48,870 results match your criteria tested microbial

In Silico Mutagenesis-Based Remodelling of SARS-CoV-1 Peptide (ATLQAIAS) to Inhibit SARS-CoV-2: Structural-Dynamics and Free Energy Calculations.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China.

The prolific spread of COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from its epicenter in Wuhan, China, to every nook and cranny of the world after December 2019, jeopardize the prevailing health system in the world and has raised serious concerns about human safety. Multi-directional efforts are made to design small molecule inhibitors, and vaccines and many other therapeutic options are practiced, but their final therapeutic potential is still to be tested. Using the old drug or vaccine or peptides could aid this process to avoid such long experimental procedures. Read More

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Increases in glucocorticoids are sufficient but not necessary to increase cooperative burrowing in Damaraland mole-rats.

Horm Behav 2021 Jul 25;135:105034. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

Despite widespread interest in the evolution of cooperative behaviour, the physiological mechanisms shaping their expression remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that glucocorticoid (GC) hormones affect cooperative behaviour using captive Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis), a cooperatively breeding mammal. Within groups, individuals routinely contribute to public goods that include foraging tunnels, which provide all group members access to the tubers of desert plants they feed on, communal food stores and nests. Read More

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Sequence-specific capture of oligonucleotide probes (SCOPE): A simple and rapid microbial rRNA quantification method using molecular weight cut-off membrane.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Jul 28:AEM0116721. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-06, Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan.

A method named sequence-specific capture of oligonucleotide probes (SCOPE) was developed for quantification of microbial rRNA molecules in a multiplex manner. In this method, molecular weight cut-off membrane (MWCOM) was used for the separation of fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotide probes hybridized with rRNA from free unhybridized probes. To demonstrate proof-of-concept, probes targeting bacteria or archaea at different taxonomic levels were prepared and were hybridized with rRNAs. Read More

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Fluoroquinolone resistance in non-typhoidal isolated from slaughtered pigs in Thailand.

J Med Microbiol 2021 Jul;70(7)

Japan-Thailand Research Collaboration Center for Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

The emergence and spread of non-typhoidal (NTS) serovars resistant to fluoroquinolones and third- and higher-generation cephalosporins is a matter of great concern. Antimicrobial-resistant NTS is increasingly being discovered in humans, animals, food animals, food products, and agricultural environments. Pigs are considered a major reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant spp. Read More

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The effect of legacy gold mining on methylmercury cycling and microbial community structure in northern freshwater lakes.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada.

Smelting activities at Giant Mine (Yellowknife, NWT, Canada) have resulted in high sulfate and arsenic concentrations in nearby lakes. Here we tested whether historic smelting affects current mercury (Hg) cycling in 35 freshwater lakes over a 2800 km2 area around the former gold mine. We sampled lake water and sediment over three consecutive years (2015-2017) using a factorial sampling design that accounted for different environmental variables known to affect the net methylmercury (MeHg) levels in water. Read More

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Industrial biotransformations catalyzed by microbial lipases: screening platform and commercial aspects.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

PROIMI-CONICET, Av. Belgrano Y Pasaje Caseros, T4001 MVB, Tucuman, Argentina.

The successfulness of a lipase-catalyzed industrial process depends on a proper lipase selection. In this work, an alternative screening platform for industrially important biotransformations catalyzed by microbial lipases was proposed. Thus, the reactivity of sixty lipase activities from spore-forming microorganisms towards hydrolytic and transesterification reactions by using p-nitrophenyl palmitate as a chromogenic acyl donor substrate was explored. Read More

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A novel application of simple submersible yeast-based microbial fuel cells as dissolved oxygen sensors in environmental waters.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Sep 15;149:109831. Epub 2021 May 15.

Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Bandung, Indonesia. Electronic address:

In this study, yeast microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were established as biosensors for in-situ monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in environmental waters, with yeast and glucose substrates acting as biocatalyst and fuel, respectively. Diverse environmental factors, such as temperature, pH and conductivity, were considered. The sensor performance was first tested with distilled water with different DO levels ranging from 0 mg/L to 8 mg/L and an external resistance of 1000 Ω. Read More

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September 2021

Cellulolytic enzymes production guided by morphology engineering.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Sep 26;149:109833. Epub 2021 May 26.

