67 results match your criteria tga dense

Fast Polymeric Functionalization Approach for the Covalent Coating of MoS Layers.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMol), Universidad de Valencia, c/Catedrático José Beltrán 2, Paterna 46980, Spain.

We present the covalent coating of chemically exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS) based on the polymerization of functional acryl molecules. The method relies on the efficient diazonium anchoring reaction to provoke the in situ radical polymerization and covalent adhesion of functional coatings. In particular, we successfully implement hydrophobicity on the exfoliated MoS in a direct, fast, and quantitative synthetic approach. Read More

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Synthesis of Transition Metal Complexes and Their Effects on Combustion Properties of Semi-Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 18;14(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068, China.

Using introduction of MoO and Fe, Cu, or Zn into amphiphilic polymers (DN) via an ion-exchange reaction, different transition metal complexes, as retardants and smoke suppressants, including (DN)Mo, Fe(DN)Mo, Cu(DN)Mo, and Zn(DN)Mo were synthesized. Combined with the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), it could be determined that ionic bonding of these ions with DN occurred. Subsequently, the influence of flame-retardant, smoke-suppression, and mechanical properties of (DN)Mo, Fe(DN)Mo, Cu(DN)Mo, and Zn(DN)Mo on polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) were tested. Read More

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Structural and mechanical characterization of biofilm-associated bacterial polymer in the emulsification of petroleum hydrocarbon.

3 Biotech 2021 May 25;11(5):239. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Ecology (LEnME), Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769 008 India.

The marine bacterium PPS-19 isolated from the oil-polluted site of Paradip port, Odisha, India, was found to form a strong biofilm in 2% (v/v) crude oil. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) revealed biofilm components along with multi-layered dense biofilm of rod-shaped cells with 64.7 µm thickness. Read More

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Preparation of conductive cellulose fabrics with durable antibacterial properties and their application in wearable electrodes.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 3;183:651-659. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Light Industry and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address:

Electroless silver plating on fabrics can obtain conductive and antibacterial bifunctional materials which can be used as electrodes in wearable electronic products. However, these activities are deteriorated easily after washing because of the falling off of silver coating resulted from the weak adhesion. In order to improve the binding force between silver and cellulose fabrics, 3-mercaptopropytrimethoxysilane (MPTS) was applied to modify cellulose fabrics before silver electroless plating to develop the durable conductive fabrics with excellent antibacterial. Read More

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Development and Characterization of Cellulose/Iron Acetate Nanofibers for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Stem Cell Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Gangwon, Korea.

In tissue engineering, design of biomaterial with a micro/nano structure is an essential step to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) and to enhance biomineralization as well as cell biocompatibility. Composite polymeric nanofiber with iron particles/ions has an important role in biomineralization and collagen synthesis for bone tissue engineering. Herein, we report development of polymeric cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers (17 wt. Read More

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Synergistic Effects of Ladder and Cage Structured Phosphorus-Containing POSS with Tetrabutyl Titanate on Flame Retardancy of Vinyl Epoxy Resins.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on High-Tech Polymer Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The cage and ladder structured phosphorus-containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (DOPO-POSS) have been synthesized through the hydrolytic condensation of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO)-vinyl triethoxysilane (VTES). The unique ladder and cage-ladder structured components in DOPO-POSS endowed it with good solubility in vinyl epoxy resin (VE), and it was used with tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) to construct a phosphorus-silicon-titanium synergy system for the flame retardation of VE. Thermal stabilities, mechanical properties, and flame retardancy of the resultant VE composites were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), three-point bending tests, limiting oxygen index (LOI) measurement, and cone calorimetry. Read More

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Rendering Banana Plant Residues into a Potentially Commercial Byproduct by Doping Cellulose Films with Phenolic Compounds.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

LAQV/REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.

This study seeks to render residues from banana plants into a useful byproduct with possible applications in wound dressings and food packaging. Films based on cellulose extracted from banana plant pseudostem and doped with phenolic compounds extracted from banana plant leaves were developed. The phenolic compounds were extracted using batch solid-liquid and Soxhlet methods, with different drying temperatures and periods of time. Read More

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Preparation and anti-leakage properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose-g-poly (butyl acrylate-co-vinyl acetate) emulsion.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Mar 1;255:117467. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Quangang Petrochemical Research Institute, Fujian Normal University, Quanzhou, 362801, China. Electronic address:

A hydroxyethyl cellulose-g-poly (butyl acrylate-co-vinyl acetate)(HEC-g-P (BA-co-VAc)) emulsion was synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization method from hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), butyl acrylate (BA) and vinyl acetate (VAc) in the presence of emulsifier sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). The structure, thermal stability and morphology of the emulsion were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and other analytical techniques. The results proved that BA and VAc monomers had grafted with HEC. Read More

