21,317 results match your criteria temporal variation

Correlation of cellular traction forces and dissociation kinetics of adhesive protein zyxin revealed by multi-parametric live cell microscopy.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251411. Epub 2021 May 11.

Departamento de Física and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires (IFIBA), CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Cells exert traction forces on the extracellular matrix to which they are adhered through the formation of focal adhesions. Spatial-temporal regulation of traction forces is crucial in cell adhesion, migration, cellular division, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. By cultivating cells on polyacrylamide hydrogels of different stiffness we were able to investigate the effects of substrate stiffness on the generation of cellular traction forces by Traction Force Microscopy (TFM), and characterize the molecular dynamics of the focal adhesion protein zyxin by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP). Read More

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[Cloning and temporal-spatial expression analysis of dfr gene from Scutellaria baicalensis with different colors].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Apr;37(4):1312-1323

School of Life Sciences, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong 030801, Shanxi, China.

Dihydroflavanol-4-reductase (Dfr) is a key enzyme that regulates the synthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. To investigate the difference of dfr gene in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with different colors in the same ecological environment, three complete full-length sequences of dfr gene were cloned from the cDNA of S. baicalensis with white, purple-red and purple colors using homologous cloning and RACE techniques. Read More

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Understanding spatial patterns in rape reporting delays.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 10;8(2):201795. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

The Alan Turing Institute, London, UK.

Under-reporting and delayed reporting of rape crime are severe issues that can complicate the prosecution of perpetrators and prevent rape survivors from receiving needed support. Building on a massive database of publicly available criminal reports from two US cities, we develop a machine learning framework to predict delayed reporting of rape to help tackle this issue. Motivated by large and unexplained spatial variation in reporting delays, we build predictive models to analyse spatial, temporal and socio-economic factors that might explain this variation. Read More

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February 2021

Climate change affected the spatio-temporal occurrence of disasters in China over the past five centuries.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 17;8(2):200731. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management on Pest Insects and Rodents in Agriculture, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of China.

Climate change may contribute to the spatio-temporal occurrence of disasters. Long-term studies of either homogeneous or heterogeneous responses of historical disasters to climate change are, however, limited by the quality and quantity of the available proxy data. Here we reconstruct spatio-temporal patterns of five types of disasters in China during the period AD 1368-1911. Read More

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February 2021

The evolution and changing ecology of the African hominid oral microbiome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Department of Humanities, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

The oral microbiome plays key roles in human biology, health, and disease, but little is known about the global diversity, variation, or evolution of this microbial community. To better understand the evolution and changing ecology of the human oral microbiome, we analyzed 124 dental biofilm metagenomes from humans, including Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene to present-day modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as New World howler monkeys for comparison. We find that a core microbiome of primarily biofilm structural taxa has been maintained throughout African hominid evolution, and these microbial groups are also shared with howler monkeys, suggesting that they have been important oral members since before the catarrhine-platyrrhine split ca. Read More

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Understanding how relationships between crash frequency and correlates vary for multilane rural highways: Estimating geographically and temporally weighted regression models.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 May 7:106146. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, United States.

Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) are critical tools in the management of highway safety projects. SPFs are used to predict the average number of crashes per year at a location, such as a road segment or an intersection. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides default safety performance functions (SPFs), but it is recommended that states in the U. Read More

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Dental wear patterns reveal dietary ecology and season of death in a historical chimpanzee population.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251309. Epub 2021 May 10.

Max Planck Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Dental wear analyses have been widely used to interpret the dietary ecology in primates. However, it remains unclear to what extent a combination of wear analyses acting at distinct temporal scales can be beneficial in interpreting the tooth use of primates with a high variation in their intraspecific dietary ecology. Here, we combine macroscopic tooth wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis, long-term signals) with microscopic 3D surface textures (short-term signals) exploring the tooth use of a historical western chimpanzee population from northeastern Liberia with no detailed dietary records. Read More

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Age-associated variation in the gut microbiota of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) reveals differences in food metabolism.

Microbiologyopen 2021 Mar;10(2):e1190

Dalian Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Marine mammals, Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute, Dalian, China.

Age is known to affect the gut microbiota in various animals; however, this relationship is poorly understood in seabirds. We investigated the temporal succession of gut microbiota in captive chinstrap penguins of different ages using high-throughput sequencing. The gut microbiota exhibited a significant age succession pattern, reaching maturity in adults and then declining with increasing age. Read More

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Trends in Endoscopic Sinonasal Debridement in the Medicare Population.