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2032, United States. Electronic address:

Endoglucanase and xylanase are critical enzymes for liquefaction and enzyme hydrolysis of high solids lignocellulosic biomass to facilitate its transport and production of desired derived products. Here is reported how combinations of different spore concentrations and pH influence microbial morphology, and how this may be used to direct expression and secretion of enzymes by Aspergillus niger. While xylanase production is not affected by A. Read More

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September 2021

Gut microbial communities associated with phenotypically divergent populations of the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker, 1863).

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):15010. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021, China.

Chilo suppressalis (Walker, 1863) is a serious stem borer of rice and water-oat plants, and has phenotypically diverged into rice and water-oat populations. Insect gut microbiota plays an important role in the host life and understanding the dynamics of this complicated ecosystem may improve its biological control. The effect of diet and gut compartments on the gut microflora of divergent populations of C. Read More

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Determination of nasal carriage and skin colonization, antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis in Szczecin, Poland.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jul 23;21(1):701. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Independent Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Pomeranian Medical University, al. Powstańców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111, Szczecin, Poland.

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most frequent chronic and inflammatory skin condition. AD is characterized by damaged epidermal barrier, xerosis and pruritus of eczematous skin lesions which tend to flare. The duration and frequency of exacerbation of AD symptoms markedly affects the quality of patient life. Read More

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Microbial degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate with embedded polyhexamethylene guanidine derivatives.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biomaterials and Cosmetics Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

The aim of this study was to isolate biofilm-forming bacteria that are capable of degrading polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) derivatives. The three types of derivatives incorporated in PHB and their concentration affected the biodegradability of the tested films in both water and compost. The PHMG derivative granular polyethylene wax at the highest concentration significantly inhibited BOD in both environments. Read More

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Inhibition of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats by new Pediococcus acidilactici strains, vitamin producers recovered from human gut microbiota.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(7):e0255092. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Our aim was to isolate, identify and characterize probiotic bacteria as vitamin producers in particular B2 and B9. 150 human fecal samples were collected and used for isolation of vitamin producers-probiotics. 49 isolates were chosen for screening their genome by PCR for the presence of riboflavin and folic acid genes. Read More

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Novel Streptococcus uberis sequence types causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Hainan, China.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing, 100038, China.

Aim: To determine the molecular epidemiology, genotypes, and phenotypes of the major species of Streptococcus associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in Hainan, China.

Methods And Results: In total, 150 subclinical mastitis milk samples were collected from two large dairy farms in Hainan. On the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing, 39 samples were Streptococcus positive and the most frequently isolated species was Streptococcus uberis (n=29, 74. Read More

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Implementation of a pooled surveillance testing program for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in K-12 schools and universities.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 17;38:101028. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Mirimus Inc, 760 Parkside Ave. Suite 206, Brooklyn, NY 11226, USA.

Background: The negative impact of continued school closures during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic warrants the establishment of cost-effective strategies for surveillance and screening to safely reopen and monitor for potential in-school transmission. Here, we present a novel approach to increase the availability of repetitive and routine COVID-19 testing that may ultimately reduce the overall viral burden in the community.

Methods: We implemented a testing program using the SalivaClear࣪ pooled surveillance method that included students, faculty and staff from K-12 schools (student age range 5-18 years) and universities (student age range >18 years) across the country (Mirimus Clinical Labs, Brooklyn, NY). Read More

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Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates Recovered from Herbal Medicinal Products Sold in Nairobi, Kenya.

