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The post plasma-catalytic decomposition of toluene over K-modified OMS-2 catalysts at ambient temperature: Effect of K loading amount and reaction mechanism.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 2;598:519-529. Epub 2021 May 2.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, MOE, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China; Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

The present work is devoted to study the post plasma-catalytic (PPC) degradation of toluene using packed-bed discharge (PBD) plasma over K-modified manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalysts at ambient temperature. Compared to plasma alone, PPC can significantly improve the toluene degradation and mineralization performance simultaneously, and the generation of discharge byproducts and organic intermediates is suppressed. The catalytic capacity of OMS-2 for toluene degradation is greatly promoted by tuning potassium ions (K) content in OMS-2 tunnel, which might be owing to the formation of more surface active oxygen species derived from weak Mn-O bonds, plenty of oxygen vacancies, as well as more superior low-temperature reducibility. Read More

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Carbonate chemistry seasonality in a tropical mangrove lagoon in La Parguera, Puerto Rico.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250069. Epub 2021 May 5.

Ocean Process Analysis Laboratory, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, United States of America.

We investigated the seasonal carbonate chemistry variability within a semi-enclosed tropical mangrove lagoon in southwestern Puerto Rico. Biweekly measurements of seawater temperature, salinity, total alkalinity (TA), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were conducted from 2014 to 2018. We describe the possible mechanisms driving the observed variability by correlating the DIC/TA ratio with pH and Ωarg, suggesting that the mean pH (7. Read More

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Laser-Driven Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires from Colloidal Nanocrystals.

ACS Nano 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750, United States.

Semiconductor nanowire production through vapor- and solution-based processes has propelled nanowire systems toward a wide range of technological applications. Although vapor-based nanowire syntheses enable precise control over nanowire composition and phase, they typically employ batch processes with specialized pressure management systems, limiting throughput. Solution-based nanowire growth processes have improved scalability but can require even more extensive pressure and temperature management systems. Read More

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Observation of microstructure evolution during inertia friction welding using in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 19;28(Pt 3):790-803. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE, United Kingdom.

The widespread use and development of inertia friction welding is currently restricted by an incomplete understanding of the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution during the process. Understanding phase transformations and lattice strains during inertia friction welding is essential for the development of robust numerical models capable of determining optimized process parameters and reducing the requirement for costly experimental trials. A unique compact rig has been designed and used in-situ with a high-speed synchrotron X-ray diffraction instrument to investigate the microstructure evolution during inertia friction welding of a high-carbon steel (BS1407). Read More

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Operando XAFS investigation on the effect of ash deposition on three-way catalyst used in Gasoline Particulate Filters and the effect of the manufacturing process on the catalytic activity.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

Platinum group metals (PGM) such as palladium and rhodium based catalysts are currently being implemented in Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) autoexhaust aftertreatment systems. However, little is known about how the trapped particulate matter, such as the incombustible ash, interacts with the catalyst and so may affect its performance. This operando study follows the evolution of the Pd found in two different model GPF systems: one containing ash components extracted from a GPF and another from a catalyst washcoat prior to adhesion onto the GPF. Read More

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Bio-inspired Incrustation Interfacial Polymerization of Dopamine and Cross-linking with Gelatin toward Robust, Biodegradable Three-Dimensional Hydrogels.

Langmuir 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

In nature, laccase enzymatically catalyzes the reaction of phenolic compounds with oxygen to produce hardened surfaces known as cuticles on insects and plants. Inspired by this natural process, the present work investigated a robust, biodegradable hydrogel synthesized from dopamine and gelatin. This gel is obtained by the oxidation of dopamine dissolved in water, after which the resulting quinone compound automatically undergoes self-polymerization. Read More

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Observing and Modeling the Sequential Pairwise Reactions that Drive Solid-State Ceramic Synthesis.

Adv Mater 2021 May 5:e2100312. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Solid-state synthesis from powder precursors is the primary processing route to advanced multicomponent ceramic materials. Designing reaction conditions and precursors for ceramic synthesis can be a laborious, trial-and-error process, as heterogeneous mixtures of precursors often evolve through a complicated series of reaction intermediates. Here, ab initio thermodynamics is used to model which pair of precursors has the most reactive interface, enabling the understanding and anticipation of which non-equilibrium intermediates form in the early stages of a solid-state reaction. Read More

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PEG-PEI-modified gated N-doped mesoporous carbon nanospheres for pH/NIR light-triggered drug release and cancer phototherapy.

