10,799 results match your criteria temperature ice

An evolutionary system of mineralogy. Part II: Interstellar and solar nebula primary condensation mineralogy (>4.565 Ga).

Am Mineral 2020 Oct;105(10):1508-1535

Earth and Planets Laboratory, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, D.C. 20015, U. S. A.

The evolutionary system of mineralogy relies on varied physical and chemical attributes, including trace elements, isotopes, solid and fluid inclusions, and other information-rich characteristics, to understand processes of mineral formation and to place natural condensed phases in the deep-time context of planetary evolution. Part I of this system reviewed the earliest refractory phases that condense at > 1000 K within the turbulent expanding and cooling atmospheres of highly evolved stars. Part II considers the subsequent formation of primary crystalline and amorphous phases by condensation in three distinct mineral-forming environments, each of which increased mineralogical diversity and distribution prior to the accretion of planetesimals >4. Read More

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October 2020

Underwater sound levels in the Canadian Arctic, 2014-2019.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 3;168:112437. Epub 2021 May 3.

Wildlife Conservation Society Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada; Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

The Arctic has been a refuge from anthropogenic underwater noise; however, climate change has caused summer sea ice to diminish, allowing for unprecedented access and the potential for increased underwater noise. Baseline underwater sound levels must be quantified to monitor future changes and manage underwater noise in the Arctic. We analyzed 39 passive acoustic datasets collected throughout the Canadian Arctic from 2014 to 2019 using statistical models to examine spatial and temporal trends in daily mean sound pressure levels (SPL) and quantify environmental and anthropogenic drivers of SPL. Read More

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In-syringe temperature-controlled liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidified floating ionic liquid for the simultaneous determination of triazine and phenylurea pesticide in vegetable protein drinks.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 20;1174:122721. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, PR China.

A novel in-syringe temperature-controlled liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidified floating ionic liquid (in-syringe TC-LLME-SFIL) combined with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of monuron, chlorotoluron, atrazine, monolinuron, propazine and prometryn in commercial vegetable protein drinks. The samples were deproteinized by trichloroacetic acid and further cleaned up by solid phase extraction column. The ionic liquid tributyldodecylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate ([P]BF) was used as extraction solvent and dispersed into the depurated sample solution to form fine droplets with the assistance of heating and vortex. Read More

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Projected land ice contributions to twenty-first-century sea level rise.

Nature 2021 May 5;593(7857):74-82. Epub 2021 May 5.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

The land ice contribution to global mean sea level rise has not yet been predicted using ice sheet and glacier models for the latest set of socio-economic scenarios, nor using coordinated exploration of uncertainties arising from the various computer models involved. Two recent international projects generated a large suite of projections using multiple models, but primarily used previous-generation scenarios and climate models, and could not fully explore known uncertainties. Here we estimate probability distributions for these projections under the new scenarios using statistical emulation of the ice sheet and glacier models. Read More

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The Paris Climate Agreement and future sea-level rise from Antarctica.

Nature 2021 May 5;593(7857):83-89. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean warming in the twenty-first century to less than 2 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels, and to promote further efforts to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions in coming decades will be consequential for global mean sea level (GMSL) on century and longer timescales through a combination of ocean thermal expansion and loss of land ice. Read More

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Isotopic evidence for acidity-driven enhancement of sulfate formation after SO emission control.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502, Japan.

After the 1980s, atmospheric sulfate reduction is slower than the dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO) emissions. However, a lack of observational evidence has hindered the identification of causal feedback mechanisms. Here, we report an increase in the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate ([Formula: see text]) in a Greenland ice core, implying an enhanced role of acidity-dependent in-cloud oxidation by ozone (up to 17 to 27%) in sulfate production since the 1960s. Read More

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Should a hotter paramagnet transform quicker to a ferromagnet? Monte Carlo simulation results for Ising model.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Theoretical Sciences Unit and School of Advanced Materials, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India.

For quicker formation of ice, before inserting inside a refrigerator, heating up of a body of water can be beneficial. We report first observation of a counterpart of this intriguing fact, referred to as the Mpemba effect (ME), during ordering in ferromagnets. By performing Monte Carlo simulations of a generic model, we have obtained results on relaxation of systems that are quenched to sub-critical state points from various temperatures above the critical point. Read More

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Effects of Isochoric Freezing Conditions on Cut Potato Quality.