East Afr Health Res J 2017 1;1(1):40-46. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Medicinal herbs have been reported to be contaminated with microorganisms indigenous to the environment. These microbes become a threat when they harbour drug-resistant traits.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate phenotypic and genotypic drug-resistant traits of bacteria isolated from herbal medicinal products in Nairobi, Kenya. Read More

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Disentangling the Complexity of the Rumen Microbial Diversity Through Fractionation Using a Sucrose Density Gradient.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:664754. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Computational Biology and Microbial Ecology Group, Max Planck Tandem Group in Computational Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

The ruminal microbial community is an important element in health, nutrition, livestock productivity, and climate impact. Despite the historic and current efforts to characterize this microbial diversity, many of its members remain unidentified, making it challenging to associate microbial groups with functions. Here we present a low-cost methodology for rumen sample treatment that separates the microbial community based on cell size, allowing for the identification of subtle compositional changes. Read More

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Application of E-nose technology combined with artificial neural network to predict total bacterial count in milk.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Dalian University of Technology, Liaoning, China, 124221.

Total bacterial count (TBC) is a widely accepted index for assessing microbial quality of milk, and cultivation-based methods are commonly used as standard methods for its measurement. However, these methods are laborious and time-consuming. This study proposes a method combining E-nose technology and artificial neural network for rapid prediction of TBC in milk. Read More

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Temperature, phytoplankton density and bacteria diversity drive the biotransformation of micropollutants in a lake ecosystem.

Water Res 2021 Jul 7;202:117412. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland; Department of Chemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

For most micropollutants (MPs) present in surface waters, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, the contribution of biotransformation to their overall removal from lake ecosystems is largely unknown. This study aims at empirically determining the biotransformation rate constants for 35 MPs at different periods of the year and depths of a meso-eutrophic lake. We then tested statistically the association of environmental parameters and microbial community composition with the biotransformation rate constants obtained. Read More

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Polyethylene Migration from Food Packaging on Cheese Detected by Raman and Infrared (ATR/FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, N. Plastira 100, GR-70013 Heraklion, Greece.

For multiple years, food packaging migration has been a major concern in food and health sciences. Plastics, such as polyethylene, are continuously utilized in food packaging for preservation and easy handling purposes during transportation and storage. In this work, three types of cheese, Edam, Kefalotyri and Parmesan, of different hardness were studied under two complementary vibrational spectroscopy methods, ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, to determine the migration of low-density polyethylene from plastic packaging to the surface of cheese samples. Read More

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Development of Chitosan-Based Surfaces to Prevent Single- and Dual-Species Biofilms of and .

Molecules 2021 Jul 20;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

LEPABE-Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

Implantable medical devices (IMDs) are susceptible to microbial adhesion and biofilm formation, which lead to several clinical complications, including the occurrence of implant-associated infections. Polylactic acid (PLA) and its composites are currently used for the construction of IMDs. In addition, chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer that has been widely used in the medical field due to its antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, which can be dependent on molecular weight (Mw). Read More

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Bioguided Isolation of Active Compounds from against Methicillin-Resistant (MRSA) and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin Positive Strains (MSSA-PVL).

Molecules 2021 Jul 19;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology and Bioactive Molecules, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez 2202, Morocco.

Despite intensified efforts to develop an effective antibiotic, is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The multidrug resistance of bacteria has considerably increased the difficulties of scientific research and the concomitant emergence of resistance is to be expected. In this study we have investigated the in vitro activity of 15 ethanol extracts prepared from Moroccan medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of skin infections. Read More

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Microbial Synthesis and Evaluation of Fungistatic Activity of 3-Butyl-3-hydroxyphthalide, the Mammalian Metabolite of 3--Butylidenephthalide.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 15;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 25, 50-375 Wrocław, Poland.

Phthalides are bioactive compounds that naturally occur in the family Apiaceae. Considering their potentially versatile applications, it is desirable to determine their physical properties, activity and metabolic pathways. This study aimed to examine the utility of whole-cell biocatalysts for obtaining 3-butyl-3-hydroxyphthalide, which is the metabolite formulated during mammalian metabolism of 3--butylidenephthalide. Read More

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Natural Fungal Endophytes From Mediate Neutral to Positive Effects on Plant Biomass, Mineral Nutrition and Zn Phytoextraction.