Perm J 2021 May;25

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Kaiser Permanente Oakland & Richmond Medical Centers, Oakland, CA.

Introduction: Nasal/sinus endoscopy with biopsy/polypectomy/debridement, or Current Procedure Terminology code 31237, is one of the top 10 most frequent and highest billed otolaryngology procedures among Medicare patients. We analyzed temporal and geographic trends in endoscopic debridement, and correlated them with sinus surgery and balloon sinuplasty trends.

Methods: Medicare Part-B National Summary Data Files were analyzed from 2000 to 2016 for temporal trends of endoscopic debridement. Read More

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Visitor presence and a changing soundscape, alongside environmental parameters, can predict enclosure usage in captive flamingos.

Zoo Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Sociology Philosophy and Anthropology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

The sound environment of a zoo animal is a complex milieu of animal and human-generated sounds; coming from the species itself, other species, visitors, keepers and other zoo-users. Research determining how different components of the sound environment affect animal behaviour is surprisingly lacking but could have real-world impacts for animal welfare and zoo enclosure design. The current study investigated the effects of the sound environment on two flocks of flamingos housed in open-air enclosures at British zoos. Read More

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Alarmingly Increased Public Interest in "Chest Pain" During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Insights From Google Trends Analysis.

Cureus 2021 Apr 4;13(4):e14292. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Cardiology, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, USA.

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been linked to a myriad of cardiac symptoms and disorders. Reports also suggest decreased hospital visits by patients with known cardiovascular disorders. Methodology To better elucidate the public interest in the information regarding "chest pain" during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a Google Trends analysis from March 2019 to March 2021 to compare the internet searches between pre-COVID era and during the pandemic with country-wise [the United States (US) versus the United Kingdom (UK) versus India] variation. Read More

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The Bacterial Community Diversity of Bathroom Hot Tap Water Was Significantly Lower Than That of Cold Tap and Shower Water.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:625324. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Microbial drinking water quality in premise plumbing systems (PPSs) strongly affects public health. Bacterial community structure is the essential aspect of microbial water quality. Studies have elucidated the microbial community structure in cold tap water, while the microbial community structures in hot tap and shower water are poorly understood. Read More

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Resurvey of sea urchins and mussels at protected and harvested shores a decade after: A beyond-BACI approach.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Apr 29;169:105347. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Novo Terminal de Cruzeiros, Avenida General Norton de Matos Sn, P-4450-208, Matosinhos, Portugal.

Comparing temporal patterns of distribution and abundance of target organisms between protected and harvested shores is essential to assess the extant effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) and whether it is maintained through time. By means of an adapted Beyond-BACI approach, we compared the short- and long-term patterns of variation in the abundance of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis at a protected shore (within the Parque Litoral Norte MPA, Portugal) and at three adjacent shores subject to intense harvesting over a decadal interval. Despite the existence of the MPA for more than 30 years, we did not obtain clear evidence of its persistent or recent effectiveness on intertidal species of commercial interest. Read More

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A meta-analysis of factors influencing concentrations of brominated flame retardants and organophosphate esters in indoor dust.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;285:117262. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

Current assessments of human exposure to flame retardants (FRs) via dust ingestion rely on measurements of FR concentrations in dust samples collected at specific points in time and space. Such exposure assessments are rendered further uncertain by the possibility of within-room and within-building spatial and temporal variability, differences in dust particle size fraction analysed, as well as differences in dust sampling approach. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data was undertaken to evaluate the impact of these factors on reported concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) in dust and subsequent human exposure estimates. Read More

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High spectral and spatial resolution MRI of prostate cancer: a pilot study.

Magn Reson Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose: High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI is a spectroscopic imaging method focusing on water and fat resonances that has good diagnostic utility in breast imaging. The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility and potential utility of HiSS MRI for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Methods: HiSS MRI was acquired at 3 T from six patients who underwent prostatectomy, yielding a train of 127 phase-coherent gradient echo (GRE) images. Read More

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Temporal variations in maternal treatment requirements and early neonatal outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes.

Diabet Med 2021 May 8:e14596. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Box 281, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom.