Foods 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Isochoric freezing is a pressure freezing technique that could be used to retain the beneficial effects of food storage at temperatures below their freezing point without ice damage. In this study, potato cylinders were frozen in an isochoric system and examined using full factorial combinations of three processing procedures (immersed in water, vacuum-packed and immersed in ascorbic acid solution), four freezing temperatures/pressures (-3 °C/37 MPa, -6 °C/71 MPa, -9 °C/101 MPa and -15 °C/156 MPa) and two average compression rates (less than 0.02 and more than 0. Read More

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Bioinspired Crowding Inhibits Explosive Ice Growth in Antifreeze Protein Solutions.

Biomacromolecules 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China.

Antifreeze (glyco)proteins (AF(G)Ps) are naturally evolved ice inhibitors incomparable to any man-made materials, thus, they are gaining intensive interest for cryopreservation and beyond. AF(G)Ps depress the freezing temperature () noncolligatively below the melting temperature (), generating a thermal hysteresis (TH) gap, within which the ice growth is arrested. However, the ice crystals have been reported to undergo a retaliatory and explosive growth beyond the TH gap, which is lethal to living organisms. Read More

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Elastocaloric-effect-induced adiabatic magnetization in paramagnetic salts due to the mutual interactions.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9431. Epub 2021 May 3.

IGCE - Physics Department, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Rio Claro, SP, 13506-900, Brazil.

The temperature change under adiabatic stress, i.e., the elastocaloric effect, is a well-understood phenomenon and of particular interest due to its potential application in alternative ways for refrigeration. Read More

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Effects of Pacific Summer Water layer variations and ice cover on Beaufort Sea underwater sound ducting.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Apr;149(4):2117

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA.

A one-year fixed-path observation of seasonally varying subsurface ducted sound propagation in the Beaufort Sea is presented. The ducted and surface-interacting sounds have different time behaviors. To understand this, a surface-forced computational model of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas with ice cover is used to simulate local conditions, which are then used to computationally simulate sound propagation. Read More

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Dimensionality dependence of the Kauzmann temperature: A case study using bulk and confined water.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(16):164510

Department of Physics, Centre for Condensed Matter Theory, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

The Kauzmann temperature (T) of a supercooled liquid is defined as the temperature at which the liquid entropy becomes equal to that of the crystal. The excess entropy, the difference between liquid and crystal entropies, is routinely used as a measure of the configurational entropy, whose vanishing signals the thermodynamic glass transition. The existence of the thermodynamic glass transition is a widely studied subject, and of particular recent interest is the role of dimensionality in determining the presence of a glass transition at a finite temperature. Read More

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Unusual Chemistry of the C-H-N-O System under Pressure and Implications for Giant Planets.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Skolkovo Innovation Center, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 3 Nobel Street, Moscow 143026, Russian Federation.

C-H-N-O system is central for organic chemistry and biochemistry and plays a major role in planetary science (dominating the composition of "ice giants" Uranus and Neptune). The inexhaustible chemical diversity of this system at normal conditions explains its role as the basis of all known life, but the chemistry of this system at high pressures and temperatures of planetary interiors is poorly known. Using evolutionary algorithm USPEX, we performed an extensive study of the phase diagram of the C-H-N-O system at pressures of 50, 200, and 400 GPa and temperatures up to 3000 K. Read More

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Tasting temperature: neural and behavioral responses to thermal stimulation of oral mucosa.

Curr Opin Physiol 2021 Apr 13;20:16-22. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Biology, 730 Van Vleet Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019 USA.

Temperature sensation contributes to human enjoyment of foods and beverages. The mouthfeel of warmed foods or drinking ice-cold water on a hot day are respectively pleasant and refreshing. Although historically under-studied for a role in food preference, new data have shed light on how oral temperature sensing and thermoreceptor mechanisms inside the mouth influence ingestive acceptance behaviors in rodent models used in flavor neurobiology. Read More

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Assessment of stool collection and storage conditions for in vitro human gut model studies.

