3,989 results match your criteria termination signal

Maternal Diabetes and Infant Sex Ratio.

Curr Diab Rep 2021 Jun 10;21(8):24. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 390 HPER, 1914 Andy Holt Ave, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Evolutionary hypotheses on the ratio of males to females at birth posit that women terminate pregnancies with low likelihood of surviving and producing grandchildren. Thus, females are preferred to males under unfavorable conditions. Much of this literature has focused on catastrophic disruptions that induce maternal stress and result in fewer males. Read More

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The deletion of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus disrupts the diurnal feeding pattern and induces hyperphagia and obesity.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jun 7;18(1):58. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Bioregulation and Pharmacological Medicine, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

Background: Feeding rhythm disruption contributes to the development of obesity. The receptors of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are distributed in the wide regions of the brain. Among these regions, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) which are known to be associated with thermogenesis and circadian rhythm development. Read More

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Endocytosis in the context-dependent regulation of individual and collective cell properties.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Endocytosis allows cells to transport particles and molecules across the plasma membrane. In addition, it is involved in the termination of signalling through receptor downmodulation and degradation. This traditional outlook has been substantially modified in recent years by discoveries that endocytosis and subsequent trafficking routes have a profound impact on the positive regulation and propagation of signals, being key for the spatiotemporal regulation of signal transmission in cells. Read More

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Automatic Detection of Atrial Fibrillation in ECG Using Co-Occurrence Patterns of Dynamic Symbol Assignment and Machine Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 19;21(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Peter L. Reichertz Institute for Medical Informatics of TU Braunschweig and Hannover Medical School, Braunschweig, 38106 Lower Saxony, Germany.

Early detection of atrial fibrillation from electrocardiography (ECG) plays a vital role in the timely prevention and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Various algorithms have been proposed; however, they are lacking in considering varied-length signals, morphological transitions, and abnormalities over long-term recordings. We propose dynamic symbolic assignment (DSA) to differentiate a normal sinus rhythm (SR) from paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Read More

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Development of Phosphodiesterase-Protein-Kinase Complexes as Novel Targets for Discovery of Inhibitors with Enhanced Specificity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 15;22(10). Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, 14 Science Drive 4, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides to modulate multiple signaling events in cells. PDEs are recognized to actively associate with cyclic nucleotide receptors (protein kinases, PKs) in larger macromolecular assemblies referred to as signalosomes. Complexation of PDEs with PKs generates an expanded active site that enhances PDE activity. Read More

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Oxidative Modifications of RNA and Its Potential Roles in Biosystem.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 12;8:685331. Epub 2021 May 12.

Biochemistry and Biophysics Center, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Elevated level of oxidized RNA was detected in vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer patients. Subsequently, several diseases and pathological conditions were reported to be associated with RNA oxidation. In addition to several oxidized derivatives, cross-linking and unique strand breaks are generated by RNA oxidation. Read More

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DNA Topoisomerase 3α Is Involved in Homologous Recombination Repair and Replication Stress Response in .

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:633195w. Epub 2021 May 13.

Laboratório de Genética Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

DNA topoisomerases are enzymes that modulate DNA topology. Among them, topoisomerase 3α is engaged in genomic maintenance acting in DNA replication termination, sister chromatid separation, and dissolution of recombination intermediates. To evaluate the role of this enzyme in , the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, a topoisomerase 3α knockout parasite (TcTopo3α KO) was generated, and the parasite growth, as well as its response to several DNA damage agents, were evaluated. Read More

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Notch-Wnt signal crosstalk regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells during intramembranous bone healing.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 May 28;6(1):29. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Robert I. Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Adult bone regeneration is orchestrated by the precise actions of osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs). However, the mechanisms by which OPC proliferation and differentiation are linked and thereby regulated are yet to be defined. Here, we present evidence that during intramembranous bone formation OPC proliferation is controlled by Notch signaling, while differentiation is initiated by activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Read More

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A Real-Time, Bioluminescent Apoptosis Assay.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2255:55-67

Promega, Madison, WI, USA.