Aims: There is seasonal variation in the incidence of gestational diabetes and delivery outcomes of affected patients. We assessed if there was also evidence of temporal variation in maternal treatment requirements and early neonatal outcomes.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes (75g OGTT, 0hr ≥5. Read More

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Protocol for magnetic resonance imaging acquisition, quality assurance, and quality check for the Accelerator program for Discovery in Brain disorders using Stem cells.

Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2021 May 7:e1871. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.

Objective: The Accelerator program for Discovery in Brain disorders using Stem cells (ADBS) is a longitudinal study on five cohorts of patients with major psychiatric disorders from genetically high-risk families, their unaffected first-degree relatives, and healthy subjects. We describe the ADBS protocols for acquisition, quality assurance (QA), and quality check (QC) for multimodal magnetic resonance brain imaging studies.

Methods: We describe the acquisition and QC protocols for structural, functional, and diffusion images. Read More

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Marine soundscape variation reveals insights into baleen whales and their environment: a case study in central New Zealand.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201503. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Institute of Marine Science, Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland, 160 Goat Island Road, Leigh 0985, New Zealand.

Baleen whales reliably produce stereotyped vocalizations, enabling their spatio-temporal distributions to be inferred from acoustic detections. Soundscape analysis provides an integrated approach whereby vocal species, such as baleen whales, are sampled holistically with other acoustic contributors to their environment. Acoustic elements that occur concurrently in space, time and/or frequency can indicate overlaps between free-ranging species and potential stressors. Read More

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Putting Stress in Historical Context: Why It Is Important That Being Stressed Out Was Not a Way to Be a Person 2,000 Years Ago.

Fabian Hutmacher

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:539799. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

It was not until the middle of the twentieth century that scientists and Western societies began to label the combination of physiological and psychological responses that people display when things are getting too much and out of balance as "stress." However, stress is commonly understood as a universal mechanism that exists across times and cultures. In a certain sense, this universality claim is correct: the physiological and endocrinological mechanisms underlying the stress response are not a modern invention of our body. Read More

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Effect of CHRFAM7A Δ2bp gene variant on secondary inflammation after spinal cord injury.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251110. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America.

The α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) are essential for anti-inflammatory responses. The human-specific CHRFAM7A gene and its 2bp deletion polymorphism (Δ2bp variant) encodes a structurally-deficient α7nAChRs that may impact the anti-inflammatory function. We studied 45 spinal cord injury (SCI) patients for up to six weeks post SCI to investigate the role of the Δ2bp variant on multiple circulating inflammatory mediators and two outcome measures (neuropathic pain and risk of pressure ulcers). Read More

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Microfluidically supported characterization of responses of Rhodococcus erythropolis strains isolated from different soils on Cu-, Ni-, and Co-stress.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Micro- and Nanotechnologies/Institute for Chemistry and Biotechnique, Department of Physical Chemistry and Microreaction Technology, Technical University Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684, Ilmenau, Germany.

We present a new methodological approach for the assessment of the susceptibility of Rhodococcus erythropolis strains from specific sampling sites in response to increasing heavy metal concentration (Cu, Ni, and Co) using the droplet-based microfluid technique. All isolates belong to the species R. erythropolis identified by Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA. Read More

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Biomechanical Analysis of Head Subjected to Blast Waves and the Role of Combat Protective Headgear Under Blast Loading - A Review.

J Biomech Eng 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a rising health concern of soldiers deployed in modern-day military conflicts. For bTBI, blast wave loading is a cause, and damage incurred to brain tissue is the effect. There are several proposed mechanisms for the bTBI, such as direct cranial entry, skull flexure, thoracic compression, blast induced acceleration, and cavitation, that are not mutually exclusive. Read More

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Ecologically coherent population structure of uncultivated bacterioplankton.

ISME J 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Gene Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.

Bacterioplankton are main drivers of biogeochemical cycles and important components of aquatic food webs. While sequencing-based studies have revealed how bacterioplankton communities are structured in time and space, relatively little is known about intraspecies diversity patterns and their ecological relevance. Here, we use the newly developed software POGENOM (POpulation GENomics from Metagenomes) to investigate genomic diversity and differentiation in metagenome-assembled genomes from the Baltic Sea, and investigate their genomic variation using metagenome data spanning a 1700 km transect and covering seasonal variation at one station. Read More

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Temporal Dynamics and Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Demonstrate the Necessity of Ongoing Viral Genome Sequencing in Ontario, Canada.

