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Validity of the 6-Minute Walk Test in Patients with End-Stage Lung Diseases Wearing an Oronasal Surgical Mask in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Respiration 2021 Apr 20:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, German Heart Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background And Objectives: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT), as a clinical assessment tool for functional exercise capacity, is an integral component of lung allocation scores (LASs). In times of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, patients underwent 6MWTs wearing a surgical mask in ambulatory care. We investigated the impact of wearing a mask on 6-minute walk distances (6MWDs). Read More

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Effects of different detergent-containing children's toothpastes on the viability, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human dental periodontal ligament stem cells and gingival stem cells in vitro.

Tissue Cell 2021 Mar 26;72:101538. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Istanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Pedodontics, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Detergents are the most commonly used compounds in toothpastes due to their foaming and cleaning peoperties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of children's toothpastes with different detergent content on the viability, the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of human mesenchymal stem cells.

Methods: The necessary tissues for human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (hPDLMSCs) and human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) isolation were obtained during extraction of 10 impacted third molar teeth. Read More

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Effect of uterine ozone therapy and anticoagulant sampling on oxidative stress parameters in mares.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 13;136:503-511. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Regional Campus of International Excellence 'Campus Mare Nostrum', University of Murcia, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.

With the purpose of assessing the effects of uterine ozone therapy and anticoagulant sampling on oxidative stress (OS) parameters in mares, ten mares underwent three consecutive days of uterine ozone therapy by flushing the uterus with ozonated lactated Ringer's solution followed by insufflation with ozone‑oxygen gas. Serum samples were obtained at baseline and days 3, 6, 10 and 17 to determine the effect of ozone therapy on OS markers. Plasma obtained with anticoagulants citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and heparin were at baseline and 6 days following therapy to determine the effect of anticoagulant on OS parameters. Read More

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Estimating perceived parental substance use disorder: Using register data to adjust for non-participation in survey research.

Addict Behav 2021 Mar 8;119:106897. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Aims: To estimate the prevalence of parental substance use disorder (PSUD) in the general population based on young adults' reports adjusted for non-participation using register-based indicators of PSUD.

Design: A national sample survey study combined with a retrospective register-based study. Setting Denmark. Read More

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Stranger rape; distinctions between the typical rape type and other types of rape. A study based on data from Center for Victims of Sexual Assault.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 1;80:102159. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, J.B. Winsløvs Vej 17, Odense C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this descriptive cohort study was to characterize stranger rape compared to other types of rape.

Method & Materials: All cases of women aged 12 years or older, who contacted a Center for Victims of Sexual Assault in the region of Southern Denmark and underwent a forensic examination in 2018, were collected and analyzed. Descriptive frequencies, Pearson's χ-test and Fisher's exact-test were performed. Read More

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Intraoperative Mapping of Parathyroid Glands using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 17;265:42-48. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

University of California, Davis Department of Surgery, Sacramento, California. Electronic address:

Background: Hypoparathyroidism is a common complication following thyroidectomy. There is a need for technology to aid surgeons in identifying the parathyroid glands. In contrast to near infrared technologies, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) is not affected by ambient light and may be valuable in identifying parathyroid tissue, but has never been evaluated in this capacity. Read More

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Using Computational Modelling to Capture Schizophrenia-Specific Reinforcement Learning Differences and Their Implications on Patient Classification.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Background: Psychiatric diagnosis and treatment have historically taken a symptom-based approach, with less attention on identifying underlying symptom-producing mechanisms. Recent efforts have illuminated the extent to which different underlying circuitry can produce phenotypically similar symptomatology (e.g. Read More

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The bullies are the leaders of the next generation: inherited aminergic neurotransmitter system changes in socially dominant zebrafish, Danio rerio.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 17:113309. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Anatomy, POB 63, 00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

We studied the social hierarchy in zebrafish and assessed differences in neurotransmitters and behavior in the F1 generation offspring of dominant and subordinate zebrafish (Danio rerio). We used behavioral assays to study locomotion, ability to complete cognitive tasks, social interaction and aggression. To study the neurochemical changes, we applied quantitative polymerase chain reaction, high pressure liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry. Read More

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Survival and lung transplant outcomes for individuals with advanced cystic fibrosis lung disease in the United States and Canada: an analysis of national registries.

