16,777 results match your criteria terms evolution

Life on Mars: Independent Genesis or Common Ancestor?

Alfonso F Davila

Astrobiology 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

NASA Ames Research Center, Exobiology Branch, Moffett Field, California, USA.

The possibility of biological transfer between planetary bodies is seldom factored into life detection strategies, although the actuality of such an event would have profound implications for how we interpret potential biosignatures found on other worlds. This article addresses the possibility of life on Mars in the context of a biological transfer and an independent genesis of life. The phylogenetic tree of life on Earth is used as a blueprint to interpret evidence of life and as a guideline to determine the likelihood that potential biosignatures could be expressed by martian organisms. Read More

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Supramolecular Copolymerization of Bichromophoric Chiral and Achiral Perylenediimide Dyes.

Front Chem 2021 26;9:652703. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Japan.

Propagation and amplification of chirality are considered to play an important role in the chemical evolution of biological homochirality. Stereochemical communications have been demonstrated to have a significant effect on the formation of chiral hierarchical structures in helical polymers, surface assemblies and supramolecular polymers. The formation of supramolecular copolymers based on chiral and achiral bichromophoric perylenediimide (PDI) dyes having a binaphtyl- and biphenyl-core-bridging unit, respectively, was investigated in terms of chiral amplification and propagation. Read More

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Lineage-specific plastid degradation in subtribe Gentianinae (Gentianaceae).

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 22;11(7):3286-3299. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt am Main Germany.

The structure and sequence of plastid genomes is highly conserved across most land plants, except for a minority of lineages that show gene loss and genome degradation. Understanding the early stages of plastome degradation may provide crucial insights into the repeatability and predictability of genomic evolutionary trends. We investigated these trends in subtribe Gentianinae of the Gentianaceae, which encompasses ca. Read More

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Genetic Causes of Non-pathogenic pv. Isolates in Kiwifruit Orchards.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:650099. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.

Bacterial canker disease has become the largest threat to kiwifruit cultivation and production. A monomorphic subpopulation of pv. biovar 3 (Psa3) is responsible for the pandemic worldwide. Read More

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Toll protein family structure, evolution and response of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to exogenous iridescent virus.

J Fish Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Shenzhen Key Lab of Marine Genomics, Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Molecular Breeding in Marine Economic Animals, BGI Academy of Marine Sciences, BGI Marine, BGI, Shenzhen, China.

Whiteleg shrimp is a widely cultured crustacean, but frequent disease outbreaks have decreased production and caused significant losses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a large innate immune family that is involved in the innate immune response. However, understanding of their regulatory mechanism is limited. Read More

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Horizons in Veterinary Precision Oncology: Fundamentals of Cancer Genomics and Applications of Liquid Biopsy for the Detection, Characterization, and Management of Cancer in Dogs.

Front Vet Sci 2021 23;8:664718. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

PetDx, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Cancer is the leading cause of death in dogs, in part because many cases are identified at an advanced stage when clinical signs have developed, and prognosis is poor. Increased understanding of cancer as a disease of the genome has led to the introduction of liquid biopsy testing, allowing for detection of genomic alterations in cell-free DNA fragments in blood to facilitate earlier detection, characterization, and management of cancer through non-invasive means. Recent discoveries in the areas of genomics and oncology have provided a deeper understanding of the molecular origins and evolution of cancer, and of the "one health" similarities between humans and dogs that underlie the field of comparative oncology. Read More

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Peripheral lung effect of elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor in adult cystic fibrosis.

J Cyst Fibros 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Respiratory Division, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium.

Despite being an important patient group, adult cystic fibrosis patients with an FEV below 40%predicted have been excluded from clinical trials with elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor. We conducted a real-life 3 months follow-up study in 14 adult CF patients (median FEV 34%predicted) demonstrating significant treatment effects in terms of FEV (an increase of 12%predicted at 4 weeks, remaining stable thereafter). Corresponding decreases in lung clearance index LCI (by 31%predicted, down from baseline 247%predicted) and ventilation heterogeneity in the acinar compartment (Sacin) (by 411%predicted, down from baseline 798%predicted) suggest a distinct peripheral lung effect. Read More

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Electroclinical features of MEF2C haploinsufficiency-related epilepsy: A multicenter European study.

Seizure 2021 Mar 30;88:60-72. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; Pediatric Neurology and Muscular Diseases Unit, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Purpose: Epilepsy is a main manifestation in the autosomal dominant mental retardation syndrome caused by heterozygous variants in MEF2C. We aimed to delineate the electro-clinical features and refine the genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with MEF2C haploinsufficiency.