mSphere 2021 05 5;6(3). Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Microbiology, Kingston Health Sciences Centre, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Genome-wide variation in SARS-CoV-2 reveals evolution and transmission dynamics which are critical considerations for disease control and prevention decisions. Here, we review estimates of the genome-wide viral mutation rates, summarize current COVID-19 case load in the province of Ontario, Canada (5 January 2021), and analyze published SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Ontario (collected prior to 24 November 2020) to test for more infectious genetic variants or lineages. The reported mutation rate (∼10 nucleotide [nt] cycle) for SARS-CoV-2 is typical for coronaviruses. Read More

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Serine Protease HTRA1 as a Novel Target Antigen in Primary Membranous Nephropathy.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

Background: Identification of target antigens PLA2R, THSD7A, NELL1, or Semaphorin-3B can explain the majority of cases of primary membranous nephropathy (MN). However, target antigens remain unidentified in 15%-20% of patients.

Methods: A multipronged approach, using traditional and modern technologies, converged on a novel target antigen, and capitalized on the temporal variation in autoantibody titer for biomarker discovery. Read More

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Analysis of intra-thallus and temporal variability of trace elements and nitrogen in Fucus vesiculosus: Sampling protocol optimization for biomonitoring.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 30;412:125268. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

CRETUS Institute, Department of Functional Biology, Ecology Unit, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

To advance the methodological standardization of the biomonitoring technique using macroalgae, we comprehensively characterized the intra-thallus and temporal patterns of variation in concentrations of a wide set of elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, N) and δN signal in 6 consecutive Fucus vesiculosus apical dichotomous sections collected monthly over a four-year period (2015-2019) at 3 sites on the NW coast of Spain. The concentrations of Al, Co, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn increased significantly from the youngest to the oldest dichotomies regardless of the sampling time and collection site; As, Cd, N and δN showed the opposite trend. Time series analysis revealed a significant and consistent seasonal variation of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Zn, N and δN concentrations, with maximum values in winter and minimum values in summer. Read More

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Environmental variation drives continental-scale synchrony of European beech reproduction.

Ecology 2021 May 5:e03384. Epub 2021 May 5.

Population Ecology Research Unit, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.

Spatial synchrony is the tendency of spatially separated populations to display similar temporal fluctuations. Synchrony affects regional ecosystem functioning, but it remains difficult to disentangle its underlying mechanisms. We leveraged regression on distance matrices and geography of synchrony to understand the processes driving synchrony of European beech masting over the European continent. Read More

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Trends of nutrients and metals in precipitation in northern Germany: the role of emissions and meteorology.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 5;193(6):325. Epub 2021 May 5.

Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Abteilung Gewässer, Dezernat Fließgewässerökologie, Hamburger Chaussee 25, Flintbek, 24220, Germany.

We analyzed the precipitation chemistry for a maritime region in northern Germany (Schleswig-Holstein) from 1997 to 2017 in order to reveal temporal and spatial patterns and to evaluate the role of meteorological factors relative to emission reductions in Germany and Europe. Therefore, we applied several statistical methods such as time series decomposition, principal component, and redundancy analysis. We extracted two main groups: (i) a marine group (Cl, Na, Mg) that was related to natural processes like sea spray input and (ii) an anthropogenic group (Pb, Cd, As, Zn, and nitrogen species) with a terrestrial subgroup (Fe, Al, Mn), which were both related to emissions. Read More

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Contemporary evolution of the innate immune receptor gene TLR3 in an isolated vertebrate population.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norfolk, UK.

Understanding where genetic variation exists, and how it influences fitness within populations is important from an evolutionary and conservation perspective. Signatures of past selection suggest that pathogen-mediated balancing selection is a key driver of immunogenetic variation, but studies tracking contemporary evolution are needed to help resolve the evolutionary forces and mechanism at play. Previous work in a bottlenecked population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) show that functional variation has been maintained at the viral-sensing Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene, including one nonsynonymous SNP, resulting in two alleles. Read More

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Multi-tissue neocortical transcriptome-wide association study implicates 8 genes across 6 genomic loci in Alzheimer's disease.

Genome Med 2021 May 4;13(1):76. Epub 2021 May 4.

Cajal Neuroscience, 1616 Eastlake Avenue East, Suite 208, Seattle, WA, 98102, USA.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease currently affecting 1.75% of the US population, with projected growth to 3.46% by 2050. Read More

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