Chest 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Div. of Respirology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Understanding how health outcomes differ for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with advanced lung disease in the United States (US) compared to Canada has health policy implications.

Research Question: What are rates of lung transplant (LTx) and rates of death without LTx in the US and Canada among individuals with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) <40% predicted?

Study Design: and Methods: Retrospective population-based cohort study, 2005-2016, using the US CF Foundation, United Network for Organ Sharing, and Canadian CF registries. Individuals with CF and ≥2 FEV measurements <40% predicted within a 5-year period, age ≥6 years, without prior LTx were included. Read More

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Natural Course of the Diffusion Capacity for Carbon Monoxide in COPD: Importance of Sex.

Chest 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Department, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The value of the single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) relates to outcomes in COPD patients. However, little is known about the natural course of DLco over time, the intersubject variability and the factors that may influence DLco progression.

Research Question: What is the natural course of DLco in COPD patients over time, and which other factors, including sex differences could influence this progression?

Study Design And Methods: We phenotyped 602 smokers (33% women) of which 506 (84%) had COPD and 96 (16%) had no airflow limitation. Read More

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Identifying Range-of-Motion Deficits and Talocrural Joint Laxity After an Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain.

J Athl Train 2021 Apr;56(4):408-417

University of Delaware, Newark.

Context: Approximately 72% of patients with an ankle sprain report residual symptoms 6 to 18 months later. Although 44% of patients return to activity in less than 24 hours after experiencing a sprain, residual symptoms should be evaluated in the long term to determine if deficits exist. These residual symptoms may be due to the quality of ligament tissue and motion after injury. Read More

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Apple Juice Preservation Using Combined Nonthermal Processing and Antimicrobial Packaging.

J Food Prot 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Zhejiang University.

This study investigated the effectiveness of pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment (19, 23, 30 kV/cm), pulsed UV light (PL) treatment (5 to 50 s; 1.04 J/cm 2 /s), and antimicrobial packaging (AP) treatment, either individually or combined, in inactivating bacteria and in maintaining the quality of fruit juices. Apple juice samples, inoculated with Escherichia coli K12 or native mold and yeast (M&Y), were treated by a bench scale PEF and/or PL processing systems and stored in glass jars with antimicrobial caps containing 10 µl of carvacrol (AP). Read More

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Quantification of Cover Test Prior and Post Pyridostigmine in Diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis.

J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2021 Apr 20:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Unit of Neurophthalmology, Consorci Parc de Salut MAR de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

: To assess the value of measuring diplopia before and after pyridostigmine intake to differentiate myasthenia gravis from sagging eye syndrome.To establish a threshold for a positive response to pyridostigmine in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis.: 15 patients with myasthenia gravis and 15 with sagging eye syndrome diplopia were evaluated. Read More

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The Association Between Testicular Self-Examination and Stages of Testicular Cancer Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Sciences, Testicular Cancer Research Collaborative, College of Health Professions and Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Testicular cancer (TC) is the most prevalent tumor diagnosed in men 15-40 years of age. Survivorship and quality of life dramatically decrease with late-stage diagnosis. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is a diagnostic method used to discover early-stage tumor incidence. Read More

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A Comparison of Young Adults With and Without Cancer in Concurrent Hospice Care: Implications for Transitioning to Adult Health Care.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Nursing, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

Concurrent hospice care provides important end-of-life care for youth under 21 years. Those nearing 21 years must decide whether to shift to adult hospice or leave hospice for life-prolonging care. This decision may be challenging for young adults with cancer, given the intensity of oncology care. Read More

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Treatment patterns for patients with advanced/metastatic cancers by site of care.

