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On-Surface Synthesis of Variable Bandgap Nanoporous Graphene.

Small 2021 Sep 18:e2102246. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore, 117551, Singapore.

Tuning the bandgap of nanoporous graphene is desirable for applications such as the charge transport layer in organic-hybrid devices. The holy grail in the field is the ability to synthesize 2D nanoporous graphene with variable pore sizes, and hence tunable band gaps. Herein, the on-surface synthesis of nanoporous graphene with variable bandgaps is demonstrated. Read More

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September 2021

Polydopamine Nanobottles with Photothermal Capability for Controlled Release and Related Applications.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 17:e2104729. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.

Nanobottles refer to colloidal particles featuring a hollow body connected to a single opening on the surface. This unique feature makes them ideal carriers for the encapsulation and controlled release of various types of cargos. Here a facile route to the fabrication of uniform nanobottles made of polydopamine by leveraging swelling-induced pressure is reported. Read More

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September 2021

Emergence of topological superconductivity in doped topological Dirac semimetals under symmetry-lowering lattice distortions.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 17;11(1):18539. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center for Correlated Electron Systems, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul, 08826, Korea.

Recently, unconventional superconductivity having a zero-bias conductance peak is reported in doped topological Dirac semimetal (DSM) with lattice distortion. Motivated by the experiments, we theoretically study the possible symmetry-lowering lattice distortions and their effects on the emergence of unconventional superconductivity in doped topological DSM. We find four types of symmetry-lowering lattice distortions that reproduce the crystal symmetries relevant to experiments from the group-theoretical analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of the Antigenicity-Retaining Ability of Fixative Solutions for Liquid-Based Cytology: Immunocytochemistry of Long-Term Storage.

Acta Cytol 2021 Sep 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology, Nara Medical University Hospital, Nara, Japan.

Introduction/objective: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is advantageous as multiple stained specimens can be prepared and used for additional assays such as immunocytochemical and molecular-pathological investigations. Two types of preservative-fixative solutions (fixatives) are used for nongynecologic specimens used in the BD SurePath-LBC (SP-LBC) method, and their components vary. However, few studies have evaluated the differences in antigen-retaining ability between these fixatives. Read More

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September 2021

Temperature-responsive spin column for sample preparation using an all-aqueous eluent.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Sep 28;1179:338806. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato, Tokyo, 105-8512, Japan.

We present a temperature-responsive spin column using an all-aqueous eluent. The method is intended as a simple sample preparation method for protein removal from serum, which is required for serum drug analysis. As packing materials for the spin column, we prepared two types of silica beads via surface-initiated radical polymerization. Read More

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September 2021

High Performance of Anion Exchange Blend Membranes Based on Novel Phosphonium Cation Polymers for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Qatar Environment & Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Qatar Foundation, Doha 34110, Qatar.

The deployment of alkaline anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in flow battery applications has the advantage of a low cationic species crossover rate. However, the alkaline stability conjugated to the low conductivity of hydroxide ions of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) still represents a major drawback for the large deployment of such technology. In this study, three types of tetraarylpolyphosphonium (pTAP)-based copolymers (namely, CP1, CP2, and CP3) are synthesized and blended with chitosan and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for the fabrication of AEMs. Read More

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September 2021

Fabrication and characterization of well-ordered PbS nanowires in aluminum oxide template by sulfurization and vacuum injection molding processes.

Nanotechnology 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taipei, 10607, TAIWAN.

Lead (Pb) nanowire arrays were fabricated with anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of 30 nm, 100 nm and 300 nm in pore diameters. Through vacuum injection molding process, Pb/AAO composite was obtained, and lead sulfide (PbS) could further be synthesized after exposing to sulfur gas. AAO templates with different pore sizes were fabricated by using pure aluminum in a two-step anodization. Read More

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September 2021

Discovery and Implications of Hidden Atomic-Scale Structure in a Metallic Meteorite.

Nano Lett 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Physics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504, United States.