J Mater Chem B 2021 May;9(17):3666-3676

Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Odisha, 769008, India.

A novel hybrid drug carrier has been designed, taking N-doped mesoporous carbon (NMCS) as the core and PEG-PEI as the outer shell. NMCS was functionalized with a photocleavable nitrobenzyl-based linker following a click reaction. Gemcitabine was loaded into NMCS prior to the functionalization via π-π stacking interactions. Read More

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Reactive capture using metal looping: the effect of oxygen.

Faraday Discuss 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilization, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Sheffield, UK.

In the effort to create a sustainable future economy, the ability to directly convert dilute gas-phase CO2 in waste gas streams into useful products would be a valuable tool, which may be achievable using Grignard reagents as both the capture and the conversion materials. The magnesium salt by-product can be recovered, and metallic magnesium regenerated through conventional high-efficiency electrolysis. This stoichiometric approach is known as metal looping, where the magnesium acts as the energy vector for the capture and conversion, allowing both to occur at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Read More

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About the importance of purge time in molecular layer deposition of alucone films.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(17):5807-5818

TNO/Holst Centre, 5656 AE Eindhoven, Netherlands. and Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

The deposition rate and properties of MLD films are for a large part determined by what happens during the reactant exposure step. In some cases, however, the purge step is of equal importance, for example in MLD of alucone using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and ethylene glycol (EG). We show that infiltration of TMA into the alucone film followed by its continuous outgassing during the subsequent EG exposure step can lead to undesired CVD effects. Read More

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Size dependence of the dissociation process of spherical hydrate particles microsecond molecular dynamics simulations.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Chemical Process & Energy Resources Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research & Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001, Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece.

The dissociation process of spherical sII mixed methane-propane hydrate particles in liquid hydrocarbon was investigated via microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulations. A strong dependence of the melting temperature on the particle size was found. Analysis in the context of the Gibbs-Thomson effect provided insights into the fundamental properties of gas hydrates. Read More

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A thermoelectrically stabilized aluminium acoustic trap combined with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy for detection of in water.

Lab Chip 2021 May;21(9):1811-1819

Research Division of Environmental Analytics, Process Analytics and Sensors, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Technische Universität Wien, Getreidemarkt 9/164-UPA, 1060 Vienna, Austria.

Acoustic trapping is a non-contact particle manipulation method that holds great potential for performing automated assays. We demonstrate an aluminium acoustic trap in combination with attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) for detection of E. coli in water. Read More

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Impact of e-Liquid Composition, Coil Temperature, and Puff Topography on the Aerosol Chemistry of Electronic Cigarettes.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, United States.

E-cigarette aerosol is a complex mixture of gases and particles with a composition that is dependent on the e-liquid formulation, puffing regimen, and device operational parameters. This work investigated mainstream aerosols from a third generation device, as a function of coil temperature (315-510 °F, or 157-266 °C), puff duration (2-4 s), and the ratio of propylene glycol (PG) to vegetable glycerin (VG) in e-liquid (100:0-0:100). Targeted and untargeted analyses using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, in situ chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and gravimetry were used for chemical characterizations. Read More

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Puncture, MRI and NMR relaxometry data for multiscale analysis of the degradation of apple structure due to thermal treatment.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 2;36:107029. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

INRAE, QuaPA, St Genes Champanelle 63122, France.

The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled "Multiscale NMR analysis of the degradation of apple structure due to thermal treatment" whose aim was to investigate the critical temperature at which the cell membranes of a Golden Delicious apple is highly damaged. Apple sticks were analyzed raw and cooked at 45, 50, 53, 60 °C and 70 °C. The firmness data refers to the puncture tests that were done using a Ta-Plus texturometer. Read More

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Experimental study on the effects of blending PODE on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of heavy-duty diesel engines meeting China VI emission standard.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9514. Epub 2021 May 4.

Air and Missile Defense College, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an, 710051, People's Republic of China.

To study the influence of diesel fuel blended with polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODE), a new alternative fuel with a high oxygen content and large cetane number, on the combustion characteristics, fuel economies, and emission characteristics of heavy-duty diesel engines that meet China VI emission standards, relevant tests were conducted on a supercharged intercooled high-pressure common-rail diesel engine. The PODE were blended with diesel fuel at three different ratios (volume fractions of 10%, 20%, and 30%). The test results showed that the PODE could optimize the combustion process of diesel engines that met the China VI emission standards, effectively improve the thermal efficiencies of diesel engines, and reduce the emissions of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. Read More

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Stochastic modelling of cellulose hydrolysis with Gauss and Weibull distributed transition probabilities.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9466. Epub 2021 May 4.

