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The relative importance and stability of disease burden causes over time: summarizing regional trends on disease burden for 290 causes over 28 years.

Popul Health Metr 2021 Jun 10;19(1):30. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management & Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Since the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) has become more comprehensive, data for hundreds of causes of disease burden, measured using Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), have become increasingly available for almost every part of the world. However, undergoing any systematic comparative analysis of the trends can be challenging given the quantity of data that must be presented.

Methods: We use the GBD data to describe trends in cause-specific DALY rates for eight regions. Read More

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Effect of portable non-invasive ventilation on thoracoabdominal volumes in recovery from intermittent exercise in patients with COPD.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, grid.42629.3bNorthumbria University, Newcastle Upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.

Background: We previously showed that use of portable non-invasive ventilation (pNIV) during recovery periods within intermittent exercise improved breathlessness and exercise tolerance in COPD patients compared to pursed-lip breathing (PLB). However, in a minority of patients recovery from dynamic hyperinflation (DH) was better with PLB, based on inspiratory capacity. We further explored this using Optoelectronic Plethysmography to assess total and compartmental thoracoabdominal volumes. Read More

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Comparison of healthcare resource utilization and costs of patients with HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer treated with ribociclib versus other CDK4/6 inhibitors.

J Med Econ 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, United States.

Aims: To assess healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and healthcare costs among women with hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (HR+/HER2- aBC) treated with cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors.

Methods: Women with HR+/HER2- aBC, initiating CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment were identified using IBM MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases (Q1/2000-Q3/2018). Based on the first CDK4/6 patients received (index therapy), three cohorts were identified: , , and . Read More

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Controlled synthesis of organic two-dimensional nanostructures reaction-driven, cooperative supramolecular polymerization.

Chem Sci 2020 Jul 21;11(47):12701-12709. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Supramolecular Chemistry Laboratory, New Chemistry Unit, School of Advanced Materials (SAMat), Jawaharlal Nehru Centre of Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) Jakkur Bangalore 560064 India

The bottom-up approach of supramolecular polymerization is an effective synthetic method for functional organic nanostructures. However, the uncontrolled growth and polydisperse structural outcome often lead to low functional efficiency. Thus, precise control over the structural characteristics of supramolecular polymers is the current scientific hurdle. Read More

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A Non-spiking Neuron Model With Dynamic Leak to Avoid Instability in Recurrent Networks.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 20;15:656401. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Recurrent circuitry components are distributed widely within the brain, including both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections. Recurrent neuronal networks have potential stability problems, perhaps a predisposition to epilepsy. More generally, instability risks making internal representations of information unreliable. Read More

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Does Medical Students' Sense of Belonging Affect Their Interest in Orthopaedic Surgery Careers? A Qualitative Investigation.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 06 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

K. M. Gerull, P. Parameswaran, C. A. Cipriano, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: The concept of social belonging has been shown to be important for retention and student success in collegiate environments and general surgery training. However, this concept has never been explored in relation to medical students' impressions of orthopaedic surgery careers.

Question/purpose: To investigate medical students' sense of belonging in orthopaedic surgery and how it affects their interest in pursuing orthopaedic surgery careers. Read More

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Within-day dynamics of plant-pollinator networks are dominated by early flower closure: an experimental test of network plasticity.

Oecologia 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Biometry and Environmental System Analysis, University of Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.

Temporal variability of plant-pollinator interactions is important for fully understanding the structure, function, and stability of plant-pollinator networks, but most network studies so far have ignored within-day dynamics. Strong diel dynamics (e.g. Read More

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Successional Development of Fungal Communities Associated with Decomposing Deadwood in a Natural Mixed Temperate Forest.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 May 25;7(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 14220 Praha 4, Czech Republic.

Deadwood represents an important carbon stock and contributes to climate change mitigation. Wood decomposition is mainly driven by fungal communities. Their composition is known to change during decomposition, but it is unclear how environmental factors such as wood chemistry affect these successional patterns through their effects on dominant fungal taxa. Read More

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Survival, Growth, and Reproduction: Comparison of Marbled Crayfish with Four Prominent Crayfish Invaders.