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Influence of Antimony Oxide on Epoxy Based Intumescent Flame Retardation Coating System.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 17;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

Ethylenediamine modified Ammonium polyphosphate (EDA-MAPP), and Charring-Foaming Agents (CFA) was prepared via a simple chemical approach and further utilizes for the preparation of Epoxy resin based intumescent flame retardation coatings. The ratio belongs to MAPP and CFA was fixed at 2:1 ratio. Comparative thermo gravimetric analysis TGA study of Modified Ammonium polyphosphate (MAPP) and Ammonium polyphosphate (APP) investigated. Read More

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November 2020

NaCO-modified CaO-based CO sorbents: the effects of structure and morphology on CO uptake.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Nov;22(42):24697-24703

ETH Zürich, Laboratory of Energy Science and Engineering, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

Calcium looping (CaL) is a CO2 capture technique based on the reversible carbonation/calcination of CaO that is considered promising to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, the rapid decay of the CO2 uptake of CaO over repeated cycles of carbonation and calcination due to sintering limits its implementation at the industrial scale. Thus, the development of material design strategies to stabilize the CO2 uptake capacity of CaO is paramount. Read More

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November 2020

Spalling Resistance of Fiber-Reinforced Ultra-High-Strength Concrete Subjected to the ISO-834 Standard Fire Curve: Effects of Thermal Strain and Water Vapor Pressure.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Aug 27;13(17). Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Architectural Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The prevention and mitigation of spalling in high-strength concrete (HSC) rely on mixing polypropylene (PP) as an additive reinforcement. The dense internal structures of ultra-high-strength concrete (UHSC) result in risks associated with a high thermal stress and high water vapor pressure. Herein, the effects of pore formation and thermal strain on spalling are examined by subjecting fiber-laden UHSC to conditions similar to those under which the ISO-834 standard fire curve was obtained. Read More

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Preparation and characterization of polyimide membranes modified by a task-specific ionic liquid based on Schiff base for CO/N separation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 21;28(1):738-753. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

School of Petrochemical Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Liaoyang, 111003, People's Republic of China.

In order to increase CO/N selectivity of polyimide (PI) dense membranes, task-specific ionic liquid (TSIL), 1-aminoethyl-3-buthylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([NHebim][PF]), has been grafted to polymer chains as large side groups by forming the structure of Schiff base for the first time. The modified membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA), and stress-strain testing. The results showed that TSIL had been successfully linked to PI chains by forming "C=N. Read More

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January 2021

Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of PEG-BP-BaYbF nanoparticles for computed tomography imaging and their toxicity.

J Mater Chem B 2020 09 29;8(34):7723-7732. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Imaging Chemistry & Biology, School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most widespread imaging techniques in clinical use worldwide. CT contrast agents are administered to improve soft tissue contrast and highlight blood vessels. However, the range of CT contrast agents available in the clinic is limited and they suffer from short-circulation times and low k-edge values that result in the need for high doses for in vivo applications. Read More

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September 2020

Novel Mixed Matrix Sodium Alginate-Fullerenol Membranes: Development, Characterization, and Study in Pervaporation Dehydration of Isopropanol.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Apr 9;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russia.

Novel mixed matrix dense and supported membranes based on biopolymer sodium alginate (SA) modified by fullerenol were developed. Two kinds of SA-fullerenol membranes were investigated: untreated and cross-linked by immersing the dry membranes in 1.25 wt % calcium chloride (CaCl) in water for 10 min. Read More

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Cell-free scaffold from jellyfish Cassiopea andromeda (Cnidaria; Scyphozoa) for skin tissue engineering.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Jun 19;111:110748. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla, Querétaro, Mexico.

Disruption of the continuous cutaneous membrane in the integumentary system is considered a health problem of high cost for any nation. Several attempts have been made for developing skin substitutes in order to restore injured tissue including autologous implants and the use of scaffolds based on synthetic and natural materials. Current biomaterials used for skin tissue repair include several scaffold matrices types, synthetic or natural, absorbable, degradable or non-degradable polymers, porous or dense scaffolds, and cells capsulated in hydrogels or spheroids systems so forth. Read More

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Synthesis of a Carrageenan-Iron Complex and Its Effect on Flame Retardancy and Smoke Suppression for Waterborne Epoxy.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Oct 14;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 14.

SinO-Spanish Advanced Materials Institute, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142, China.

