12,563 results match your criteria temporal relationships

Response to targeted cognitive training may be neuroprotective in patients with early schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 7;312:111285. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, USA; San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA.

Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit widespread cortical thinning associated with illness severity and deficits in cognition. However, intact cortical thickness (CTh) may serve as a protective factor. The current study sought to examine changes in CTh in response to auditory targeted cognitive training (TCT) in individuals with recent onset schizophrenia. Read More

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Agricultural nutrient loading under alternative climate, societal and manure recycling scenarios.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 31;783:146871. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Finnish Environment Institute, Latokartanonkaari 11, 00790 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

This paper introduces a framework for extending global climate and socioeconomic scenarios in order to study agricultural nutrient pollution on an individual catchment scale. Our framework builds on and extends Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) at the spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for the drivers of animal husbandry, manure recycling and the application of inorganic fertilisers in crop production. Our case study area is the Aura river catchment in South-West Finland, which discharges into the heavily eutrophic Baltic Sea. Read More

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Responses of phytoplankton community structure and association to variability in environmental drivers in a tropical coastal lagoon.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 1;783:146873. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Wetland Research and Training Centre, Chilika Development Authority, Balugaon 752030, Odisha, India. Electronic address:

Spatial and seasonal heterogeneity in phytoplankton communities are governed by many biotic and abiotic drivers. However, the identification of long-term spatial and temporal trends in abiotic drivers, and their interdependencies with the phytoplankton communities' structure is understudied in tropical brackish coastal lagoons. We examined phytoplankton communities' spatiotemporal dynamics from a 5-year dataset (n = 780) collected from 13 sampling stations in Chilika Lagoon, India, where the salinity gradient defined the spatial patterns in environmental variables. Read More

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An AIS-based emission inventory and the impact on air quality in Tianjin port based on localized emission factors.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 6;783:146869. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urban Transport Emission Research & State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

Ship pollution has become a hot global issue. This study established a basic information database of Tianjin Port ship emissions and used it to screen representative ship types and perform real-world ship measurements by a portable emission measurement system (PEMS), which generated localized emission factors. The results show that the localized emission factors are significantly higher than those recommended in recommended in Chinese guidelines, which will lead to lower calculation results of the previous inventory. Read More

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Hydrologic and nutrient-driven regime shifts of cyanobacterial and eukaryotic algal communities in a large shallow lake: Evidence from empirical state indicator and ecological network analyses.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 12;783:147059. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China.

The detection and prediction of lake ecosystem responses to environmental changes are pressing scientific challenge of major global relevance. Specifically, an understanding of lake ecosystem stability over long-term scales is urgently needed to identify impending ecosystem regime shifts induced by human activities and improve lake ecosystem protection. This study investigated regime shifts in cyanobacterial and eukaryotic algal communities in a large shallow lake over a century in response to nutrient enrichment and hydrologic regulation using evidence from empirical state indicators and ecological network analyses of sedimentary-inferred communities. Read More

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Reorganization of auditory-visual network interactions in long-term unilateral postlingual hearing loss.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 May 19;87:97-102. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, China; Neurosurgical Institute of Fudan University, China; Shanghai Clinical Medical Center of Neurosurgery, China. Electronic address:

Long-term unilateral hearing loss could reorganize the functional network association between the bilateral auditory cortices, while alterations of other functional networks need to be further explored. We attempted to investigate the pattern of the reorganization of functional network associations between the auditory and visual cortex caused by long-term postlingual unilateral hearing loss (UHI) and its relationship with clinical characteristics. Therefore, 48 patients with hearing loss caused by unilateral acoustic tumors and 52 matched healthy controls were enrolled, and their high-resolution structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI data were also collected to depict the brain network. Read More

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Novel grading system of sigmoid sinus dehiscence for radiologic evaluation of pulsatile tinnitus.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 May 22;87:147-149. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Head & Neck Surgery, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Sigmoid sinus dehiscence (SSD) is an important etiology of pulsatile tinnitus (PT) though there is currently no consensus on the prevalence of SSD in non-PT populations. This study establishes a grading system of SSD and analyzes a non-PT cohort for prevalence of SSD.

