21,237 results match your criteria tests executive


Mind-body Practices and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Findings from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Study.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Jun 9:102751. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Florida Policy Exchange Center on Aging, School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Objectives: Cognitive function is a key component of healthy aging. While conventional physical activities (walking, jogging, etc.) have been shown to support health in late-life, including cognitive health, it remains unclear whether traditional Eastern mind-body practices (MBP) have long-term cognitive benefits above and beyond conventional leisure physical activities. Read More

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Relationships between motor scores and cognitive functioning in FMR1 female premutation X carriers indicate early involvement of cerebello-cerebral pathways.

Cerebellum Ataxias 2021 Jun 11;8(1):15. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Smaller expansions of CGG trinucleotide repeats in the FMR1 X-linked gene termed 'premutation' lead to a neurodegenerative disorder: Fragile X Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) in nearly half of aged carrier males, and 8-16% females. Core features include intention tremor, ataxia, and cognitive decline, and white matter lesions especially in cerebellar and periventricular locations. A 'toxic' role of elevated and expanded FMR1 mRNA has been linked to the pathogenesis of this disorder. Read More

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Milk, yogurt and cheese intake is positively associated with cognitive executive functions in older adults of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Dr, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, H9X 3L9, QC, Canada.

Background: Dairy products provide essential nutrients such as calcium, vitamins B12 and D, and include bioactive peptides and fermented products, which may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. Yet, few studies of large contemporary cohorts have investigated this relationship using sensitive domain-specific cognitive tests.

Methods: In community-dwelling older adults of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2011-2015), we examined cross-sectional associations between total and specific dairy product intake and performance in three cognitive domains (executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed). Read More

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The course of gait speed during a 400m walk test of mobility limitations in community-dwelling older adults.

Z Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute for Biomedicine of Aging (IBA), Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Nuremberg, Germany.

Background: The 400‑m walk test (400MWT) of usual gait speed is an assessment of mobility limitations in geriatric medicine and sarcopenic research.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the course of gait speed during a 400MWT in community-dwelling older adults in terms of physical, psychological and general health-related outcomes. Possible plateau phases during the 400MWT could enable integrated measurements of short distance walk tests. Read More

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Halstead Category Test sensitivity to neurocognitive deficits in prenatal alcohol exposed and cognitively impaired children.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 11:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

: The Halstead Category Test (HCT) has been demonstrated to be sensitive to executive dysfunction in adults and children. Children with a history of significant prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) typically show deficits in executive functions in such areas as abstract reasoning, concept formation abilities, and cognitive flexibility. However, earlier research has not taken into account the demographic variables of age, sex, and ethnicity. Read More

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Executive Functions of Swedish Counterterror Intervention Unit Applicants and Police Officer Trainees Evaluated With Design Fluency Test.

Front Psychol 2021 11;12:580463. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Executive functions (EF) represent higher order top-down mechanisms regulating information processing. While suboptimal EF have been studied in various patient groups, their impact on successful behavior is still not well described. Previously, it has been suggested that design fluency (DF)-a test including several simultaneous EF components mainly related to fluency, cognitive flexibility, and creativity-predicts successful behavior in a quickly changing environment where fast and dynamic adaptions are required, such as ball sports. Read More

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The treatment of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in persons with spinal cord injury: An open label, pilot study of anticholinergic agent vs. mirabegron to evaluate cognitive impact and efficacy.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2021 Jun 10;7(1):50. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Spinal Cord Injury Service, South Texas Veteran's Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Study Design: Pre-post intervention.

Objectives: 1. To test whether replacement of oral anticholinergic (AC) agents with mirabegron for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) yields improved cognitive function in older persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Read More

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Addressing Racial/Ethnic Equity in Access to COVID-19 Testing Through Drive-Thru And Walk-In Testing Sites in Chicago.

Med Res Arch 2021 May 25;9(5). Epub 2021 May 25.

University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine.