This chapter describes a real-time, bioluminescent apoptosis assay technique, which circumvents the well-documented "timing condundrum" encountered when employing traditional apoptosis detection chemistries after exposures with inducers of unknown potential. The assay continuously reports the translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner membrane leaflet of a cell to the exofacial surface during apoptosis. This homogenous, no-wash, plate-based assay is made possible by two different annexin V fusion proteins, which contain complementing NanoBiT™ luciferase enzyme subunits, a time-released luciferase substrate, and a fluorescent membrane integrity reagent. Read More

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Blocking core fucosylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor prevents peritoneal fibrosis progression.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):869-877

Department of Nephrology, Liaoning Translational Medicine Center of Nephrology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Objective: Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) ultimately causes ultrafiltration failure and peritoneal dialysis (PD) termination, but there are few effective therapies for it. Core fucosylation, which is catalyzed by α1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8) in mammals, may play a crucial role in PF development. This study aims to assess the effects of inhibiting core fucosylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor on PF rats. Read More

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December 2021

Activation of GSK3 Prevents Termination of TNF-Induced Signaling.

J Inflamm Res 2021 6;14:1717-1730. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 30625, Germany.

Background: Termination of TNF-induced signaling plays a key role in the resolution of inflammation with dysregulations leading to severe pathophysiological conditions (sepsis, chronic inflammatory disease, cancer). Since a recent phospho-proteome analysis in human monocytes suggested GSK3 as a relevant kinase during signal termination, we aimed at further elucidating its role in this context.

Materials And Methods: For the analyses, THP-1 monocytic cells and primary human monocytes were used. Read More

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HIV-based lentiviral vectors: origin and sequence differences.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 27;21:451-465. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Division of Immunology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, Covington, LA 70433, USA.

Three gene therapy strategies have received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval; one includes HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors. These vectors incorporate features to provide long-term gene transfer and expression while minimizing generation of a replication-competent virus or pathogenicity. Importantly, the coding regions of viral proteins were deleted, and the regulatory elements were retained. Read More

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Are Korotkoff sounds reliable markers for accurate estimation of systolic and diastolic pressure using brachial cuff sphygmomanometry.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 May 12;PP. Epub 2021 May 12.

The accurate measurement of non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) is a fundamental public health requirement, yet we are aware that NIBP measurements significantly underestimate true systolic blood pressure (SBP) and overestimate diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The aetiology for these errors has not yet been fully established. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of Korotkoff sounds for accurate detection of SBP and DBP as used in brachial cuff sphygmomanometry. Read More

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Multifaceted control of mRNA translation machinery in cancer.

Cell Signal 2021 Aug 8;84:110037. Epub 2021 May 8.

Patrick G. Johnston Centre for Cancer Research, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK. Electronic address:

The mRNA translation machinery is tightly regulated through several, at times overlapping, mechanisms that modulate its efficiency and accuracy. Due to their fast rate of growth and metabolism, cancer cells require an excessive amount of mRNA translation and protein synthesis. However, unfavorable conditions, such as hypoxia, amino acid starvation, and oxidative stress, which are abundant in cancer, as well as many anti-cancer treatments inhibit mRNA translation. Read More

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Digital biomarkers and algorithms for detection of atrial fibrillation using surface electrocardiograms: A systematic review.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 15;133:104404. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.

Aims: Automated detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in continuous rhythm registrations is essential in order to prevent complications and optimize treatment of AF. Many algorithms have been developed to detect AF in surface electrocardiograms (ECGs) during the past few years. The aim of this systematic review is to gain more insight into these available classification methods by discussing previously used digital biomarkers and algorithms and make recommendations for future research. Read More

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Respiratory, cardiac, EEG, BOLD signals and functional connectivity over multiple microsleep episodes.

Neuroimage 2021 May 2;237:118129. Epub 2021 May 2.