Methods: In this retrospective study temporal bone CT scans of 91 patients without PT were analyzed for SSD. Read More

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A rare case of spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus with pictorial illustration of temporal evolution.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 May 20;87:132-136. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital, National University Health System, Singapore. Electronic address:

Pneumocephalus is commonly seen on imaging in the setting of craniofacial trauma, skull base tumours, intracranial infection and after neurological intervention. Spontaneous pneumocephalus in the absence of these conditions is exceedingly rare, with only approximately 30 cases reported in the literature to date. Spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus (SOP) is believed to occur as a result of anomalous communication between the intracranial space and a hyper-pneumatised temporal bone, with either positive extra-to-intracranial pressure or negative intracranial pressure gradient. Read More

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Quantifying the separability of data classes in neural networks.

Neural Netw 2021 Apr 5;139:278-293. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Neuroscience Lab, University Hospital Erlangen, Germany; Cognitive Computational Neuroscience Group, University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany; Cognitive Neuroscience Center, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

We introduce the Generalized Discrimination Value (GDV) that measures, in a non-invasive manner, how well different data classes separate in each given layer of an artificial neural network. It turns out that, at the end of the training period, the GDV in each given layer L attains a highly reproducible value, irrespective of the initialization of the network's connection weights. In the case of multi-layer perceptrons trained with error backpropagation, we find that classification of highly complex data sets requires a temporal reduction of class separability, marked by a characteristic 'energy barrier' in the initial part of the GDV(L) curve. Read More

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Disrupted Modulation of Alpha and Low Beta Oscillations Mediates Temporal Sequence Memory Deficits in People with Schizophrenia.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: People with schizophrenia (SZ) exhibit impaired episodic memory when relating objects to each other in time and space. Empirical studies and computational models suggest that low-frequency neural oscillations may be a mechanism by which the brain keeps track of temporal relationships during encoding and retrieval, with modulation of oscillatory power as sequences are learned. It is unclear whether sequence memory deficits in SZ are associated with altered neural oscillations. Read More

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Review of Temporal Reasoning in the Clinical Domain for Timeline Extraction: Where we are and where we need to be.

J Biomed Inform 2021 Apr 13:103784. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 S. Main St., Richmond, VA 23284, USA.

Understanding a patient's medical history, such as how long symptoms last or when a procedure was performed, is vital to diagnosing problems and providing good care. Frequently, important information regarding a patient's medical timeline is buried in their Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the form of unstructured clinical notes. This results in care providers spending time reading notes in a patient's record in order to become familiar with their condition prior to developing a diagnosis or treatment plan. Read More

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Biomarkers in COVID-19: An Up-To-Date Review.

Front Pediatr 2020 30;8:607647. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses several challenges to clinicians. Timely diagnosis and hospitalization, risk stratification, effective utilization of intensive care services, selection of appropriate therapies, monitoring and timely discharge are essential to save the maximum number of lives. Clinical assessment is indispensable, but laboratory markers, or biomarkers, can provide additional, objective information which can significantly impact these components of patient care. Read More

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Multimodal Analysis of the Tissue Response to a Bone-Anchored Hearing Implant: Presentation of a Two-Year Case Report of a Patient With Recurrent Pain, Inflammation, and Infection, Including a Systematic Literature Review.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 30;11:640899. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Osseointegration is a well-established concept used in applications including the percutaneous Bone-Anchored Hearing System (BAHS) and auricular rehabilitation. To date, few retrieved implants have been described. A systematic review including cases where percutaneous bone-anchored implants inserted in the temporal bone were retrieved and analyzed was performed. Read More

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PSMA Expression in Glioblastoma as a Basis for Theranostic Approaches: A Retrospective, Correlational Panel Study Including Immunohistochemistry, Clinical Parameters and PET Imaging.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:646387. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Aim: The aim of the current study was to enlighten the evolution of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in glioblastoma between initial diagnosis and recurrence in order to provide preliminary insight for further clinical investigations into innovative PSMA-directed treatment concepts in neuro-oncology.

