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The 2021 Room-Temperature Superconductivity Roadmap.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Physics, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440, USA, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, UNITED STATES.

Last year, the report of Room-Temperature Superconductivity in high-pressure carbonaceous sulfur hydride marked a major milestone in the history of physics: one of the holy grails of condensed matter research was reached after more than one century of continuing efforts. This long path started with Neil Ashcroft's and Vitaly Ginzburg's visionary insights on high-temperature superconductivity in metallic hydrogen in the 60's and 70's, and has led to the current hydride fever, following the report of high-Tc high-pressure superconductivity in H3S in 2014. This Roadmap collects selected contributions from many of the main actors in this exciting chapter of condensed matter history. Read More

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September 2021

Dynamic of CO, CH and NO in the Guadalquivir estuary.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 11;805:150193. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Dpto. Química-Física, INMAR, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Andalucía, Spain.

The concentration of dissolved CH and NO, as well as the partial pressure of CO (pCO) were studied in the Guadalquivir estuary. Samples were taken in March and April 2018 and 2019, under different rainy and tidal conditions. The available database for summer 2017 (Sierra et al. Read More

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September 2021

Concurrent production of glycyrrhetic acid 3--mono-β-d-glucuronide and lignocellulolytic enzymes by solid-state fermentation of a plant endophytic .

Bioresour Bioprocess 2021 15;8(1):88. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Key Lab of Bioprocess Engineering of Jiangxi Province, College of Life Sciences, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, 330013 China.

Glycyrrhetic acid 3--mono--d-glucuronide (GAMG) as an important derivative of glycyrrhizin (GL) shows stronger biological activities and higher sweetness than GL. The biotransformation process is considered as an efficient strategy for GAMG production, due to its mild reaction, high production efficiency and environmentally friendly status. In this study, licorice straw was used for the first time as a medium for GAMG and lignocellulosic enzyme production via solid-state fermentation (SSF) of endophytic fungus DX-THS3. Read More

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September 2021

Seasonal Changes of Thyroid Function Parameters in Women of Reproductive Age Between 2012 and 2018: A Retrospective, Observational, Single-Center Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 2;12:719225. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, National Health Commission (NHC) Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Thyroid function can be influenced by external stimuli such as light and temperature. However, it is currently unknown whether there is seasonal variation of thyroid function in women of reproductive age. Adequate thyroid function in reproductive-aged women is necessary for optimal fetal-maternal outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

Opuntia ficus indica waste as a cost effective carbon source for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 1;370:131005. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Laboratory Reactions and Process Engineering, UMR CNRS 7224, University of Lorraine, ENSAIA, 2, avenue de la forêt de Haye, TSA 40602 54518 Vandoeuvre Cedex, France.

Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) waste was evaluated as a fermentation feedstock for lactic acid production using Lactobacillus plantarum. Dilute acid pretreatment of the OFI cladodes (OFIC) was performed for extracting maximum fermentable sugars by optimizing process parameters using statistical optimization method. The best results were obtained with HCl 1% (v/v), temperature 120 °C, residence time 40 min, granulation 350 µm and substrate loading 5% (w/v), the sugar concentration reached 24 g/L with low concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural. Read More

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September 2021

[Adherence to hypothermia guidelines in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Neurología Neonatal, Fundación NeNe, Madrid, España.

Introduction: We do not have population data in Spain on the application of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). The objective was to examine adherence to management standards during TH of infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

Method: Multicenter observational cohort study from the beginning of TH (year 2010) in 5 hospitals in a Spanish region, until year 2019. Read More

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September 2021

Temperature Management and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children 3 Years After Cardiac Arrest.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Intensive Care Unit, The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Clinical Sciences, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objectives: Therapeutic hypothermia minimizes neuronal injury in animal models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with greater effect when used sooner after the insult. Clinical trials generally showed limited benefit but are difficult to perform in a timely manner. In this clinical study, we evaluated the association between the use of hypothermia (or not) and health-related quality of life among survivors of pediatric cardiac arrest as well as overall mortality. Read More

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Impact of Successive Exertional Heat Injuries on Thermoregulatory and Systemic Inflammatory Responses in Mice.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, grid.420094.bU.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts, United States.