Centre for Sleep and Cognition, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Centre for Translational MR Imaging, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National Unviersity of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Falling asleep is common in fMRI studies. By using long eyelid closures to detect microsleep onset, we showed that the onset and termination of short sleep episodes invokes a systematic sequence of BOLD signal changes that are large, widespread, and consistent across different microsleep durations. The signal changes are intimately intertwined with shifts in respiration and heart rate, indicating that autonomic contributions are integral to the brain physiology evaluated using fMRI and cannot be simply treated as nuisance signals. Read More

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Read between the lines: Diversity of non-translational selection pressures on local codon usage.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Université Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, 34000 Montpellier, France.

Protein coding genes can contain specific motifs within their nucleotide sequence that function as a signal for various biological pathways. The presence of such sequence motifs within a gene can have beneficial or detrimental effects on the phenotype and fitness of an organism, and this can lead to the enrichment or avoidance of this sequence motif. The degeneracy of the genetic code allows for the existence of alternative synonymous sequences that exclude or include these motifs, while keeping the encoded amino acid sequence intact. Read More

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Post-translational modification control of viral DNA sensors and innate immune signaling.

Adv Virus Res 2021 16;109:163-199. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, United States. Electronic address:

The vertebrate innate immune system confers host cells with mechanisms to protect against both evolutionarily ancient pathogens and newly emerging pathogenic strains. Innate immunity relies on the host cell's ability to distinguish between self and pathogen-derived molecules. To achieve this, the innate immune system uses germline encoded receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize various molecular signatures, including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, glycans and glycolipids. Read More

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Meta-Analysis of Quantitative Traits Loci (QTL) Identified in Drought Response in Rice ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43000 UKM, Malaysia.

Rice is an important grain that is the staple food for most of the world's population. Drought is one of the major stresses that negatively affects rice yield. The nature of drought tolerance in rice is complex as it is determined by various components and has low heritability. Read More

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Dissociation of the G protein βγ from the Gq-PLCβ complex partially attenuates PIP2 hydrolysis.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 23:100702. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA. Electronic address:

Phospholipase C β (PLCβ), which is activated by the Gq-family of heterotrimeric G proteins, hydrolyzes the inner membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), generating diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). Since Gq and PLCβ regulate many crucial cellular processes and have been identified as major disease drivers, activation and termination of PLCβ signaling by the Gαq subunit have been extensively studied. Gq-coupled receptor activation induces intense and transient PIP2 hydrolysis, which subsequently recovers to a low-intensity steady-state equilibrium. Read More

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Use of circular RNAs as markers of readthrough transcription to identify factors regulating cleavage/polyadenylation events.

Methods 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Circular RNAs with covalently linked ends are generated from many eukaryotic protein-coding genes when the pre-mRNA splicing machinery backsplices. These mature transcripts are resistant to digestion by exonucleases and typically have much longer half-lives than their associated linear mRNAs. Circular RNAs thus have great promise as sensitive biomarkers, including for detection of transcriptional activity. Read More

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Astrocytes close a motor circuit critical period.

Nature 2021 04 7;592(7854):414-420. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

Critical periods-brief intervals during which neural circuits can be modified by activity-are necessary for proper neural circuit assembly. Extended critical periods are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the mechanisms that ensure timely critical period closure remain poorly understood. Here we define a critical period in a developing Drosophila motor circuit and identify astrocytes as essential for proper critical period termination. Read More

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Drug Development for Target Ribosomal Protein rpL35/uL29 for Repair of LAMB3R635X in Rare Skin Disease Epidermolysis Bullosa.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Apr 6:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Life Science Engineering, Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Gießen, Germany.

Introduction: Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) describes a family of rare genetic blistering skin disorders. Various subtypes are clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and a lethal postpartum form of EB is the generalized severe junctional EB (gs-JEB). gs-JEB is mainly caused by premature termination codon (PTC) mutations in the skin anchor protein LAMB3 (laminin subunit beta-3) gene. Read More

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In search of female sterility causes in the tetraploid and pentaploid cytotype of Pilosella brzovecensis (Asteraceae).

J Plant Res 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Cracow, Poland.

