, Maximilianstraße 5, 91522 Ansbach, Germany.

Limited knowledge about the contagiosity and case fatality rate of COVID-19 as well as the still enigmatic route of transmission have led to strict limitations of non-emergency health care especially in head and neck medicine and dentistry. There are theories that the oral cavity provides a favorable environment for SARS-CoV-2 entry and persistence which may be a risk for prolonged virus shedding. However, intraoral innate immune mechanisms provide antiviral effects against a myriad of pathogenic viruses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Nuclear Matrix Proteins and Their Prokaryotic Origins.

J Proteome Res 2021 01 8;20(1):518-530. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007, India.

Compared to prokaryotic cells, a typical eukaryotic cell is much more complex along with its endomembrane system and membrane-bound organelles. Although the endosymbiosis theories convincingly explain the evolution of membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, very little is understood about the evolutionary origins of the nucleus, the defining feature of eukaryotes. Most studies on nuclear evolution have not been able to take into consideration the underlying structural framework of the nucleus, attributed to the nuclear matrix (NuMat), a ribonucleoproteinaceous structure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Towards a fundamental safe theory of composite Higgs and dark matter.

Eur Phys J C Part Fields 2020 24;80(11):1088. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Ottawa-Carleton Institute for Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6 Canada.

We present a novel paradigm that allows to define a composite theory at the electroweak scale that is well defined all the way up to any energy by means of safety in the UV. The theory flows from a complete UV fixed point to an IR fixed point for the strong dynamics (which gives the desired walking) before generating a mass gap at the TeV scale. We discuss two models featuring a composite Higgs, Dark Matter and partial compositeness for all SM fermions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Designing process evaluations using case study to explore the context of complex interventions evaluated in trials.

Trials 2020 Nov 27;21(1):982. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Campus, London, W6 8RP, UK.

Background: Process evaluations are an important component of an effectiveness evaluation as they focus on understanding the relationship between interventions and context to explain how and why interventions work or fail, and whether they can be transferred to other settings and populations. However, historically, context has not been sufficiently explored and reported resulting in the poor uptake of trial results. Therefore, suitable methodologies are needed to guide the investigation of context. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Theoretical distinction between functional states in working memory and their corresponding neural states.

Vis cogn 2020 Sep 24;28(5-8):420-432. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging and Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Working memory (WM) is important for guiding behaviour, but not always for the next possible action. Here we define a WM item that is currently relevant for guiding behaviour as the functionally "active" item; whereas items maintained in WM, but not immediately relevant to behaviour, are defined as functionally "latent". Traditional neurophysiological theories of WM proposed that content is maintained via persistent neural activity (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Hard but so valuable to define hard criteria for empirical theories of consciousness.

Authors:
Lionel Naccache

Cogn Neurosci 2021 Jan-Jan;12(2):79-81. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, INSERM U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

I congratulate Doerig, Schurger, and Herzog for their stimulating contribution for an empirical approach to theories of consciousness. I must also admit that the excellent way Global Neuronal Workspace Theory (GNWT) I've contributed to since 2001 passes the test they designed may contribute to my enthusiasm (see Table 1 of their article). In this Comment, I focus on two points: highlighting a potential epistemological weakness of their approach, and proposing how GNWT can solve the 'small network argument. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

The relational mind: In between history, psychology and anthropology.

Authors:
Youval Rotman

Hist Psychol 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Tel Aviv University.

The article examines the new psychological language that developed in late antiquity to formulate a personal relationship with the one God. This language used the Greek term for the soul, the (Latin anima), and defined it as the relational faculty of the human mind. The perception of the human mind as relational became instrumental to formulate the experience of conversion, that is, a mental and emotional process of self-transformation, psychological in the modern sense of the term. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Viewing Meaningful Work Through the Lens of Time.

Front Psychol 2020 2;11:585274. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Human Sciences Department, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Authors have paid considerable attention to how to define the meaningful work construct. This has led to providing comprehensive definitions in the light of different theoretical frameworks that reflect a degree of contestation within the field. Several of them have proposed definitions linked to the individuals' pervasive sense of the value of their work. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Perfect Discrimination in Approximate Quantum Theory of General Probabilistic Theories.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Oct;125(15):150402

Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan.

As a modern approach for the foundation of quantum theory, existing studies of general probabilistic theories gave various models of states and measurements that are quite different from quantum theory. In this Letter, to seek a more realistic situation, we investigate models approximately close to quantum theory. We define larger measurement classes that are smoothly connected with the class of POVMs via a parameter, and investigate the performance of perfect discrimination. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Untying the correlation between apolipoproteins and rheumatoid arthritis.

Inflamm Res 2021 Jan 14;70(1):19-28. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Aim And Objective: The concentration of lipoproteins and apolipoprotein are extremely low in the synovial fluid of any healthy person as compared to the concentrations in plasma. However, in the synovial fluid of any diseased patient the amount of cholesterol and lipids is sharply increased. The current review defines the role of various apolipoproteins and lipoproteins and their constituent subfractions in the synovial fluid embarking its principal role in rheumatoid arthritis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Equivariant Flow-Based Sampling for Lattice Gauge Theory.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Sep;125(12):121601

Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

We define a class of machine-learned flow-based sampling algorithms for lattice gauge theories that are gauge invariant by construction. We demonstrate the application of this framework to U(1) gauge theory in two spacetime dimensions, and find that, at small bare coupling, the approach is orders of magnitude more efficient at sampling topological quantities than more traditional sampling procedures such as hybrid Monte Carlo and heat bath. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020