The purpose of the study was to determine if repeated exertional heat injuries (EHIs) worsen the inflammatory response and subsequent organ damage. We assessed the impact of a single EHI bout (EHI0) or 2 separate EHI episodes separated by 1 (EHI1), 3 (EHI3), and 7 (EHI7) days in male C57BL/6J mice (N = 236). To induce EHI, mice underwent a forced running protocol until loss of consciousness or core temperature reached ≥ 42. Read More

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September 2021

Linear response in the uniformly heated granular gas.

Phys Rev E 2021 Aug;104(2-1):024903

Física Teórica, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado de Correos 1065, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain.

We analyze the linear response properties of the uniformly heated granular gas. The intensity of the stochastic driving fixes the value of the granular temperature in the nonequilibrium steady state reached by the system. Here, we investigate two specific situations. Read More

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Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Laccase LacZ1 for Lignin Degradation.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:AEM0135521. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Recycling of Argo-Waste in Cold Region, College of Life Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, People's Republic of China.

Lignin is a complex natural organic polymer and is one of the primary components of lignocellulose. The efficient utilization of lignocellulose is limited because it is difficult to degrade lignin. In this study, we screened a gene fragment encoding laccase from the macro transcriptome data of a microbial consortium WSC-6, which can efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Read More

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September 2021

Optimizing temperature for enhancing waste activated sludge decomposition in lysozyme and rhamnolipid pretreatment system.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 2;341:125868. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China.

This study investigated the influence of temperature on the hydrolysis and decomposition of waste activated sludge (WAS) during the enhanced pretreatment system with lysozyme and rhamnolipid (Ly + RL). Results showed that temperature increasing from 15℃ to 55℃ could obviously enhance the release of soluble organic matters and WAS decomposition degree within the Ly + RL pretreatment system. Compared to the sum of sole Ly and sole RL pretreatment, Ly + RL combined pretreatment system at 45℃ presented best synergistic hydrolysis performance. Read More

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September 2021

First proof of concept for full-scale, direct, low-temperature anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 22;341:125786. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland.

Municipal wastewater constitutes the largest fraction of wastewater, and yet treatment processes are largely removal-based. High-rate anaerobic digestion (AD) has revolutionised the sustainability of industrial wastewater treatment and could additionally provide an alternative for municipal wastewater. While AD of dilute municipal wastewater is common in tropical regions, the low temperatures of temperate climates has resulted in slow uptake. Read More

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Sewage denitrification performance and sludge properties variation with the addition of liquid from perishable organic anaerobic fermentation.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 21;341:125821. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

The State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, 1515 North Zhongshan Rd. (No. 2), Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

The organics in the classified wet waste were deficiently utilized while sewage denitrification requires abundant carbon sources. Herein, the fermentation of perishable organic waste (POW) and the denitrification process with obtained liquid were investigated. The most volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production was realized with the fermentation liquid of food waste (FL-FW). Read More

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Bi-layered hollow amphoteric composites: Rational construction and ultra-efficient sorption performance for anionic Cr(VI) and cationic Cu(II) ions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 4;607(Pt 1):556-567. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry and Biomaterials, College of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China.

Here, we have developed a novel bilayer hollow amphiphilic biosorbent (BHAB-3) with large adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption kinetics, and cost-effective for the removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The synthesis was based on the clever use of freeze-drying to fix the structure, secondary modification of the carboxymethyl cellulose microspheres with polyethyleneimine and cross-linking by glutaraldehyde. The consequences of pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on adsorption were investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Spatiotemporal differences in climate change impacts on vegetation cover in China from 1982 to 2015.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Qingdao Engineering Research Center for Rural Environment, College of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, Shandong, China.

The impacts of climate change on vegetation cover in different regions in China are not entirely clear because of the interference of non-climatic factors, such as human activity. This study aims to analyze the spatiotemporal differences in climate impacts qualitatively and quantitatively by applying trend, correlation, and multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses to the data of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and two climatic factors (air temperature and precipitation) during 1982-2015 in China. The MLR equation linking two climatic variables with NDVI was used to identify the NDVI trend caused by climate change. Read More

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September 2021

Combination of solid phase microextraction and low energy electron ionisation gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to meet the challenges of flavour analysis.