Within the agamic Pilosella complex, apomixis (asexual reproduction through seed) involves apospory, parthenogenesis, and autonomous endosperm development. Observations of reproductive biology in P. brzovecensis throughout four growing seasons in the garden have shown that both tetraploid and pentaploid plants of this species do not produce viable seeds and reproduce exclusively vegetatively by underground stolons. Read More

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RNA Sequence and Structure Determinants of Pol III Transcriptional Termination in Human Cells.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jun 1;433(13):166978. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Synthetic Biology, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208, USA; Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. Electronic address:

The precise mechanism of transcription termination of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III (Pol III) has been a subject of considerable debate. Although previous studies have clearly shown that multiple uracils at the end of RNA transcripts are required for Pol III termination, the effects of upstream RNA secondary structure in the nascent transcript on transcriptional termination is still unclear. To address this, we developed an in cellulo Pol III transcription termination assay using the recently developed Tornado-Corn RNA aptamer system to create a Pol III-transcribed RNA that produces a detectable fluorescent signal when transcribed in human cells. Read More

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Molecular Insights into Inflorescence Meristem Specification for Yield Potential in Cereal Crops.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 29;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Life Sciences and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.

Flowering plants develop new organs throughout their life cycle. The vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates leaf whorls, branches and stems, whereas the reproductive SAM, called the inflorescence meristem (IM), forms florets arranged on a stem or an axis. In cereal crops, the inflorescence producing grains from fertilized florets makes the major yield contribution, which is determined by the numbers and structures of branches, spikelets and florets within the inflorescence. Read More

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Central Neurocircuits Regulating Food Intake in Response to Gut Inputs-Preclinical Evidence.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 11;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

The regulation of energy balance requires the complex integration of homeostatic and hedonic pathways, but sensory inputs from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are increasingly recognized as playing critical roles. The stomach and small intestine relay sensory information to the central nervous system (CNS) via the sensory afferent vagus nerve. This vast volume of complex sensory information is received by neurons of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and is integrated with responses to circulating factors as well as descending inputs from the brainstem, midbrain, and forebrain nuclei involved in autonomic regulation. Read More

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Phenotypic similarities in pigs with SOX10 and SOX10 mutations implied the correlation of SOX10 haploinsufficiency with Waardenburg syndrome.

J Genet Genomics 2020 Dec 17;47(12):770-780. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Laboratory Animal Science, College of Basic Medical Science, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China. Electronic address:

SOX10 is a causative gene of Waardenburg syndrome (WS) that is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hearing loss and pigment disturbance. More than 100 mutations of SOX10 have been found in patients with Type 2 WS (WS2), Type 4 WS (WS4), and more complex syndromes. However, no mutation hotspot has been detected in SOX10, and most cases are sporadic, making it difficult to establish a correlation between the high phenotypic and genetic variability. Read More

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December 2020

Antihypertrophic Memory After Regression of Exercise-Induced Physiological Myocardial Hypertrophy Is Mediated by the Long Noncoding RNA Mhrt779.

Circulation 2021 Jun 24;143(23):2277-2292. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Shock and Microcirculation, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China (H.L., Y.Z., C.Z., D.H., S.M., L.C., Q.W., Z.C., J.X., Y.Y., X.H., M.K., J.B., Y.L.).

Background: Exercise can induce physiological myocardial hypertrophy (PMH), and former athletes can live 5 to 6 years longer than nonathletic controls, suggesting a benefit after regression of PMH. We previously reported that regression of pathological myocardial hypertrophy has antihypertrophic effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that antihypertrophic memory exists even after PMH has regressed, increasing myocardial resistance to subsequent pathological hypertrophic stress. Read More

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Itraconazole for COVID-19: preclinical studies and a proof-of-concept randomized clinical trial.

EBioMedicine 2021 Apr 19;66:103288. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and Clinical Department of Laboratory Medicine, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Background: The antifungal drug itraconazole exerts in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 in Vero and human Caco-2 cells. Preclinical and clinical studies are required to investigate if itraconazole is effective for the treatment and/or prevention of COVID-19.

Methods: Due to the initial absence of preclinical models, the effect of itraconazole was explored in a clinical, proof-of-concept, open-label, single-center study, in which hospitalized COVID-19 patients were randomly assigned to standard of care with or without itraconazole. Read More

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