A k-carrageenan-iron complex (KC-Fe) was synthesized by complexation between degraded KC and FeCl. Furthermore, KC-Fe and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) were simultaneously added into waterborne epoxy (EP) to improve its flame retardancy and smoke suppression performance. The structure and properties of KC-Fe were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD). Read More

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October 2019

Fabrication and characterization of strontium-hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin biocomposite nanospheres for bone-tissue engineering applications.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jan 5;142:366-375. Epub 2019 Oct 5.

Key Laboratory of Oral Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Oral Disease, Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510140, China. Electronic address:

Osteoinductive bone filling biomaterials are in high demand for effective bone defect reconstruction. In this study, we aimed to design both organic and inorganic substances containing strontium-doped hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin (SrHA/SF) biocomposite nanospheres as an osteoinductive bone defect-filling biomaterial. SrHA/SF nanospheres were prepared with different concentration of Sr using ultrasonic coprecipitation method. Read More

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January 2020

Protein Corona over Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Influence of the Pore Diameter on Competitive Adsorption and Application to Prostate Cancer Diagnostics.

ACS Omega 2019 May 22;4(5):8852-8861. Epub 2019 May 22.

Instituto de Tecnología Química, Universitat Politècnica de València-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avenida de los Naranjos s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

Diagnostic tests based on proteomics analysis can have significant advantages over more traditional biochemical tests. However, low molecular weight (MW) protein biomarkers are difficult to identify by standard mass spectrometric analysis, as they are usually present at low concentrations and are masked by more abundant resident proteins. We have previously shown that mesoporous silica nanoparticles are able to capture a predominantly low MW protein fraction from the serum, as compared to the protein corona (PC) adsorbed onto dense silica nanoparticles. Read More

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Carboxymethyl cellulose/sodium alginate/chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride ternary system for edible coatings.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Oct 2;139:614-620. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, Taibah University, P.O. Box 344, Madina, Saudi Arabia.

Chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride (CBg) was prepared as a novel multifunctional biodegradable polymer with antimicrobial and excellent water-solubility properties, and used as a crosslinker to prepare carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/alginate (A)/CBg edible coating. FTIR confirmed the successful preparation of CBg and CMC/A/CBg films. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction showed that the amorphous structure of CMC/A had some degree of order after CBg addition. Read More

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October 2019

Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Acetate Propionate Films Functionalized with Reactive Ionic Liquids.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Jul 20;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 20.

Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarina Street 7, 87-100 Torun, Poland.

1-(1,3-diethoxy-1,3-dioxopropan-2-ylo)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (RIL1_Br), 1-(2-etoxy-2-oxoethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (RIL2_Br), 1-(2-etoxy-2-oxoethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (RIL3_BF4) ionic liquids were synthesized. Subsequently, the dense cellulose acetate propionate (CAP)-based materials containing from 9 to 28.6 wt % of these reactive ionic liquids were elaborated. Read More

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Curing of Epoxy Resin DER-331 by Hexakis(4-acetamidophenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene and Properties of the Prepared Composition.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Jul 17;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Belgorod National Research University, 308015 Belgorod, Russia.

The method of optical wedge revealed that the optimum temperature for compatibility of hexakis(4-acetamidophenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (ACP) and DER-331 epoxy resin is in the range of 220-260 °C. The interdiffusion time of components at these temperatures is about 30 min. The TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods revealed the curing temperature of 280 °С for this composition. Read More

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The multi-layer film system improved the release and retention properties of cinnamon essential oil and its application as coating in inhibition to penicillium expansion of apple fruit.

Food Chem 2019 Nov 2;299:125109. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, PR China. Electronic address:

The aim of this research is to develop, characterize and utilize a multi-layer antibacterial film using chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA) as biopolymers and cinnamon essential oil (CEO) as main antibacterial ingredients. The dense cross-section of SA layer in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis verified that layer-by-layer method improved physical and mechanical properties of CS-CEO single layer film. The thermogravimetric (TGA) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the layer-by-layer method changed the intermolecular interaction and the thermal stability. Read More

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November 2019

Eggshell Based Nano-Engineered Hydroxyapatite and Poly(lactic) Acid Electrospun Fibers as Potential Tissue Scaffold.

Int J Biomater 2019 2;2019:6762575. Epub 2019 May 2.

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA.

Nanocomposite electrospun fibers were fabricated from poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and needle-like hydroxyapatite nanoparticles made from eggshells. The X-ray diffraction spectrum and the scanning electron micrograph showed that the hydroxyapatite particles are highly crystalline and are needle-liked in shape with diameters between 10 and 20 nm and lengths ranging from 100 to 200 nm. The microstructural, thermal, and mechanical properties of the electrospun fibers were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile testing techniques. Read More

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Investigation on the Flame Retardant Properties and Fracture Toughness of DOPO and Nano-SiO Modified Epoxy Novolac Resin and Evaluation of Its Combinational Effects.