Mile Square Health Center (MSHC), a network of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) run by the University of Illinois Hospital (UIH) in Chicago, established Drive-Thru and Walk-Up COVID-19 testing sites. The primary aim of the UIH/MSHC testing project was to increase testing capacity in the most affected, racial/ethnic minority communities. More than 7,500 tests were performed over a six-month period. Read More

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Cognitive changes and neural correlates after oral rehabilitation procedures in older adults: a protocol for an interventional study.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Jun 9;21(1):297. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Oral Diagnostics and Rehabilitation, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels Allé 8, Box 4064, 141 04, Huddinge, Sweden.

Background: Epidemiological studies show an association between masticatory function and cognitive impairment. This has further strengthened the notion that tooth loss and impaired masticatory function may be risk factors for dementia and cognitive decline. Animal experiments have indicated a causal relationship and several possible mechanisms have been discussed. Read More

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Road-Crossing Behavior in Complex Traffic Situations: A Comparison of Children With and Without ADHD.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Sq., PO Box: 1518, 9177948974, Mashhad, Iran.

All children are vulnerable to pedestrian injuries, but previous research suggests children diagnosed with ADHD may have elevated risk. Child pedestrian injury risk also increases with increasing traffic volume and speed. The current study examined three hypotheses: (a) Pedestrian behavior of children with ADHD is riskier than that of typically-developing children; (b) Children's pedestrian behavior is riskier with increased traffic complexity; and (c) Pedestrian behavior of children with ADHD is influenced more by complex traffic situations than behavior of typically-developing children. Read More

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Decreased Basal Ganglia Volume in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

J Stroke 2021 May 31;23(2):223-233. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology, J.P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background And Purpose: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common pathology of the leptomeningeal and cortical small vessels associated with hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic brain injury. Given previous evidence for CAA-related loss of cortical thickness and white matter volume, we hypothesized that CAA might also cause tissue loss in the basal ganglia.

Methods: We compared basal ganglia volumes expressed as a percentage of total intracranial volume (pBGV) of non-demented patients with sporadic and hereditary CAA to age-matched healthy control (HC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) cohorts. Read More

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Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training after Stroke (The HIIT Stroke Study) on Physical and Cognitive Function: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial: Treadmill interval training after stroke.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Stroke Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Olav's Hospital, The University Hospital in Trondheim, Norway.

Objective: To assess the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on physical, mental, and cognitive functioning after stroke.

Design: The HIIT Stroke Study was a single-blind, multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Specialized rehabilitation units at 3 Norwegian hospitals. Read More

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Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and domain-specific neurocognitive performance in adults with HIV.

J Neurovirol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Neurocognitive (NC) impairment (NCI) is an important cause of morbidity in persons with HIV (PWH). In the high-energy environment of the central nervous system, mitochondria contribute to neuroinflammation and aging, which may ultimately drive the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with health outcomes in PWH. Read More

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Diplopia in Parkinson's disease: Indication of a cortical phenotype with cognitive dysfunction?

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Visual disturbances are increasingly recognized as common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). In PD patients, intermittent diplopia has been found to be associated with the presence of visual hallucinations and the Parkinson's psychosis spectrum. Here, we investigated whether diplopia in PD is associated with other non-motor traits and cognitive impairment. Read More

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General description of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and assessment tools in Lebanon: A scoping review.

Schizophr Res Cogn 2021 Sep 21;25:100199. Epub 2021 May 21.

INSERM, Univ. Limoges, IRD, U1094 Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Tropical Neurology, GEIST, Limoges, France.

Many cognitive functions are affected in schizophrenia patients, particularly memory, attention, motor skills, executive function, and social cognition. Cognitive assessment is one of the best indicators of the functional and social prognosis of schizophrenic patients. In Lebanon, no study has yet examined the assessment of cognitive functions in patients with neurological or psychiatric diseases. Read More

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September 2021

The protective effect of olanzapine on ketamine induced cognitive deficit and increased NR1 expression in rat model of schizophrenia.

Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2021 15;13(2):22-35. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Assiut, Egypt.

Background: Impaired cognitive flexibility is the core manifestation of schizophrenia (SZ). Previous literature raised a claim against the effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAD) on cognitive and executive functions whose cause needs further investigation. Attention set-shifting task (ASST) tests the prefrontal cortex's (PFC) executive and flexibility functions. Read More

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Randomized Controlled Trial of the Picture Book Reading Program on Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged People.

Front Psychiatry 2021 19;12:624487. Epub 2021 May 19.

Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

To delay cognitive decline, it is important to engage actively in preventive activities from middle age (50-64 years of age). We have developed a cognitive intervention program using picture book reading, and demonstrated that it is effective for improving memory in older adults. However, the effect of the intervention on memory and other cognitive functions in middle-aged people has not been examined. Read More

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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and executive dysfunction in preschool children. A comparison of NEPSY and BRIEF-P assessments.

Encephale 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of the study was to explore prevalence, interrelations and accuracy of assessing psychopathology, intelligence, and executive functions (EF) in preschool children with ADHD (age 2.1-6.5 years). Read More

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Assessment of neuropsychological impairments in regular cannabis users.

Encephale 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Pôle hospitalo-universitaire de psychiatrie d'adultes du Grand Nancy, centre psychothérapique de Nancy, 1, rue du Docteur Archambault, 54521 Laxou, France; IADI, U1254, INSERM, Université de Lorraine, CHRU de Nancy Brabois, Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Background: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. It is responsible for cognitive dysfunction of memory, speed of information processing, attention, and executive functions. Cognitive performance depends on the level of study, tolerance, and duration of abstinence from cannabis use. Read More

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On-road driving test performance in veterans: Effects of age, clinical diagnosis and cognitive measures.

J Safety Res 2021 Jun 23;77:40-45. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, United States; Oregon Center for Aging & Technology, Portland, OR, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Introduction: Veterans are at heightened risk of being in a motor-vehicle crash and many fail on-road driving evaluations, particularly as they age. This may be due in part to the high prevalence of age-associated conditions impacting cognition in this population, including neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Read More

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Subjective organization in the episodic memory of individuals with Parkinson's disease associated with mild cognitive impairment.

J Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Word clustering (i.e., the ability to reproduce the same word pairs in consecutive recall trials of an unrelated word list) has been extensively investigated as a proxy of subjective organization (SO) of memorandum. Read More

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Impaired awareness: Why people with multiple sclerosis continue using cannabis despite evidence to the contrary.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Background: With widespread moves toward legalization of cannabis, increasing numbers of people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) are using the drug. Emerging MS-related data show that cannabis can cause or exacerbate cognitive dysfunction.

Objective: To understand why people with MS continue using cannabis despite adverse cognitive consequences. Read More

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The impact of shift work on the wellbeing and subjective levels of alertness and sleepiness in firefighters and rescue service workers.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2021 Jun 4:1-25. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Ergonomics, Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Shift work can be associated with health and sleep problems which may lead to cognitive impairment. This study investigated effects of shift work on sleep, health behaviours and cognitive functions of polish rescue service workers. We tested 18 paramedics working 12-hour shifts, 15 firefighters working 24-hours shifts, and 17 daytime workers. Read More

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Interrelationships Between Oxidative Stress, Cytokines, and Psychotic Symptoms and Executive Functions in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia.

Psychosom Med 2021 Jun;83(5):485-491

From the Department of Psychiatry, Shenzhen Kangning Hospital (Wu); Shenzhen Mental Health Center (Wu). Shenzhen, Guangdong; Yantai Automobile Engineering Professional College (Yu), Yantai; Department of Psychiatry (Wang, Guan), Hebei Province Rong-Jun Hospital, Baoding; Psychiatry Research Center, Beijing HuiLongGuan Hospital, Peking University HuiLongGuan Clinical Medical School (Xiu); and CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology (Zhang), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objective: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is involved in various abnormalities in oxidative stress markers and cytokines closely related to synaptic plasticity. However, the interactive effects among key cytokines, oxidative stress, and executive dysfunction and symptoms of schizophrenia have not been investigated yet.