Methods: We thoroughly investigated 25 patients with genetically confirmed MEF2C-syndrome across 12 different European Genetics and Epilepsy Centers, focusing on the epileptic phenotype. Read More

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Evolution of Micron-Spaced Patterns within Precipitating Patterns of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles in a Nanodot-Embedded PVA/PVP Film.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Basic Sciences & Humanities, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Jais, Amethi 229304, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Periodic pattern formation beyond conventional precipitation reactions of electrolytes is of greater importance for gaining insights into the driving forces behind spontaneous spatiotemporal pattern formation in living matter. The Liesegang phenomenon is considered to be one of the important models for understanding well-defined periodic patterns. In this study, we have used biomolecule-derived photoluminescent carbon nanodots as reducing agents that were embedded in thin polymer films. Read More

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Evolution of Pathology Patterns in Persons Who Died From COVID-19 in Italy: A National Study Based on Death Certificates.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 22;8:645543. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Statistical Service, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

In Italy, during the first epidemic wave of 2020, the peak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality was reached at the end of March. Afterward, a progressive reduction was observed until much lower figures were reached during the summer, resulting from the contained circulation of SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to determine if and how the pathological patterns of the individuals deceased from COVID-19 changed during the phases of epidemic waves in terms of: (i) main cause of death, (ii) comorbidities, and (iii) complications related to death. Read More

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Global Trends of Green Pesticide Research from 1994 to 2019: A Bibliometric Analysis.

J Toxicol 2021 19;2021:6637516. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management (UESM), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, North-West, South Africa.

The fast-growing world population places food production under enormous pressure to ensure food security. One of the most common methods to increase food production is the use of pesticides, but the continuous use thereof has numerous detrimental effects on the environment. The interest in biopesticides for a possible substitute has grown over the past two decades. Read More

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Detection of plasmid contigs in draft genome assemblies using customized Kraken databases.

Microb Genom 2021 Apr;7(4)

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK.

Plasmids play an important role in bacterial evolution and mediate horizontal transfer of genes including virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. Although short-read sequencing technologies have enabled large-scale bacterial genomics, the resulting draft genome assemblies are often fragmented into hundreds of discrete contigs. Several tools and approaches have been developed to identify plasmid sequences in such assemblies, but require trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. Read More

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Distinct evolutionary trajectories of MHC class I and class II genes in Old World finches and buntings.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biodiversity Studies and Bioeducation, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for key proteins of the adaptive immune system, which present antigens from intra-cellular (MHC class I) and extra-cellular (MHC class II) pathogens. Because of their unprecedented diversity, MHC genes have long been an object of scientific interest, but due to methodological difficulties in genotyping of duplicated loci, our knowledge on the evolution of the MHC across different vertebrate lineages is still limited. Here, we compared the evolution of MHC class I and class II genes in three sister clades of common passerine birds, finches (Fringillinae and Carduelinae) and buntings (Emberizidae) using a uniform methodological (genotyping and data processing) approach and uniform sample sizes. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychological well-being of students in an Italian university: a web-based cross-sectional survey.

Global Health 2021 04 6;17(1):39. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Section of Hygiene, University Department of Life Sciences and Public Health -Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Italy was the first European country to implement a national lockdown because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worldwide, this pandemic had a huge impact on the mental health of people in many countries causing similar reaction in terms of emotions and concerns at the population level. Our study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychological well-being in a cohort of Italian university students. Read More

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Health Promotion Glossary 2021.

Health Promot Int 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Sydney Health Literacy Lab, Sydney School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The Health Promotion Glossary 2021 is designed to help clarify the meaning and relationship between terms commonly used in health promotion. This is the first full review and revision of the Glossary in over 20 years. It reflects the continued evolution and development of concepts since the 1998 Glossary, providing an updated overview of the many ideas which are central to contemporary health promotion. Read More

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COVID-19 shifts mortality salience, activities, and values in the United States: Big data analysis of online adaptation.

Hum Behav Emerg Technol 2021 Jan 9;3(1):107-126. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Mulgrave School Vancouver Canada.

What is the effect of a life-threatening pandemic at the societal level? An expanded Theory of Social Change, Cultural Evolution, and Human Development predicts that, during a period of increasing survival threat and decreasing prosperity, humans will shift toward the psychology and behavior typical of the small-scale, collectivistic, and rural subsistence ecologies in which we evolved. In particular, subjective mortality salience, engagement in subsistence activities, and collectivism will all increase, while the aspiration to be wealthy will decrease. Because coronavirus has forced unprecedented proportions of human activity online, we tested hypotheses derived from the theory by analyzing big data samples for 70 days before and 70 days after the coronavirus pandemic stimulated President Trump to declare a national emergency. Read More

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January 2021

Resistive-nanoindentation on gold: Experiments and modeling of the electrical contact resistance.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):035102

University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, SIMaP, 38000 Grenoble, France.

This paper reports the experimental, analytical, and numerical study of resistive-nanoindentation tests performed on gold samples (bulk and thin film). First, the relevant contributions to electrical contact resistance are discussed and analytically described. A brief comparison of tests performed on gold and on natively oxidized metals highlights the high reproducibility and the voltage-independence of experiments on gold (thanks to its oxide-free surface). Read More

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Analysis of longevity in Chordata identifies species with exceptional longevity among taxa and points to the evolution of longer lifespans.

Biogerontology 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250, Tokat, Turkey.

Animals have a considerable variation in their longevity. This fundamental life-history trait is shaped by both intrinsic and extrinsic mortality pressures, influenced by multiple parameters including ecological variables and mode-of-life traits. Here, we examined the distribution of maximum age at multiple taxonomic ranks (class, order and family) in Chordata, and identified species with exceptional longevity within various taxa. Read More

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Phylogenomics of Plant-Associated Species.

Front Microbiol 2021 18;12:652802. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

The is a fungal family that includes many destructive vascular pathogens of woody plants (e.g., dieback of grape, Panicle blight of pistachio). Read More

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