Talanta 2021 Dec 8;235:122793. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Mane SEA Pte Ltd, 3 Biopolis Drive, #07-17/18/19 Synapse, Singapore 138623. Electronic address:

The flavour analysis of volatile compounds remains challenging not only because of their diversity in properties and dynamic range, but also due to the high background noise from food matrix constituents. To improve sensitivity and specificity for a multiclass range of compounds, a combination of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) devices and low energy electron ionisation (LE-EI) was proposed for the analysis of 36 volatile compounds, using coffee as a model matrix. From a pre-evaluation of devices and extraction modes, the combined use of direct immersion-stir bar sorptive extraction and headspace-thin-film SPME (SBSE-TFSPME) was selected to increase compound recovery, and further optimised for extraction temperature (88 °C) and time (110 min). Read More

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December 2021

Establishing Safety Parameters for Orthopaedic Cast Saw Blade Usage.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre Dalhousie University, Halifax Aberdeen Hospital, New Glasgow, NS, Canada.

Background: The incidence of injuries from cast saws during cast removal ranges from 0.12% to 4.3%. Read More

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September 2021

Preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation of levonorgestrel-loaded thermostable microneedles.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

To facilitate the storage and use of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based microneedles (MNs) in hot seasons and regions, thermally stable MNs loaded with levonorgestrel (LNG) were developed. Due to its good biocompatibility and high glass transition temperature (T), Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was added to the PLGA-based MNs to increase thermal stability. MNs with HPMC exhibited excellent thermal stability at high temperatures. Read More

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September 2021

Safety pharmacology of acute LSD administration in healthy subjects.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine and Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Schanzenstrasse 55, CH-4056, Basel, Switzerland.

Rationale: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used in psychiatric and psychological research and investigated as a potential treatment for medical and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and cluster headache.

Objectives: Safety data on clinical safety are available from small studies but not from larger samples. We report safety pharmacology data from a large pooled study sample on acute effects of LSD in healthy subjects. Read More

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September 2021

Continuous Monitoring of the Thermoregulatory Response in Endurance Horses and Trotter Horses During Field Exercise: Baselining for Future Hot Weather Studies.

Front Physiol 2021 26;12:708737. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Research Group of Comparative Physiology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Establishing proper policies regarding the recognition and prevention of equine heat stress becomes increasingly important, especially in the face of global warming. To assist this, a detailed view of the variability of equine thermoregulation during field exercise and recovery is essential. 13 endurance horses and 12 trotter horses were equipped with continuous monitoring devices [gastrointestinal (GI) pill, heartrate (HR) monitor, and global positioning system] and monitored under cool weather conditions during four endurance rides over a total of 80 km (40 km loops) and intense trotter track-based exercise over 1,540 m. Read More

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Modification of activated carbon using urea to enhance the adsorption of dioxins.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 9:112035. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100085, China. Electronic address:

Activated carbon is commonly used to remove dioxins from flue gas via adsorption. Improving the targeted adsorption capacity of activated carbon for dioxins can reduce the consumption of adsorbents and help achieve emission standards for target pollutants. Here, commercial coal-based activated carbon was used as a raw material and modified by urea impregnation along with treatment at high temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere. Read More

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September 2021

Diastereomeric resolution of 3-chloromandelic acid with threo-(1S,2S)-2-amino-l-p-nitrophenyl-1,3-propanediol.

Chirality 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Preparation Business Department, Shanghai Hequan Medicine Research and Development Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China.

An optical resolution of 3-chloromandelic acid (3-ClMA) using threo-(1S,2S)-2-amino-l-p-nitrophenyl-1,3-propanediol ([S,S]-SA) as a resolving agent was presented. The effects of the type of solvents, the amount of solvent, molar ratio of the resolving agent to racemate and filtration temperature on resolution were investigated. Under the optimal resolution conditions, the content of less soluble salt reached 98%, and the resolution efficiency was as high as 94%. Read More

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September 2021

Scrotal subcutaneous temperature is increased by scrotal insulation or whole-body heating, but not by scrotal neck insulation; however, all three heat-stress models decrease sperm quality in bulls and rams.

J Therm Biol 2021 Aug 2;100:103064. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Ruminant testes are ~2-6 °C below body temperature; increased testicular temperature reduces sperm motility and morphology. Our objective was to serially monitor scrotal subcutaneous temperatures during testicular heat stress and relate those to sperm quality. Two experiments were conducted, with temperature sensors surgically implanted in scrotal subcutaneous tissues recording temperatures every 15 min and semen collected and evaluated weekly. Read More

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Effective accumulative temperature affects gonadal maturation by controlling expression of GnRH, GnRH receptor, serotonin receptor and APGWamide gene in Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai during broodstock conditioning in hatcheries.