Methods: A total of 189 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 60 controls were recruited in the current study. Read More

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Executive Function, Working Memory, and Verbal Fluency in Relation to Non-Verbal Intelligence in Greek-Speaking School-Age Children with Developmental Language Disorder.

Brain Sci 2021 May 8;11(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Psychology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece.

Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) is often associated with impairments in working memory (WM), executive functions (EF), and verbal fluency. Moreover, increasing evidence shows poorer performance of children with DLD on non-verbal intelligence tests relative to their typically developing (TD) peers. Yet, the degree and generality of relevant difficulties remain unclear. Read More

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Dialogic Reading to Empower Executive Functions in Preschoolers.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 9;8(5). Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Education, Languages, Intercultures, Literatures and Psychology (FORLIPSI), University of Florence, Via di San Salvi 12, 50135 Firenze, Italy.

Among the interventions recently developed to enhance Executive Functions (EFs) in preschoolers, Quincey Quokka's Quest (QQQ) is an illustrated book proposing EF activities embedded within a shared reading framework (Howard et al., 2017). In the present study, the Italian version of QQQ (QQQ) was tested in 20 typical developing 4-5 year old children. Read More

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Association of Initial Potassium Levels with the Type of Stroke in the Emergency Department.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 29;30(8):105875. Epub 2021 May 29.

TXP Medical Co. Ltd., Japan.

Serum potassium levels are considered as a marker of cerebrovascular emergencies but there is less clarity on the association between initial serum potassium levels recorded on patient's arrival at the emergency department with the type of stroke. This is a case-control study using data of a tertiary care hospital in Japan from April 2018 to September 2019. We identified adult patients with hemorrhagic stroke including subarachnoid hemorrhage (cases) and those with ischemic stroke (controls). Read More

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Associations between physical activity types and multi-domain cognitive decline in older adults from the Three-city cohort.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(6):e0252500. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier, Inserm, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Several studies suggest that physical activity improves cognitive functions and reduces cognitive decline, whereas others did not find any evidence of a neuroprotective effect. Furthermore, few cohort studies have analyzed the different physical activity types and particularly household activities. Our objective was to assess the association of two physical activity types with the decline in different cognitive domains in a large prospective cohort of community-dwelling older adults from the Three-city study. Read More

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Producing molecular biology reagents without purification.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(6):e0252507. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Natural Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

We recently developed 'cellular' reagents-lyophilized bacteria overexpressing proteins of interest-that can replace commercial pure enzymes in typical diagnostic and molecular biology reactions. To make cellular reagent technology widely accessible and amenable to local production with minimal instrumentation, we now report a significantly simplified method for preparing cellular reagents that requires only a common bacterial incubator to grow and subsequently dry enzyme-expressing bacteria at 37°C with the aid of inexpensive chemical desiccants. We demonstrate application of such dried cellular reagents in common molecular and synthetic biology processes, such as PCR, qPCR, reverse transcription, isothermal amplification, and Golden Gate DNA assembly, in building easy-to-use testing kits, and in rapid reagent production for meeting extraordinary diagnostic demands such as those being faced in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Read More

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Increased Plasma Level of 24S-Hydroxycholesterol and Polymorphism of CYP46A1 SNP (rs754203) Are Associated With Mild Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 13;13:619916. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Abnormal cholesterol metabolism is common in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and causes dementia. Cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) converts cholesterol into 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24-OHC) and maintains cholesterol homeostasis in the brain.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the roles of 24-OHC and the CYP46A1 (rs754203) polymorphism in patients with T2DM and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Read More

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