Am J Manag Care 2021 Apr 1;27(4):e105-e113. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Humana Healthcare Research Inc, 515 W Market St, Louisville, KY 40202. Email:

Objectives: To compare treatments, overall survival (OS), and total costs among patients receiving anticancer therapy in hospital outpatient vs physician office settings.

Study Design: This retrospective observational study utilized claims data from a large national health plan to identify patients with advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), or metastatic breast cancer (mBC) treated in hospital outpatient or physician office settings.

Methods: Patients enrolled in Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug or commercial plans for at least 180 days prior to and at least 30 days after start of first-line (1L) therapy were included. Read More

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Post-SNF outcomes and cost comparison: Medicare Advantage vs traditional Medicare.

Am J Manag Care 2021 Apr;27(4):140-146

Humana Healthcare Research, Inc, 500 W Main St, Louisville, KY 40202. Email:

Objectives: To compare outcomes and costs following skilled nursing facility (SNF) discharge for patients within a Medicare Advantage (MA) organization vs traditional Medicare (TM).

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of adults with a postacute SNF admission identified from MA claims (MA cohort: n = 56,228) and the Medicare 5% Limited Data Sets (TM cohort: n = 67,859).

Methods: Outcomes included hospitalization, proportion of days at home, and total medical costs during the 180 days post SNF discharge, and successful community discharge. Read More

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A dynamic simulation framework for CT perfusion in stroke assessment built from first principles.

Med Phys 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Departments of Bioengineering and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Purpose: Physicians utilize cerebral perfusion maps (e.g., cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, transit time) to prescribe the plan of care for stroke patients. Read More

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Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Survival of Patients with Rare Malignant Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumors: A Population-based Analysis.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Apr 20;41(2):342-347. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare malignant germ cell tumors that usually affect young females. To date, there have been few studies on YSTs. We evaluated the relationship between clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with ovarian YSTs and disease outcome based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Read More

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Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: all-poly versus metal-backed tibial component-a long-term follow-up study.

Int Orthop 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

S. Giovanni Calibita Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Isola Tiberina, 00186, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: While considered a satisfactory solution, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) still raises concerns in regard to its durability. These concerns particularly focus on the tibial component. This study aims to compare two different cemented tibial components belonging to the same UKA design: all polyethylene (AP) versus metal backed (MB), at a long-term follow-up. Read More

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Variation in rates of self-harm hospital admission and re-admission by ethnicity in London: a population cohort study.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, PO Box 84, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Purpose: To compare sex-specific rates of hospital admission and repeat admission following self-harm between ethnic groups in London and test whether differences persist after adjustment for socio-economic deprivation.

Methods: A population-based cohort of all individuals aged over 11 admitted to a general hospital for physical health treatment following self-harm between 2008 and 2018, using administrative Hospital Episode Statistics for all people living in Greater London.

Results: There were 59,510 individuals admitted to the hospital following self-harm in the 10 year study period, ethnicity data were available for 94% of individuals. Read More

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The prenatal exome - a door to prenatal diagnostics?

Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

West Midlands Fetal Medicine Centre, Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B15 2TG, UK.

Introduction: Prenatal exome sequencing (ES) allows parents the opportunity to obtain a rapid molecular diagnosis of monogenic etiology when their fetus is found to have structural anomalies detected on prenatal ultrasound. Such information can improve antenatal and neonatal counselling, decision making and management, and expand reproductive options in subsequent pregnancies.Areas covered:This review appraises the evidence, from a comprehensive search of bibliographic databases, for the introduction of ES into the fetal medicine care pathway when investigating congenital malformations. Read More

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Trueness and Precision of Economical Smartphone-Based Virtual Facebow Records.

J Prosthodont 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Research fellow and clinical lecturer, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia School of Dentistry, Foggia, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the trueness and precision of virtual facebow records using a smartphone as a 3D face scanner.