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 1-6 Gheorghe Polizu, 011061, Bucharest, Romania.

Two Markov-type stochastic models were developed to describe the kinetics of acid hydrolysis of cellulose. One of them involved a Gauss (normal) distribution of probabilities of chemical bond breaking, the other a Weibull distribution. It was considered that the random breaking of cellulose was based on the cleavage of a parent macromolecule into two descendants. Read More

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Network Properties of Local Fungal Communities Reveal the Anthropogenic Disturbance Consequences of Farming Practices in Vineyard Soils.

mSystems 2021 May 4;6(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

Biome Makers Inc., West Sacramento, California, USA

Agroecosystems are human-managed ecosystems subject to generalized ecological rules. Understanding the ecology behind the assembly and dynamics of soil fungal communities is a fruitful way to improve management practices and plant productivity. Thus, monitoring soil health would benefit from the use of metrics that arise from ecological explanations that can also be informative for agricultural management. Read More

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Optimization and scale-up of α-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae using solid-state fermentation of edible oil cakes.

BMC Biotechnol 2021 May 4;21(1):33. Epub 2021 May 4.

Biocatalysts Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641 003, India.

Background: Amylases produced by fungi during solid-state fermentation are the most widely used commercial enzymes to meet the ever-increasing demands of the global enzyme market. The use of low-cost substrates to curtail the production cost and reuse solid wastes are seen as viable options for the commercial production of many enzymes. Applications of α-amylases in food, feed, and industrial sectors have increased over the years. Read More

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Vacuum-Assisted Drying Process for Screen-Printable Carbon Electrodes of Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Performance Based on Cuprous Thiocyanate as a Hole Transporting Layer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201899, China.

Carbon-based perovskite solar cells without a hole transport layer (HTL) are considered to be highly stable and of low cost. However, the deficient interface contact and inferior hole extraction capability restrict the further improvement of the device efficiency. Introducing a hole transporting layer, such as cuprous thiocyanate (CuSCN), can enhance the hole extraction ability and improve the interface contact. Read More

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SiN Nanofibrous Aerogel with In Situ Growth of SiO Coating and Nanowires for Oil/Water Separation and Thermal Insulation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Nanofibrous aerogels constructed by ceramic fiber components (CNFAs) feature lightweight, compressibility, and high-temperature resistance, which are superior to brittle ceramic aerogels assembled from nanoparticles. Up to now, in order to obtain CNFAs with stable framework and multifunctionality such as hydrophobicity and gas absorption, it is necessary to perform binding and surface modification processes, respectively. However, the microstructure as well as properties of CNFAs are deteriorated by the direct addition of binders and modifiers. Read More

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The Intensity of Heat Exchange between Rock and Flowing Gas in Terms of Gas-Geodynamic Phenomena.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;23(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 30-059 Kraków, Poland.

Gas-induced geodynamic phenomena can occur during underground mining operations if the porous structure of the rock is filled with gas at high pressure. In such cases, the original compact rock structure disintegrates into grains of small dimensions, which are then transported along the mine working space. Such geodynamic events, particularly outbursts of gas and rock, pose a danger both to the life of miners and to the functioning of the mine infrastructure. Read More

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Unified Model for Laser Doping of Silicon from Precursors.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institut für Photovoltaik (ipv), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Laser doping of silicon with the help of precursors is well established in photovoltaics. Upon illumination with the constant or pulsed laser beam, the silicon melts and doping atoms from the doping precursor diffuse into the melted silicon. With the proper laser parameters, after resolidification, the silicon is doped without any lattice defects. Read More

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Effect of Oxygen-Containing Group on the Catalytic Performance of Zn/C Catalyst for Acetylene Acetoxylation.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264010, China.

In this study, a series of activated carbon-based supports with different oxygen-containing groups (OCGs) proportions were obtained via thermal treatment in an ozone flow. Semiquantitative analyses indicated that the performance of the catalyst attained a maximum after 30 min of treatment with ozone flow, and had a positive correlation with the content ratios of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. Further, temperature-programmed desorption analysis demonstrated that the high performance (63% acetic acid conversion) of the prepared catalyst for the acetoxylation of acetylene could be ascribed to the reduced strength of increased capacity of acetylene adsorption. Read More

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Hydrogel Based on Tricarboxi-Cellulose and Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Used as Biosorbent for Cobalt Ions Retention.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Organic, Biochemical and Food Engineering, 'Cristofor Simionescu' Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environment Protection, "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi, 73 D. Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi, Romania.