Materials (Basel) 2019 May 10;12(9). Epub 2019 May 10.

ITMC-Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Worringer Weg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

In this study, the flame-retardant, thermal and mechanical properties of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and nano-SiO modified epoxy novolac resin is evaluated, and the combinational effects of both additives are verified. As a hardener, an isophorone diamine (IPDA) and polyetheramine blend is stoichiometrically added to obtain a low viscous epoxy resin system, suitable for resin injection and infusion techniques. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and the silica dispersion quality is affected by the DOPO modification and the nano silica particles. Read More

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Effect of Co(II) dopant on the removal of Methylene Blue by a dense copper terephthalate.

J Environ Sci (China) 2019 Jul 13;81:68-79. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Division of Chemistry, Department of Science, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand. Electronic address:

In this research, for the first time, a series of Co(II) doped copper terephthalate (CoX-CuBDC, where X is doping percentage) were successfully synthesized via solvothermal method and were tested for dye removal application. The physical properties of CoX-CuBDC were studied by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The incorporation of Co(II) dopant leads to isomorphic substitution of Cu(II) in the CuBDC framework with the maximum doping percentage of 22. Read More

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Effect of moisture content on thermal and water absorption properties of microfibrillar cellulose with polymeric additives.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 May 1;211:91-99. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Division of Food Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, UK. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was 1) to investigate the influence of polymeric additives such as carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and locust bean gum (LBG) added before and after homogenisation on the moisture uptake of microfibrillar cellulose (MFC) in the dry and semi-wet state; and 2) to further understand the thermally induced structural transitions of low moisture MFC in the presence of the polymeric additives. A higher moisture content in the highly dense MFC network maintains the fibrillated network structure, which is lost during the drying process resulting in MFC aggregates. The addition of polymeric additives results in the regaining of the structure upon redispersion of the dry material with CMC being more effective than LBG). Read More

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Preparation and characterization of resorcinol-dialdehyde starch-formaldehyde copolycondensation resin adhesive.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 27;127:12-17. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, PR China. Electronic address:

A resorcinol-dialdehyde starch-formaldehyde (RDSF) copolycondensation resin adhesive was prepared by substituting high reactive dialdehyde starch for a portion of formaldehyde in the formulation. Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR) analysis results confirmed that the copolycondensation reaction of the dialdehyde starch with resorcinol and formaldehyde was successful. The curing property, thermal stability, permeability and crystal structure of the RDSF adhesive were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Read More

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Influence of molecular weight on PNIPAM brush modified colloidal silica particles.

Soft Matter 2018 Dec;15(1):55-64

Priority Research Centre for Advanced Particle Processing and Transport, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

The effect of molecular weight and temperature on the phase transition and internal structure of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brush modified colloidal silica particles was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) between 15 and 45 °C. Dry particle analysis utilising transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) all confirmed the thickness of the polymer brush shell increased as a function of polymerisation time. Hydrodynamic diameter and electrophoretic mobility results revealed that the brush modified particles transitioned from swollen shells to a collapsed conformation between 15 and 35 °C. Read More

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December 2018

Construction of core-shell mesoporous carbon [email protected] cobaltite nanostructures as highly efficient catalysts towards 4-nitrophenol reduction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Mar 3;538:377-386. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Changping, Beijing 102249, China. Electronic address:

We herein report small sized nickel cobaltite (NiCoO) nanosheets (103-144 nm × 71-97 nm) firmly coated on mesoporous carbon nanofibers (MCNFs), as active and stable catalysts for degradation of 4-nitrophenol in sewage with NaBH as the reductant. MCNFs with surface O-functionalities were first constructed by morphology-conserved transformation of zinc-trimesic acid fibers, which provide scaffolds to anchor trisodium citrate-induced Ni-Co hydroxide nanosheets. Upon calcination, the resultant core-shell [email protected] nanostructures were fabricated and characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N adsorption/desorption techniques. Read More

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One stage olive mill waste streams valorisation via hydrothermal carbonisation.

Waste Manag 2018 Oct 18;80:224-234. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento, Italy. Electronic address:

An olive waste stream mixture, coming from a three phase-continuous centrifugation olive oil mill industry, with a typical wet basis mass composition of olive pulp 39 wt%, kernels 5 wt% and olive mill waste water 56 wt%, was subjected to hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 180, 220 and 250 °C for a 3-hour residence time in a 2-litre stainless steel electrically heated batch reactor. The raw feedstock and corresponding hydrochars were characterised in terms of proximate and ultimate analyses, higher heating values and energy properties. Results showed an increase in carbonisation of samples with increasing HTC severity and an energy densification ratio up to 142% (at 250 °C). Read More

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October 2018