J Therm Biol 2021 Aug 26;100:103037. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Fisheries Science, Faculty of Aquatic Biology, Chonnam National University, 50 Daehak-ro, Yeosu, Jeonnam, 59626, South Korea. Electronic address:

Water temperature is a crucial environmental factor that influences reproductive function of abalone. Broodstock conditioning exposed to effective accumulative temperature (EAT) is a common practice in abalone hatcheries. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of gonadal maturation and reproduction of Haliotis discus hannai exposed to EAT and induced spawning period, changes in expression of neuroendocrine genes encoding two gonadotropin releasing hormone (Hdh-GnRH, GnRH-like peptide), GnRH receptor (HdhGnRH-R), serotonin receptor (5-HT) and Hdh-APGWamide in neural ganglia and gonadal tissues were examined. Read More

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Nano-Second Laser Interference Photoembossed Microstructures for Enhanced Cell Alignment.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 31;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Instituto de Nanociencia y Materiales de Aragón (INMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, C./Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Photoembossing is a powerful photolithographic technique to prepare surface relief structures relying on polymerization-induced diffusion in a solventless development step. Conveniently, surface patterns are formed by two or more interfering laser beams without the need for a lithographic mask. The use of nanosecond pulsed light-based interference lithography strengthens the pattern resolution through the absence of vibrational line pattern distortions. Read More

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Langasite as Piezoelectric Substrate for Sensors in Harsh Environments: Investigation of Surface Degradation under High-Temperature Air Atmosphere.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 6;21(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Université de Lorraine-CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198), F54000 Nancy, France.

Langasite crystals (LGS) are known for their exceptional piezoelectric properties at high temperatures up to 1000 °C and more. In this respect, many studies have been conducted in order to achieve surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors based on LGS crystals dedicated to high-temperature operations. Operating temperatures of more than 1000 °C and 600 °C for wired and wireless sensors, respectively, have been reached. Read More

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September 2021

Novel Cold-Adapted Recombinant Laccase KbLcc1 from G3 IBMiP as a Green Catalyst in Biotransformation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 4;22(17). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Institute of Molecular and Industrial Biotechnology, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 2/22, 90-537 Łódź, Poland.

Cold-adapted enzymes are useful tools in the organic syntheses conducted in mixed aqueous-organic or non-aqueous solvents due to their molecular flexibility that stabilizes the proteins in low water activity environments. A novel psychrophilic laccase gene from , G3 IBMiP, was spliced by Overlap-Extension PCR (OE-PCR) and expressed in . Purified recombinant KbLcc1 laccase has an optimal temperature of 30 °C and pH of 3. Read More

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September 2021

Towards the High Phase Purity of Nanostructured Alluaudite-Type Glass-Ceramics Cathode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 1;14(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, PL-00-662 Warsaw, Poland.

Alluaudite-type materials are systematically attracting more attention as prospective cathode materials for sodium ion batteries. In this paper, we strove to optimize various synthesis parameters of three alluaudite compositions (Na2Fe3(PO4)3-FFF, Na2VFe2(PO4)3-VFF, and Na2VFeMn(PO4)3-VFM) to obtain nanostructured alluaudite-type glass-ceramics with high phase purity. We systematically investigated the role of the chemical reactions, temperature and time of melting, cooling rate, and reducing factors on the quality of the final products. Read More

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September 2021

Development of Biodegradable Polymer Blends Based on Chitosan and Polylactide and Study of Their Properties.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 28;14(17). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Chemistry Department, National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Ave, 603022 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

Composite materials of various compositions based on chitosan and polylactide were obtained in the form of films or porous bulk samples. Preliminarily, poly-d,l-lactide was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of lactide in the presence of Ti(OPr). Polylactide obtained at components molar ratio [lactide]:[Ti(OPr)] = 3:1 had the best molecular weight characteristics at a high product yield. Read More

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Carotenoid Contents of : A Novel QAMS Analyses, Geographical Origins Discriminant Evaluation, and Storage Stability Assessment.

Molecules 2021 Sep 3;26(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, 1160 Shenli Street, Yinchuan 750004, China.

Given the standard substances of zeaxanthin and its homologues obtained from L. (LB) are extremely scarce and unstable, a novel quantitative analysis of carotenoids by single marker method, named QAMS, was established. Four carotenoids including lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and zeaxanthin dipalmitate were determined simultaneously by employing -β-apo-8'-carotenal, a carotenoid component which did not exist in LB, as standard reference. Read More

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September 2021