A biomaterial based on poly(vinyl alcohol) reticulated with tricarboxi-cellulose obtained by TEMPO oxidation (OxC25) was used as a new biosorbent for Co(II) ions retention from aqueous solutions. The biosorption process of Co(II) ions was studied while mainly considering the operational factors that can influence it (i.e. Read More

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Cold Gas-Dynamic Spray for Catalyzation of Plastically Deformed Mg-Strips with Ni Powder.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Nanotechnology and Applications Program, Energy and Building Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait.

Magnesium hydride (MgH) has received significant attention due to its potential applications as solid-state hydrogen storage media for useful fuel cell applications. Even though MgH possesses several attractive hydrogen storage properties, it cannot be utilized in fuel cell applications due to its high thermal stability and poor hydrogen uptake/release kinetics. High-energy ball milling, and mechanically-induced cold-rolling processes are the most common techniques to introduce severe plastic deformation and lattice imperfection in the Mg/MgH. Read More

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Molecular Dynamics Simulation of High-Temperature Creep Behavior of Nickel Polycrystalline Nanopillars.

Molecules 2021 Apr 29;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute for Materials Testing, Materials Science and Strength of Materials, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

As Nickel (Ni) is the base of important Ni-based superalloys for high-temperature applications, it is important to determine the creep behavior of its nano-polycrystals. The nano-tensile properties and creep behavior of nickel polycrystalline nanopillars are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulations under different temperatures, stresses, and grain sizes. The mechanisms behind the creep behavior are analyzed in detail by calculating the stress exponents, grain boundary exponents, and activation energies. Read More

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Effects of Isochoric Freezing Conditions on Cut Potato Quality.

Foods 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Isochoric freezing is a pressure freezing technique that could be used to retain the beneficial effects of food storage at temperatures below their freezing point without ice damage. In this study, potato cylinders were frozen in an isochoric system and examined using full factorial combinations of three processing procedures (immersed in water, vacuum-packed and immersed in ascorbic acid solution), four freezing temperatures/pressures (-3 °C/37 MPa, -6 °C/71 MPa, -9 °C/101 MPa and -15 °C/156 MPa) and two average compression rates (less than 0.02 and more than 0. Read More

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Self-Organization in Dilute Aqueous Solutions of Thermoresponsive Star-Shaped Six-Arm Poly-2-Alkyl-2-Oxazines and Poly-2-Alkyl-2-Oxazolines.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Bolshoy pr., 31, 199004 Saint Petersburg, Russia.

The behavior of star-shaped six-arm poly-2-alkyl-2-oxazines and poly-2-alkyl-2-oxazolines in aqueous solutions on heating was studied by light scattering, turbidimetry and microcalorimetry. The core of stars was hexaaza [2] orthoparacyclophane and the arms were poly-2-ethyl-2-oxazine, poly-2-isopropyl-2-oxazine, poly-2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, and poly-2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline. The arm structure affects the properties of polymers already at low temperatures. Read More

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Equilibrium and Kinetic Study of Anionic and Cationic Pollutants Remediation by Limestone-Chitosan-Alginate Nanocomposite from Aqueous Solution.

Molecules 2021 Apr 29;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Chemistry, Collage of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca 21955, Saudi Arabia.

In this work, low-cost and readily available limestone was converted into nanolimestone chitosan and mixed with alginate powder and precipitate to form a triple nanocomposite, namely limestone-chitosan-alginate (NLS/Cs/Alg.), which was used as an adsorbent for the removal of brilliant green (BG) and Congo red (CR) dyes in aqueous solutions. The adsorption studies were conducted under varying parameters, including contact time, temperature, concentration, and pH. Read More

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Chitosan/Silver Nanoparticle/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites with Multi-Drug Release, Antimicrobial, and Photothermal Conversion Functions.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AH, UK.

In this work, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional nanocomposite system that consists of chitosan, raspberry-like silver nanoparticles, and graphene oxide. The room temperature atmospheric pressure microplasma (RT-APM) process provides a rapid, facile, and environmentally-friendly method for introducing silver nanoparticles into the composite system. Our composite can achieve a pH controlled single and/or dual drug release. Read More

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