Biology (Basel) 2021 May 10;10(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Zátiší 728/II, 38925 Vodňany, Czech Republic.

Biological invasions are increasingly recognized ecological and economic threats to biodiversity and are projected to increase in the future. Introduced freshwater crayfish in particular are protruding invaders, exerting tremendous impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, as exemplified by the North American spiny-cheek, signal and red swamp crayfish as well as the Australian common yabby. The marbled crayfish is among the most outstanding freshwater crayfish invaders due to its parthenogenetic reproduction combined with early maturation and high fecundity. Read More

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Cannabis Affects Cerebellar Volume and Sleep Differently in Men and Women.

Front Psychiatry 2021 13;12:643193. Epub 2021 May 13.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

There are known sex differences in behavioral and clinical outcomes associated with drugs of abuse, including cannabis. However, little is known about how chronic cannabis use and sex interact to affect brain structure, particularly in regions with high cannabinoid receptor expression, such as the cerebellum, amygdala, and hippocampus. Based on behavioral data suggesting that females may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of chronic cannabis use, we hypothesized lower volumes in these regions in female cannabis users. Read More

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Subliminal temporal integration of linguistic information under discontinuous flash suppression.

J Vis 2021 May;21(5):27

Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan.

Whether unconscious complex visual information integration occurs over time remains largely unknown and highly controversial. Previous studies have tended to use a combination of strong masking or suppression and a weak stimulus signal (e.g. Read More

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Transcriptome Analysis of Tetraploid and Octoploid Common Reed ().

Front Plant Sci 2021 5;12:653183. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Shandong Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Center for Vegetation Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Polyploidization in plants is thought to have occurred as coping mechanism with environmental stresses. Polyploidization-driven adaptation is often achieved through interplay of gene networks involved in differentially expressed genes, which triggers the plant to evolve special phenotypic traits for survival. is a cosmopolitan species with highly variable phenotypic traits and high adaptation capacity to various habitats. Read More

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Mass Cytometry Identifies Expansion of T-bet B Cells and CD206 Monocytes in Early Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:653577. Epub 2021 May 4.

INSERM, Unité Mixte de Recherche U1236, Université Rennes, Etablissement Français du Sang Bretagne, LabEx IGO, Rennes, France.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-driven demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Immune cell features are particularly promising as predictive biomarkers due to their central role in the pathogenesis but also as drug targets, even if nowadays, they have no impact in clinical practice. Recently, high-resolution approaches, such as mass cytometry (CyTOF), helped to better understand the diversity and functions of the immune system. Read More

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Using hair cortisol analysis to understand the biological factors that affect black-footed ferret () stress physiology.

Conserv Physiol 2021 11;9(1):coab033. Epub 2021 May 11.

Prairie Wildlife Research, PO Box 308, Wellington, CO 80549, USA.

The black-footed ferret () was driven to near extinction due to habitat loss and an introduced disease, sylvatic plague (). After 35 years of breeding in facilities, the black-footed ferret has been experiencing infertility with seminal traits declining in males and only about a third of breeding-aged females are whelping. Our goal was to use hair cortisol analysis to determine if the population was experiencing chronic stress that was affecting reproduction by comparing captive ferrets to wild individuals. Read More

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Effect of arabinogalactan on the gut microbiome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in healthy adults.

Nutrition 2021 Apr 20;90:111273. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Lonza Consumer Health Inc., Morristown, New Jersey, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Promising evidence suggests beneficial health effects of arabinogalactan, but little is known about the effect of this non-digestible carbohydrate on the gut microbiota, a crucial mediator of human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an arabinogalactan product (ResistAid) on the fecal microbiome and short-chain fatty acids and gastrointestinal tolerance in healthy adults in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.

Methods: Thirty adults were randomly assigned to consume 15 g/d maltodextrin (control) or ResistAid for 6 wk. Read More

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Pregnancy-related sacroiliac joint findings in females with low back pain: a four-year magnetic resonance imaging follow-up study.