J Microbiol Methods 2021 Apr 29:106230. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Food Microbial Sciences Unit, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The role of the gut microbiota in health and disease is becoming increasingly apparent. Faeces is the most accessible sample to collect from human volunteers for studying the gut microbiota. However, the impact of stool collection and storage conditions on microbial and metabolic profiles have not been fully evaluated. Read More

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Fast hypothermia induced by extracorporeal circuit cooling alleviates renal and intestinal injury after cardiac arrest in swine.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 23;47:231-238. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Hangzhou Emergency Medical Center of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was currently demonstrated to be an effective way to induce fast hypothermia and had proective effects on cardiac dysfunction and brain damage after cardiac pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of extracorporeal circuit cooling using CRRT on renal and intestinal damage after CPR based on a porcine model.

Methods: 32 pigs were subjected to ventricular fibrillation for 8 min, followed by CPR for 5 min before defibrillation. Read More

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Rules of formation of H-C-N-O compounds at high pressure and the fates of planetary ices.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, United Kingdom;

The solar system's outer planets, and many of their moons, are dominated by matter from the H-C-N-O chemical space, based on solar system abundances of hydrogen and the planetary ices [Formula: see text]O, [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] In the planetary interiors, these ices will experience extreme pressure conditions, around 5 Mbar at the Neptune mantle-core boundary, and it is expected that they undergo phase transitions, decompose, and form entirely new compounds. While temperature will dictate the formation of compounds, ground-state density functional theory allows us to probe the chemical effects resulting from pressure alone. These structural developments in turn determine the planets' interior structures, thermal evolution, and magnetic field generation, among others. Read More

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Interannual Variability of Air-Sea Exchange of Mercury in the Global Ocean: The "Seesaw Effect" in the Equatorial Pacific and Contributions to the Atmosphere.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Air-sea exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) is influenced by different meteorological factors and the availability of Hg in seawater. Here, we use the MITgcm ocean model to explore the interannual variability of this flux and the influence of oceanographic and atmospheric dynamics. We apply the GEOS-Chem model to further simulate the potential impact of the evasion variability on the atmospheric Hg levels. Read More

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Evolution of Small Strain Soil Stiffness during Freeze-Thaw Cycle: Transition from Capillarity to Cementation Examined Using Magnetic and Piezo Crystal Sensors.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, USA.

Freeze-thaw cycles caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations significantly affect the geotechnical engineering properties. This study investigated the crucial role of water distribution patterns in the characterization of elastic wave properties for the fine F-110 sand during a freeze-thaw cycle. Sand specimens with four different water distribution patterns were prepared, namely homogeneously-mixed, evaporation-driven, vertically-, and horizontally-layered specimens. Read More

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The Quenching and Sonication Effect on the Mechanical Strength of Silver Nanowires Synthesized Using the Polyol Method.

Molecules 2021 Apr 9;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Lampung, Bandar Lampung 35145, Indonesia.

This study aims to determine the effect of fast cooling (quenching) on thermal properties, mechanical strength, morphology and size of the AgNWs. The synthesis of AgNWs was carried out at three different quenching-medium temperatures as follows: at 27 °C (ambient temperature), 0 °C (on ice), and -80 °C (in dry ice) using the polyol method at 130 °C. Furthermore, the AgNWs were sonified for 45 min to determine their mechanical strength. Read More

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Mobile genetic elements mediate the mixotrophic evolution of novel Alicyclobacillus species for acid mine drainage adaptation.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410006, China.

Alicyclobacillus species inhabit diverse environments and have adapted to broad ranges of pH and temperature. However, their adaptive evolutions remain elusive, especially regarding the role of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Here, we characterized the distributions and functions of MGEs in Alicyclobacillus species across five environments, including acid mine drainage (AMD), beverages, hot springs, sediments, and soils. Read More

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Accelerated global glacier mass loss in the early twenty-first century.

Nature 2021 Apr 28;592(7856):726-731. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are shrinking rapidly, altering regional hydrology, raising global sea level and elevating natural hazards. Yet, owing to the scarcity of constrained mass loss observations, glacier evolution during the satellite era is known only partially, as a geographic and temporal patchwork. Here we reveal the accelerated, albeit contrasting, patterns of glacier mass loss during the early twenty-first century. Read More

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Synthesis of C-enriched amino acids with C-depleted insoluble organic matter in a formose-type reaction in the early solar system.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 28;7(18). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Low-temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-19, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan.