Iron and its alloys have made modern civilization possible, with metallic meteorites providing one of the human's earliest sources of usable iron as well as providing a window into our solar system's billion-year history. Here highest-resolution tools reveal the existence of a previously hidden FeNi nanophase within the extremely slowly cooled metallic meteorite NWA 6259. This new nanophase exists alongside Ni-poor and Ni-rich nanoprecipitates within a matrix of tetrataenite, the uniaxial, chemically ordered form of FeNi. Read More

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September 2021

Moving on up: Vertical distribution shifts in rocky reef fish species during climate-driven decline in dissolved oxygen from 1995 to 2009.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Anthropogenic climate change has resulted in warming temperatures and reduced oxygen concentrations in the global oceans. Much remains unknown on the impacts of reduced oxygen concentrations on the biology and distribution of marine fishes. In the Southern California Channel Islands, visual fish surveys were conducted frequently in a manned submersible at three rocky reefs between 1995 and 2009. Read More

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September 2021

The room-temperature, ambient-pressure conversion of CO into value-added pharmaceutical products quinazoline-2,4(1,3)-diones.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, 64110, USA.

As global warming due to CO emissions has become a widely recognized concern, CO capture, sequestration, neutralization, and conversion have become possible solutions to address this concern. Among these approaches, the conversion of CO into fuels or value-added products has attracted considerable attention. In this work, we report the high-efficiency conversion of CO to important industrial raw materials for pharmaceutical compounds, quinazoline-2,4(1,3)-diones, reactions with 2-aminobenzonitriles at room temperature and under ambient pressure, with high conversion yields (91. Read More

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September 2021

Switching between TADF and RTP: anion-regulated photoluminescence in organic salts and co-crystals.

Mater Adv 2021 Aug 13;2(17):5777-5784. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia 2036 Main Mall Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1 Canada

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) are two photophysical phenomena which utilize triplet excitons. In this work, we demonstrate how variation of the anion in organic salts with carbazole and phenothiazine-5,5-dioxide donors and pyridinium and quinolinium acceptors may be used to switch between TADF and RTP. These compounds adopt similar molecular structures and packing modes with different anions and exhibit different types of photophysical behavior due to the electronic effects of the anions. Read More

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Compound climate extremes driving recent sub-continental tree mortality in northern Australia have no precedent in recent centuries.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18337. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, University of Melbourne, Richmond, 3121, Australia.

Compound climate extremes (CCEs) can have significant and persistent environmental impacts on ecosystems. However, knowledge of the occurrence of CCEs beyond the past ~ 50 years, and hence their ecological impacts, is limited. Here, we place the widespread 2015-16 mangrove dieback and the more recent 2020 inland native forest dieback events in northern Australia into a longer historical context using locally relevant palaeoclimate records. Read More

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September 2021

Features of structure, magnetic state and electrodynamic performance of SrFeInO.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18342. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

South Ural State University, 76, Lenin Av., 454080, Chelyabinsk, Russia.

Indium-substituted strontium hexaferrites were prepared by the conventional solid-phase reaction method. Neutron diffraction patterns were obtained at room temperature and analyzed using the Rietveld methods. A linear dependence of the unit cell parameters is found. Read More

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September 2021

Current status of hypochlorite technology on the wastewater treatment and sludge disposal: Performance, principals and prospects.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 3;803:150085. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China. Electronic address:

As cost-effective and high-efficient oxidants, the hypochlorite chemicals have been widely utilized for bleaching and disinfection. However, its potential applications in wastewater treatment and sludge disposal were less concerned. This paper mainly summarized the state-of-the-art applications of hypochlorite technology in wastewater and sludge treatment based on the main influencing factors and potential mechanisms of hypochlorite treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Evidence for interannual persistence of infectious influenza A viruses in Alaska wetlands.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 3;803:150078. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Electronic address:

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) deposited by wild birds into the environment may lead to sporadic mortality events and economically costly outbreaks among domestic birds. There is a paucity of information, however, regarding the persistence of infectious IAVs within the environment following deposition. In this investigation, we assessed the persistence of 12 IAVs that were present in cloacal and/or oropharyngeal swabs of naturally infected ducks. Read More

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September 2021

Temporal dynamics of mixed litter humification in an alpine treeline ecotone.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 4;803:150122. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Long-term Research Station of Alpine Ecosystems, Key laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering of Sichuan Province, Institute of Ecology & Forests, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Loss of plant diversity affects mountain ecosystem properties and processes, yet few studies have focused on the impact of plant function type deficiency on mixed litter humification. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a 1279-day litterbag decomposition experiment with six plant functional types of foliar litter to determine the temporal dynamic characteristics of mixed litter humification in a coniferous forest (CF) and an alpine shrubland (AS). The results indicated that the humus concentrations, the net accumulations and their relative mixed effects (RME) of most types were higher in CF than those in AS at 146 days, and humus net accumulations fell to approximately -80% of the initial level within 1279 days. Read More

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September 2021

Noise-to-noise ratios in correlation length calculations near criticality.