Methods: Patients who underwent resection for de-novo glioblastoma (GBM) and had a re-resection in case of a recurrent tumor following radiochemotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy were included (n = 16). Histological and immunohistochemical stainings were performed at initial diagnosis and at recurrence (n = 96 tissue specimens). Read More

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ECG-Based Indices to Characterize Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Before and During Stepwise Catheter Ablation.

Front Physiol 2021 30;12:654053. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Service of Cardiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Consistently successful patient outcomes following catheter ablation (CA) for treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation (pers-AF) remain elusive. We propose an electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis designed to (1) refine selection of patients most likely to benefit from ablation, and (2) examine the temporal evolution of AF organization indices that could act as clinical indicators of ongoing ablation effectiveness and completeness. Twelve-lead ECG was continuously recorded in 40 patients (61 ± 8 years) during stepwise CA (step-CA) procedures for treatment of pers-AF (sustained duration 19 ± 11 months). Read More

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Gazing at Social Interactions Between Foraging and Decision Theory.

Front Neurorobot 2021 30;15:639999. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

PHuSe Lab, Department of Computer Science, Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Finding the underlying principles of social attention in humans seems to be essential for the design of the interaction between natural and artificial agents. Here, we focus on the computational modeling of gaze dynamics as exhibited by humans when perceiving socially relevant multimodal information. The audio-visual landscape of social interactions is distilled into a number of multimodal patches that convey different social value, and we work under the general frame of foraging as a tradeoff between local patch exploitation and landscape exploration. Read More

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The Making of Long-Lasting Memories: A Fruit Fly Perspective.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 30;15:662129. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States.

Understanding the nature of the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation, consolidation, and forgetting are some of the fascinating questions in modern neuroscience. The encoding, stabilization and elimination of memories, rely on the structural reorganization of synapses. These changes will enable the facilitation or depression of neural activity in response to the acquisition of new information. Read More

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Spatiotemporal Correlation of Epileptiform Activity and Gene Expression .

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 30;14:643763. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Clinical and Experimental Epileptology, Berlin, Germany.

Epileptiform activity alters gene expression in the central nervous system, a phenomenon that has been studied extensively in animal models. Here, we asked whether also models of seizures are in principle suitable to investigate changes in gene expression due to epileptiform activity and tested this hypothesis mainly in rodent and additionally in some human brain slices. We focused on three genes relevant for seizures and epilepsy: FOS proto-oncogene (), inducible cAMP early repressor () and mammalian target of rapamycin (). Read More

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Editorial: Spatial and Temporal Perception in Sensory Deprivation.

Front Neurosci 2021 30;15:671836. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Genoa, Italy.

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Spatio-temporal variations and input patterns on the legacy and novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in coastal rivers of North China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 7;283:117093. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), CAS, Shandong Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai, 264003, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China. Electronic address:

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) has been subject to restrictions since 2018 in developed countries but is still manufacturing in China. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) is widely used as a replacement for BDE209. To better understand the behaviors and fates of these legacy and novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs), water samples were collected from the estuaries of 36 rivers that drain into the Bohai Sea (BS) and North Yellow Sea (NYS) in 2017 and 2018. Read More

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Noise effect on the temporal patterns of neural synchrony.

Neural Netw 2021 Mar 29;141:30-39. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Neural synchrony in the brain is often present in an intermittent fashion, i.e., there are intervals of synchronized activity interspersed with intervals of desynchronized activity. Read More

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The alliance-outcome association in the treatment of adolescent depression.

Psychotherapy (Chic) 2021 Mar;58(1):95-108

Department of Applied Health Research.

A growing body of research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between alliance and treatment outcomes in youth psychotherapy. However, previous research often suffered methodological issues that prevented detailed investigation of temporal relationships between alliance and symptomatology. The current study explored the directions of effect between alliance and outcome by examining the associations between early alliance and subsequent outcome while controlling for patients' baseline severity and prior symptom change. Read More

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Proteomic analysis of metabolic mechanisms associated with fatty acid biosynthesis during Styrax tonkinensis kernel development.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Background: Styrax tonkinensis is a white-flowered tree with considerable potential as a feedstock source for biodiesel production from the oily seed contained within its nutlike drupes. Transcriptome changes during oil accumulation have been previously reported, but not concurrent changes in the proteome.