Acta Radiol 2021 May 17:2841851211017108. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background: Pregnancy-related pain may be associated with sacroiliac joint (SIJ) changes, detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Purpose: To analyze the prevalence and course of SIJ MRI and clinical findings in women referred with low back pain and relate these to pregnancy.

Material And Methods: A retrospective follow-up study from a longitudinally collected cohort comprising 328 women. Read More

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Effects of induction on the farrowing process and piglet blood parameters at the time of farrowing.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 10;5(2):txab032. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal Science, Purdue University, 270 S Russell Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Historically, sows have been induced to farrow using prostaglandin followed by an injection of oxytocin 24 h later. Benefits of induction can include decreased rate of stillbirths, dystocia, and postnatal mortality along with increasing the likelihood of farrowings being attended. Several studies have indicated that oxytocin administration may negatively impact fetal oxygen supply during parturition, potentially from umbilical cords breaking prior to birth, resulting in increased preweaning mortality. Read More

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Occupation, socioeconomic status and chronic obstructive respiratory diseases - The EpiLung study in Finland, Estonia and Sweden.

Respir Med 2021 May 3:106403. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Clinical Physiology, HUS Medical Diagnostic Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To study occupational groups and occupational exposure in association with chronic obstructive respiratory diseases.

Methods: In early 2000s, structured interviews on chronic respiratory diseases and measurements of lung function as well as fractional expiratory nitric oxide (F) were performed in adult random population samples of Finland, Sweden and Estonia. Occupations were categorized according to three classification systems. Read More

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Neurophysiological Correlates of Trait Impulsivity in Parkinson's Disease.

Mov Disord 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Medical Research Council Brain Network Dynamics Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Impulsivity is common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), with many developing impulsive compulsive behavior disorders (ICB). Its pathophysiological basis remains unclear.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate local field potential (LFP) markers of trait impulsivity in PD and their relationship to ICB. Read More

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Internet Gaming Disorder profiles and their associations with social engagement behaviours.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 1;138:393-403. Epub 2021 May 1.

Victoria University Australia. Electronic address:

Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), describes the abuse of Internet games with detrimental impact to the real-life social engagement of some gamers. Indeed, evidence suggests that gamers differ on the severity and way in which they express IGD symptoms, as well as their social engagement behaviours. The present study aimed to: a) profile gamers regarding their experience of IGD symptoms and; b) examine how different IGD profiles varied on social engagement behaviours. Read More

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Differential In vitro Pharmacological Profiles of Structurally Diverse Nociceptin Receptor Agonists in Activating G-protein and Beta-arrestin Signaling at the Human Nociceptin Opioid Receptor.

Mol Pharmacol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Astraea Therapeutics LLC, United States

Agonists at the nociceptin opioid peptide receptor (NOP) are under investigation as therapeutics for non-addicting analgesia, opioid use disorder, Parkinson's disease, and other indications. NOP full and partial agonists have both been of interest, particularly since NOP partial agonists show a reduced propensity for behavioral disruption than NOP full agonists. Here, we investigated the in vitro pharmacological properties of chemically diverse NOP receptor agonists in assays measuring functional activation of the NOP receptor such as GTPgS binding, cAMP inhibition, GIRK activation, phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment and receptor internalization. Read More

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Health Disparities, Systemic Racism, and Failures of Cultural Competence.

Am J Bioeth 2021 May 6:1-7. Epub 2021 May 6.

NYU Long Island School of Medicine.