Solvent-soluble organic matter (SOM) in meteorites, which includes life's building molecules, is suspected to originate from the cold region of the early solar system, on the basis of C enrichment in the molecules. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic characteristics are reproducible in amino acid synthesis associated with a formose-type reaction in a heated aqueous solution. Both thermochemically driven formose-type reaction and photochemically driven formose-type reaction likely occurred in asteroids and ice-dust grains in the early solar system. Read More

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High Sub-Zero Organ Preservation: A Paradigm of Nature-Inspired Strategies.

Cryobiology 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3, Canada; Centre for Innovation, Canadian Blood Services, 8249 114th Street, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R8, Canada. Electronic address:

The field of organ preservation is filled with advancements that have yet to see widespread clinical translation, with some of the more notable strategies deriving their inspiration from nature. While static cold storage (SCS) at 2 °C to 4 °C is the current state-of-the-art, it contributes to the current shortage of transplantable organs due to the limited preservation times it affords combined with the limited ability of marginal grafts (i.e. Read More

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Warm early Mars surface enabled by high-altitude water ice clouds.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(18)

Aeolis Research, Chandler, AZ 85224.

Despite receiving just 30% of the Earth's present-day insolation, Mars had water lakes and rivers early in the planet's history, due to an unknown warming mechanism. A possible explanation for the >10-y-long lake-forming climates is warming by water ice clouds. However, this suggested cloud greenhouse explanation has proved difficult to replicate and has been argued to require unrealistically optically thick clouds at high altitudes. Read More

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Solar anti-icing surface with enhanced condensate self-removing at extreme environmental conditions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(18)

Institute of Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing, China.

The inhibition of condensation freezing under extreme conditions (i.e., ultra-low temperature and high humidity) remains a daunting challenge in the field of anti-icing. Read More

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Marine biodiversity refugia in a climate-sensitive subarctic shelf.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Arctic Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

The subarctic shelf of the Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) is one of the world's most productive marine environments, exposed to drastic climate changes characterized by extreme fluctuations in temperature, sea ice concentration, timing, and duration. These climatic changes elicit profound responses in species distribution, abundance, and community composition. Here, we examined the patterns of alpha and temporal beta diversity of 159 marine taxa (66 vertebrates and 93 invertebrate species) from 29 years (1990-2018) of species observations from the NOAA bottom trawl surveys in the EBS. Read More

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A Novel Technology for Reversible Fallopian Tubal Occlusion Using a Reverse Thermo-Responsive Polymer - Preliminary Results from a Rabbit Animal Study.

Contraception 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Imaging, Interventional Radiology Unit, Hadassah medical center - Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Objectives: To determine if PF-88, a reverse thermo-responsive polymer designed to create a gel at body temperature and liquefy at a lower temperature (21o C) can reversibly occlude the fallopian tubes in rabbits.

Study Design: Mature female New Zealand White rabbits underwent laparotomy and placement of 22-gage catheter into the lumen of the distil uterine horns for evaluation of tubal patency by fluoroscopy using radio opaque contrast and treatment with PF-88. In the Acute Phase group (n =5) after PF-88 treatment we immediately cooled the serosal surface of the tube with ice for 90 seconds to liquify the gel then reassessed patency. Read More

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Localized Delivery of Drugs through Medical Textiles for Treatment of Burns: A Perspective Approach.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Feb 15;11(2):248-260. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kalpi Road, Bhauti, Kanpur-208020, India.

The topical delivery offers numerous benefits, such as the ability to deliver drugs specifically on site selectively, prevents fluctuations in the levels of the drug, improved compliance, and improved self-medication capacity. Skin is the main route of the administration of the drug delivery system (DDS) and burns mainly cause skin damage. A burn is a kind of damage caused to skin and tissues by fire, ice, electrical energy, pollutants, friction, and radiation. Read More

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February 2021

Extreme melt season ice layers reduce firn permeability across Greenland.

Nat Commun 2021 04 20;12(1):2336. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Surface meltwater runoff dominates present-day mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet. In Greenland's interior, porous firn can limit runoff by retaining meltwater unless perched low-permeability horizons, such as ice slabs, develop and restrict percolation. Recent observations suggest that such horizons might develop rapidly during extreme melt seasons. Read More

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