Authors:
Avishay Efrat

Phys Rev E 2021 Aug;104(2-1):024125

Physics Unit, Afeka Tel-Aviv Academic College of Engineering, Tel-Aviv 6910717, Israel.

For finite quenched random systems, on regular lattices, it is possible to define two types of variances (noises). It is demonstrated that their ratio is useful in calculating the correlation length of an infinite and rather general random system, as a function of temperature. The numerical method of obtaining those variables is not relevant. Read More

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Study of the structure of a multicomponent salt melt using molecular dynamics modeling.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Sofia Kovalevskaya Str., 22, Yekaterinburg, 620990, RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

The composition of the electrolyte is critical in the electrodeposition of high-purity silicon. In this work, molecular dynamics modeling of the preparation of liquid salt melt KF-KCl-KI and a detailed study of its structure based on the method of statistical geometry have been performed. Partial radial distribution functions reflect the size of the ions under consideration and the averaged structure of the generated ionic subsystems. Read More

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September 2021

Infection Dynamics of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis In Two Frog Species Inhabiting Quito'S Metropolitan Guangüiltagua Park, Ecuador.

J Wildl Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Las Américas, Vía Nayón S/N, Quito 170124, Ecuador.

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection is one of the principal causes of amphibian declines worldwide. The presence of Bd has been determined in Gastrotheca riobambae tadpoles that inhabit ponds in Quito's Metropolitan Guangüiltagua Park, Ecuador. This study sought to determine whether these tadpoles are infected and to determine the presence of chytridiomycosis in another frog species, Pristimantis unistrigatus, which also inhabits the park and has different reproductive biology and distinct behavioral habits. Read More

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September 2021

Acrylic Paints: An Atomistic View of Polymer Structure and Effects of Environmental Pollutants.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Most of the artwork and cultural heritage objects are stored in museums under conditions that are difficult to monitor. While advanced technologies aim to control and prevent the degradation of cultural heritage objects in line with preventive conservation measures, there is much to be learned in terms of the physical processes that lead to the degradation of the synthetic polymers that form the basis of acrylic paints largely used in contemporary art. In museums, stored objects are often exposed to temperature and relative humidity fluctuations as well as airborne pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Read More

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September 2021

Polyacrylamide-based Binary Luminescent Copolymer Materials Exhibit Color-tunable and Efficient Long-lived Room Temperature Phosphorescence.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Sep 15:e2100544. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

International Joint Research Laboratory of Nano-Micro Architecture Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

Polymer-based pure organic room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) materials have garnered considerable interest in recent years, among which RTP systems with prolonged lifetimes and tunable emission colors are promising for applications in sensing, flexible electronics, bioassay, anti-counterfeiting, and data encryption. Herein, we report on a facile doping method based on two types of copolymers with benzene/biphenyl-based light-emitting cores as their side chains, whereby the two copolymers are robustly crosslinked via noncovalent interactions including hydrogen bonding and halogen bonding that occur between the light-emitting cores and polyacrylamide backbones. Persistent RTP emission with prolonged lifetime up to 1. Read More

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September 2021

Organic-matter decomposition as a bioassessment tool of stream functioning: A comparison of eight decomposition-based indicators exposed to different environmental changes.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 4;290:118111. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

IUF - Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France.

Organic-matter decomposition has long been proposed as a tool to assess stream functional integrity, but this indicator largely depends on organic-matter selection. We assessed eight decomposition-based indicators along two well-known environmental gradients, a nutrient-enrichment gradient (0.2-1. Read More

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September 2021

Reductive destruction of multiple nitrated energetics over palladium nanoparticles in the H-based membrane catalyst-film reactor (MCfR).