Results: Using proteomic analysis of samples collected at 50, 70, 100 and 130 days after flowering (DAF), we identified 1472 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Read More

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Major depressive disorder diagnosis based on effective connectivity in EEG signals: a convolutional neural network and long short-term memory approach.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Apr 26;15(2):239-252. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Deep learning techniques have recently made considerable advances in the field of artificial intelligence. These methodologies can assist psychologists in early diagnosis of mental disorders and preventing severe trauma. Major Depression Disorder (MDD) is a common and serious medical condition whose exact manifestations are not fully understood. Read More

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Case Report: Could Hennebert's Sign Be Evoked Despite Global Vestibular Impairment on Video Head Impulse Test? Considerations Upon Pathomechanisms Underlying Pressure-Induced Nystagmus due to Labyrinthine Fistula.

Front Neurol 2021 29;12:634782. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

ENT Unit, Department of Surgery, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

We describe a case series of labyrinthine fistula, characterized by Hennebert's sign (HS) elicited by tragal compression despite global hypofunction of semicircular canals (SCs) on a video-head impulse test (vHIT), and review the relevant literature. All three patients presented with different amounts of cochleo-vestibular loss, consistent with labyrinthitis likely induced by labyrinthine fistula due to different temporal bone pathologies (squamous cell carcinoma involving the external auditory canal in one case and middle ear cholesteatoma in two cases). Despite global hypofunction on vHIT proving impaired function for each SC for high accelerations, all patients developed pressure-induced nystagmus, presumably through spared and/or recovered activity for low-velocity canal afferents. Read More

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Light/Clock Influences Membrane Potential Dynamics to Regulate Sleep States.

Front Neurol 2021 29;12:625369. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, United States.

The circadian rhythm is a fundamental process that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. This rhythm is regulated by core clock genes that oscillate to create a physiological rhythm of circadian neuronal activity. However, we do not know much about the mechanism by which circadian inputs influence neurons involved in sleep-wake architecture. Read More

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New Modalities of 3D Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Assays in Cardiovascular Toxicity.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:603016. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University Budapest, Budapest, Hungary.

The substantial progress of the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technologies over the last decade has provided us with new opportunities for cardiovascular drug discovery, regenerative medicine, and disease modeling. The combination of hiPSC with 3D culture techniques offers numerous advantages for generating and studying physiological and pathophysiological cardiac models. Cells grown in 3D can overcome many limitations of 2D cell cultures and animal models. Read More

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Comparison of Pattern Discrimination Mechanisms of Hebbian and Spatiotemporal Learning Rules in Self-Organization.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 29;15:624353. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Brain Science Institute, Tamagawa University, Tokyo, Japan.

The spatiotemporal learning rule (STLR) proposed based on hippocampal neurophysiological experiments is essentially different from the Hebbian learning rule (HEBLR) in terms of the self-organization mechanism. The difference is the self-organization of information from the external world by firing (HEBLR) or not firing (STLR) output neurons. Here, we describe the differences of the self-organization mechanism between the two learning rules by simulating neural network models trained on relatively similar spatiotemporal context information. Read More

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Evaluating the association between extreme heat and mortality in urban Southwestern Ontario using different temperature data sources.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8153. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

ICES, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Urban areas have complex thermal distribution. We examined the association between extreme temperature and mortality in urban Ontario, using two temperature data sources: high-resolution and weather station data. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models to examine census division-specific temperature-mortality associations between May and September 2005-2012. Read More

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Embedding, aligning and reconstructing clinical notes to explore sepsis.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Apr 14;14(1):136. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: Our goal was to research and develop exploratory analysis tools for clinical notes, which now are underrepresented to limit the diversity of data insights on medically relevant applications.

Results: We characterize how exploratory analysis can affect representation learning on clinical narratives and present several self-developed tools to explore sepsis. Our experiments focus on patients with sepsis in the MIMIC-III Clinical Database or in our institution's research patient data repository. Read More

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