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:689367. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LIEC, Nancy, France.

Phytoextraction using hyperaccumulating plants is a method for the remediation of soils contaminated with trace elements (TEs). As a strategy for improvement, the concept of fungal-assisted phytoextraction has emerged in the last decade. However, the role played by fungal endophytes of hyperaccumulating plants in phytoextraction is poorly studied. Read More

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The influence of the crowding assumptions in biofilm simulations.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009158. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Microorganisms are frequently organized into crowded structures that affect the nutrients diffusion. This reduction in metabolite diffusion could modify the microbial dynamics, meaning that computational methods for studying microbial systems need accurate ways to model the crowding conditions. We previously developed a computational framework, termed CROMICS, that incorporates the effect of the (time-dependent) crowding conditions on the spatio-temporal modeling of microbial communities, and we used it to demonstrate the crowding influence on the community dynamics. Read More

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Extraction of Au(III) by Microbially Reduced Metal-Organic Frameworks.

Langmuir 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

Gold is a critical resource in the jewelry and electronics industries and is facing increased consumer demand. Accordingly, methods for its extraction from waste effluents and environmental water sources have been sought to supplement existing mining infrastructure. Redox-mediated treatments, such as Fe(II)-based platforms, offer promise for precipitating soluble Au(III). Read More

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The sensitivity of planktonic cultures and biofilms of gram-negative bacteria to commercial disinfectant and antiseptic preparations.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Jul;66(7):438-447

State Research Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.

The in vitro antibacterial activity of 11 commercial disinfectant preparations and 8 antiseptics against 10 strains of the bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloaceae and Providencia stuartii obtained from international collections and isolated from neuroresuscitation patients in Moscow in 2018 was studied. The sensitivity of planktonic cultures to the preparations was determined by the method of serial dilutions in broth and the spot method on solid nutrient media, the sensitivity of biofilms by the applicator method. A general pattern was revealed: the level of sensitivity to tested disinfectants in clinical strains was lower than in reference strains. Read More

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Prebiotic inulin as a treatment of obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through gut microbiota: a critical review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, People's Republic of China.

The microbial-derived products, including short chain fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and secondary bile acids, have been shown to participate in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that prebiotics, such as oligosaccharide and inulin, have abilities to change the concentration of microbial-derived products through modulating the microbial community structure, thus controlling body weight and alleviating hepatic fat accumulation. However, recent evidence indicates that there are individual differences in host response upon inulin treatment due to the differences in host microbial composition before dietary intervention. Read More

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Microbial leakage evaluation of warm gutta - percha techniques.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2021 May-Jun;35(3 Suppl. 1):67-75

Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.

The aim of this study is to compare bacterial leakage of MicroHeat and continuous wave with and without endodontic sealer. Thirty-eight single-rooted extracted mandibular premolars were selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=8) and two control groups (n=3). Teeth were prepared with Mtwo NiTi files and obturated with MicroHeat or System B with or without endodontic sealer. Read More

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Understanding the mechanisms of biological struvite biomineralisation.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 25;281:130986. Epub 2021 May 25.

Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK. Electronic address:

The mechanisms of struvite production through biomineralisation were investigated for five microorganisms (Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium antiquum, Myxococcus xanthus, Halobacterium salinarum and Idiomarina loihiensis). After 72-96 h of incubation, the microbial strains tested increased the solution pH from 7.5 to 7. Read More

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October 2021

Effects of digested flours from four different sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) root varieties on the composition and metabolic activity of human colonic microbiota in vitro.

J Food Sci 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Department of Nutrition, Health Science Center, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil.

This study evaluated the effects of flours from four different sweet potato root (SPR) varieties, being two with white peel and two with purple peel, on the composition and metabolic activity of human colonic microbiota in vitro. The capability of these SPR flours (20 g/L) to cause alterations in relative abundance of different bacterial groups found as part of human colonic microbiota, as well as in lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production was evaluated during 48 hr of an in vitro colonic fermentation. The SPR flours were submitted to a simulated gastrointestinal digestion prior to use in experiments. Read More

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