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 31;423(Pt A):127055. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Nitrated energetics are widespread contaminants due to their improper disposal from ammunition facilities. Different classes of nitrated energetics commonly co-exist in ammunition wastewater, but co-removal of the classes has hardly been documented. In this study, we evaluated the catalytic destruction of three types of energetics using palladium (Pd) nano-catalysts deposited on H-transfer membranes in membrane catalyst-film reactors (MCfRs). Read More

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Tree recruitment is determined by stand structure and shade tolerance with uncertain role of climate and water relations.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 19;11(17):12182-12203. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Forest Ecology Department of Environmental Systems Science Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems ETH Zurich Zurich Switzerland.

Tree regeneration is a key process for long-term forest dynamics, determining changes in species composition and shaping successional trajectories. While tree regeneration is a highly stochastic process, tree regeneration studies often cover narrow environmental gradients only, focusing on specific forest types or species in distinct regions. Thus, the larger-scale effects of temperature, water availability, and stand structure on tree regeneration are poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Taxonomic and functional diversity covary in rock pool microalgal communities despite their different drivers.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 29;11(17):11852-11873. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Geosciences and Geography University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland.

Local biodiversity has traditionally been estimated with taxonomic diversity metrics such as species richness. Recently, the concept of biodiversity has been extended beyond species identity by ecological traits determining the functional role of a species in a community. This interspecific functional diversity typically responds more strongly to local environmental variation compared with taxonomic diversity, while taxonomic diversity may mirror more strongly dispersal processes compared with functional metrics. Read More

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September 2021

Large-scale patterns of understory biomass and its allocation across China's forests.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 8;804:150169. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization & Ecological Restoration Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Electronic address:

Plant biomass storage and its allocation reflect the ecosystem productivity and adaptation to different environments. Understory vegetation is a significant component of any forest ecosystem and plays a vital role in biodiversity maintenance and the ecosystem's carbon cycle. Although many studies have addressed the relationships of climate, stand structure and resource availability with understory biomass and its allocation at local scales, the large-scale variation of understory biomass and allocation and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Spatiotemporal differences in climate change impacts on vegetation cover in China from 1982 to 2015.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Qingdao Engineering Research Center for Rural Environment, College of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, Shandong, China.

The impacts of climate change on vegetation cover in different regions in China are not entirely clear because of the interference of non-climatic factors, such as human activity. This study aims to analyze the spatiotemporal differences in climate impacts qualitatively and quantitatively by applying trend, correlation, and multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses to the data of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and two climatic factors (air temperature and precipitation) during 1982-2015 in China. The MLR equation linking two climatic variables with NDVI was used to identify the NDVI trend caused by climate change. Read More

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September 2021

Calcium carbonate particles: synthesis, temperature and time influence on the size, shape, phase, and their impact on cell hydroxyapatite formation.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

NanoBioTechnology laboratory. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

To develop materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering and to study their efficiency with respect to ossification, it is necessary to apply physicochemical and biological analyses. The major challenge is labor-intensive data mining during synthesis and the reproducibility of the obtained data. In this work, we investigated the influence of time and temperature on the reaction yield, the reaction rate, and the size, shape, and phase of the obtained product in the completely controllable synthesis of calcium carbonate. Read More

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September 2021

Fat tissue equivalent phantoms for microwave applications by reinforcing gelatin with nanocellulose.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Kemivägen 4, Goteborg, 412 96, SWEDEN.

Tissue mimicking phantom materials with thermal and dielectric equivalence are vital for the development of microwave diagnostics and treatment. The current phantoms representing fat tissue are challenged by mechanical integrity at relevant temperatures coupled with complex production protocols. We have employed two types of nanocellulose (cellulose nanocrystals and oxidized cellulose nanocrystals) as reinforcement in gelatin stabilized emulsions for mimicking fat tissue. Read More

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September 2021

A flexible virtual sensor array based on laser-induced graphene and MXene for detecting volatile organic compounds in human breath.

Analyst 2021 Sep 13;146(18):5704-5713. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027, China.

Detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath is critical for the early diagnosis of diseases. Good selectivity of VOC sensors is crucial for the accurate analysis of VOC biomarkers in human breath, which consists of more than 200 types of VOCs. In this paper, a flexible virtual sensor array (FVSA) was proposed based on a sensing layer of MXene and laser-induced graphene interdigital electrodes (LIG-IDEs) for detecting VOCs in exhaled human breath. Read More

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September 2021