Health disparities are primarily driven by structural inequality including systemic racism. Medical educators, led by the AAMC, have tended to minimize these core drivers of health disparities. Instead, it has adopted a culture-based agenda through the framework of cultural competence to address disparities despite a paucity of supporting data. Read More

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Rapamycin administration during an acute heat stress challenge in growing pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 May;99(5)

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

Study objectives were to determine the effects of rapamycin (Rapa) on biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation during acute heat stress (HS) in growing pigs. Crossbred barrows (n = 32; 63.5 ± 7. Read More

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Phylogenomic conflict coincides with rapid morphological innovation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated with the episodes of rapid phenotypic innovation that underlie the emergence of major lineages. Although our understanding of the environmental and ecological contexts of such episodes has steadily increased, it has remained unclear how population processes contribute to emergent macroevolutionary patterns. One insight gleaned from phylogenomics is that gene-tree conflict, frequently caused by population-level processes, is often rampant during the origin of major lineages. Read More

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Naïve CD4+ T Cell Lymphopenia and Apoptosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Is Driven by the CD31+ Subset and Is Partially Normalized in Direct-Acting Antiviral Treated Persons.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:641230. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Background: The mechanisms underlying naïve CD4+ lymphopenia during chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection are unclear. Whether direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy restores peripheral naïve CD4+ T cell numbers and function is unknown.

Methods: We enumerated frequencies and counts of peripheral naïve CD4+, CD4+CD31+ and CD4+CD31- T cells by flow cytometry in a cross sectional analysis comparing chronic HCV infected (n=34), DAA-treated(n=29), and age-range matched controls (n=25), as well as in a longitudinal cohort of HCV DAA treated persons (n=16). Read More

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Economic cycles and inequalities in alcohol-related mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015: a register-based study.

Addiction 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change (SCOHOST), Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.

Aim: To estimate whether large macroeconomic fluctuations in the 2000s affected inequalities in alcohol-related mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland.

Design: Longitudinal register-based follow-up study.

Setting: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland. Read More

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COVID-19 in heart transplant recipients-A seroprevalence survey.

Clin Transplant 2021 Apr 27:e14329. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in heart transplant recipients has not been fully defined, because asymptomatic and sub-clinical cases are difficult to capture. Seroprevalence surveys are an important tool to identify not just cases that have come to clinical attention, but all previously infected recipients. We performed a seroprevalence survey of the adult heart transplant program at a large New York City Hospital System. Read More

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Whole genome deep sequencing analysis of viral quasispecies diversity and evolution in HBeAg seroconverters.

JHEP Rep 2021 Jun 18;3(3):100254. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background & Aims: We aimed to investigate how viral quasispecies of the HBV whole genome evolves and diversifies in response to HBeAg seroconversion and viral control utilising next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Methods: Fifty HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients, including 18 treatment-naïve and 32 interferon (IFN)-treated individuals, were recruited. Serial HBV whole genomes in serum were analysed by NGS to determine sequence characteristics and viral quasispecies. Read More

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Effects of supplemental calcium gluconate embedded in a hydrogenated fat matrix on lactation, digestive, and metabolic variables in dairy cattle.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Trouw Nutrition R&D, PO Box 299, 3800 AG, Amersfoort, the Netherlands.

There is growing evidence suggesting that by improving gut integrity and function, less energy is partitioned toward immune responses related to xenobiotic infiltration, sparing energy for productive purposes. Gluconic acid and its salts have previously shown prebiotic effects in the lower gut of nonruminant animals, where they serve as a precursor for butyrate, although evidence in ruminants is limited. Butyrate and its fermentative precursors have demonstrated multiple beneficial effects to gastrointestinal ecology, morphology, and function, such as the stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation and improvement of gut barrier function and ecology. Read More

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Global patterns and drivers of rainfall partitioning by trees and shrubs.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 6;27(14):3350-3357. Epub 2021 May 6.

CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Spatiotemporal redistribution of incident rainfall in vegetated ecosystems results from the partitioning by plants into intercepted, stemflow, and throughfall fractions. However, variation in patterns and drivers of rainfall partitioning across global biomes remains poorly understood, which limited the ability of climate models to improve the predictions of biome hydrological cycle under global climate change scenario. Here, we synthesized and analyzed the partitioning of incident rainfall into interception, stemflow, and throughfall by trees and shrubs at the global scale using 2430 observations from 236 independent publications. Read More

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