Material And Methods: Twenty repeated virtual facebow records were performed on two subjects using a smartphone as a 3D face scanner. For each subject, a virtual facebow was attached to his/her maxillary arch, and a face scan was performed using a smartphone with a 3D scan application. Read More

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Has ridesourcing reduced haze? An analysis using the Didi app.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Central China Development, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Environmental degradation, often evidenced by haze, has not only increased the cost of China's economic development, but its unfair distribution among regional development, social hierarchy, and generations has also reduced quality of life. Hence, this study uses cross-sectional data from Didi, a Chinese ridesourcing service company, from 2017 to study the impact mechanism of shared mobility on haze. First, it applies the generalized spatial two-stage least squares model after controlling for urban economic, geographic, transportation, meteorological, and policy variables. Read More

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Evaluation of the efficacy of laser-assisted flapless corticotomy in accelerating canine retraction: a split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial.

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthodontics, University of Damascus Dental School, Damascus, Syria.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of laser-assisted flapless corticotomy in the acceleration of canine retraction compared with the conventional technique and to evaluate patients' pain and discomfort levels after corticotomy.

Materials And Methods: A single-center randomized controlled trial was conducted on 18 class II division 1 patients (7 males, 11 females; age range: 16 to 24 years) who required the first-upper-premolar extraction followed by canine retraction. A split-mouth design was used in which the Er:YAG laser-assisted flapless corticotomy was randomly allocated to one side, whereas the other side served as the control side. Read More

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Neural Mechanisms Underlying Human Auditory Evoked Responses Revealed By Human Neocortical Neurosolver.

Brain Topogr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Carney Institute for Brain Sciences, Brown University, Providence, USA.

Auditory evoked fields (AEFs) are commonly studied, yet their underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used the biophysical modelling software Human Neocortical Neurosolver (HNN) whose foundation is a canonical neocortical circuit model to interpret the cell and network mechanisms contributing to macroscale AEFs elicited by a simple tone, measured with magnetoencephalography. We found that AEFs can be reproduced by activating the neocortical circuit through a layer specific sequence of feedforward and feedback excitatory synaptic drives, similar to prior simulation of somatosensory evoked responses, supporting the notion that basic structures and activation patterns are preserved across sensory regions. Read More

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The Effects of Exercise During a 10-Week Basic Military Training Program on the Physical Fitness and the Body Composition of the Greek Naval Cadets.

Mil Med 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Applied Mechanics and Naval Materials, Hellenic Naval Academy, Piraeus, Athens 185 39, Greece.

Introduction: The period of basic military training (BMT) is a sudden change in the individual habits of the trainees and is characterized by significant improvements in body composition such as the percentage of body fat (%BF) and lean body mass (BM). Research has shown that physical activity during the period of BMT lasting 7-10 weeks has positive effects on the physical condition and BM of cadets. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training combining cardiovascular conditioning, circuit strength training, swimming, team sports, and obstacle course on physical fitness and body composition during a 10-week BMT period over 4 years in the Hellenic Naval Academy (HNA). Read More

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Post-complete-basis-set extrapolation of conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster energies: can the convergence to the CBS limit be diagnosed?

A J C Varandas

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr 30;23(14):8717-8730. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Physics and Physical Engineering, Qufu Normal University, 273165 Qufu, China.

We assess benchmark correlation energies for 130 systems in test sets A24 and TS-106 both with the canonical CCSD(T) and explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 methods. Aiming at enhanced accuracy, the calculated raw energies from both sets are CBS extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit and subsequently post-CBS extrapolated. Attention is focused at total energies, since their accuracy reflects on that of the interaction energies. Read More

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The Effect of Acupressure on Fasting Blood Glucose and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2021 Apr;9(2):152-158

Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder. Non-pharmacological methods can be used for treatment of these patients. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of acupressure point on fasting blood glucose and glycosylated levels of diabetic patients. Read More

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The hierarchy of root branching order determines bacterial composition, microbial carrying capacity and microbial filtering.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 19;4(1):483. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Fine roots vary dramatically in their functions, which range from resource absorption to within-plant resource transport. These differences should alter resource availability to root-associated microorganisms, yet most root microbiome studies involve fine root homogenization. We hypothesized that microbial filtering would be greatest in the most distal roots. Read More

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