6,033 results match your criteria temperature gradients

Plumage development and environmental factors influence surface temperature gradients and heat loss in wandering albatross chicks.

J Therm Biol 2021 Apr 6;97:102777. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Scottish Centre for Ecology and the Natural Environment, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Rowardennan, G63 OAW, UK.

Young birds in cold environments face a range of age-specific thermal challenges. Studying the thermal biology of young birds throughout ontogeny may further our understanding of how such challenges are met. We investigated how age and environmental parameters influenced surface temperature gradients across various body regions of wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) chicks on Bird Island, South Georgia. Read More

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Minimizing deformation of a thin fluid film driven by fluxes of momentum and heat.

Davin Lunz

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):033105

Inria Saclay - Île de France, 91120 Palaiseau, France; École Polytechnique, CMAP 91128 Palaiseau, France; Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France; and University of Oxford, Mathematical Institute, Andrew Wiles Building, Oxford OX2 6GG, United Kingdom.

We consider a thin fluid film flowing down an inclined substrate subjected to localized external sources of momentum and heat flux that induce deformations of the fluid's free surface. This scenario is encountered in several industrial processes and of particular interest is the case where these deformations are undesirable. When the substrate is thin and the temperature along its underside is freely imposed by an active cooling mechanism, temperature gradients are generated at the fluid surface which drive a thermocapillary flow and influence the deformations. Read More

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16S amplicon sequencing of microbial communities in enriched and non-enriched sediments of non-volcanic hot spring with temperature gradients.

PeerJ 2021 2;9:e10995. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Microorganisms in geothermal springs can offer insights into the fundamental and applied study of extremophiles. However, low microbial abundance and culturing requirements limit the ability to analyze microbial diversity in these ecosystems. In this study, culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques were used to analyze sediment samples from the non-volcanic Tatta Pani hot springs in district Poonch of Azad Kashmir. Read More

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Root Colonization and Spore Abundance of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Along Altitudinal Gradients in Fragmented Church Natural Forest Remnants in Northern Ethiopia.

Microb Ecol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

World Agroforestry (ICRAF), United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore density and root colonization are considered sensitive to host species and abiotic factors such as climate and soil. However, there is a knowledge gap about how fragmented native forest remnants might contribute to AMF conservation, what is the AMF spore density and root colonization, and to what extent climate change, particularly warming, might impact AMF. The aim of the study was to quantify the AMF spore density and root colonization along altitudinal gradients in three agro-ecological zones of nine church forests in northern Ethiopia. Read More

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Biogeographic position and body size jointly set lower thermal limits of wandering spiders.

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 5;11(7):3347-3356. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

CNRS ECOBIO [(Ecosystèmes, biodiversité, évolution)] - UMR 6553 University of Rennes Rennes France.

Most species encounter large variations in abiotic conditions along their distribution range. The physiological responses of most terrestrial ectotherms (such as insects and spiders) to clinal gradients of climate, and in particular gradients of temperature, can be the product of both phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation. This study aimed to determine how the biogeographic position of populations and the body size of individuals set the limits of cold (freezing) resistance of . Read More

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Transcriptomic signatures of temperature adaptation in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

J Evol Biol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.

The large geographic distribution of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica makes it an ideal species to test how populations have adapted to latitudinal gradients in temperature. Despite inhabiting distinct thermal regimes, populations of C. virginica near the species' southern and northern geographic range show no population differences in their physiological response to temperature. Read More

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Semibrittle seismic deformation in high-temperature mantle mylonite shear zone along the Romanche transform fault.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 9;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Oceanic transform faults, a key element of plate tectonics, represent the first-order discontinuities along mid-ocean ridges, host large earthquakes, and induce extreme thermal gradients in lithosphere. However, the thermal structure along transform faults and its effects on earthquake generation are poorly understood. Here we report the presence of a 10- to 15-kilometer-thick in-depth band of microseismicity in 10 to 34 kilometer depth range associated with a high-temperature (700° to 900°C) mantle below the brittle lithosphere along the Romanche mega transform fault in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Read More

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Pathways and modification of warm water flowing beneath Thwaites Ice Shelf, West Antarctica.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 9;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Thwaites Glacier is the most rapidly changing outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and adds large uncertainty to 21st century sea-level rise predictions. Here, we present the first direct observations of ocean temperature, salinity, and oxygen beneath Thwaites Ice Shelf front, collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle. On the basis of these data, pathways and modification of water flowing into the cavity are identified. Read More

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Amphibian chytrid infections along the highest elevational gradient of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

Dis Aquat Organ 2021 Apr 8;144:99-106. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laboratório de História Natural de Anfíbios Brasileiros (LaHNAB), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-862, Brazil.

Environmental variation along elevational gradients shapes conditions for pathogen development, which influences disease outcomes. Chytridiomycosis is a non-vectored disease caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and is responsible for massive declines of amphibian populations all over the world. Several biotic and abiotic factors are known to influence Bd infection dynamics in amphibians, including temperature and host species richness. Read More

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Large scale synthesis of copper nickel alloy nanoparticles with reduced compressibility using arc thermal plasma process.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7629. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14, Km 163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149, Basovizza, Italy.

Among the various methods employed in the synthesis of nanostructures, those involving high operating temperature and sharp thermal gradients often lead to the establishment of new exotic properties. Herein, we report on the formation of Cu-Ni metallic alloy nanoparticles with greatly enhanced stiffness achieved through direct-current transferred arc-thermal plasma assisted vapour-phase condensation. High pressure synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) at ambient temperature as well as XRPD in the temperature range 180 to 920 K, show that the thermal arc-plasma route resulted in alloy nanoparticles with much enhanced bulk modulus compared to their bulk counterparts. Read More

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Robustness and plasticity in Drosophila heat avoidance.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2044. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Simple innate behavior is often described as hard-wired and largely inflexible. Here, we show that the avoidance of hot temperature, a simple innate behavior, contains unexpected plasticity in Drosophila. First, we demonstrate that hot receptor neurons of the antenna and their molecular heat sensor, Gr28B. Read More

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Effects of Autumn Warming on Energy Consumption of Diapausing Fall Webworm (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Pupae.

J Insect Sci 2021 Mar;21(2)

Co-innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

Since its invasion into China in 1979, the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury, has spread from Dandong city (about 40°N) in Liaoning Province to Nanjing city (about 32°N) in Jiangsu Province, and to other areas. Owing to geographic and latitudinal gradients in temperature, H. cunea will encounter temperature changes during the spreading process. Read More

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Evaluation and Comparison of Clostridium Epsilon-Alpha Fusion Gene Expression Using Different Commercial Expression Vector.

Arch Razi Inst 2021 Mar 1;76(1):7-16. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Microbiology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming rods and pathogens for humans and livestock, which are widespread in nature as well as human and animal digestive systems. C. perfringens produces numerous different exoproteins, which are various systems of action. Read More

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Raman temperature and density measurements in supersonic jets.

Exp Fluids 2021 6;62(3):61. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

HX5, LLC, Cleveland, OH 44135 USA.

Prediction of flow-field properties in supersonic jets using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions has become routine; however, obtaining accurate solutions becomes more challenging when there is a significant temperature difference between the jet core and the ambient air and/or compressibility effects are significant. Benchmark sets of flow field property data are required in order to assess current CFD capabilities and develop better modeling approaches for these turbulent flow fields where accurate calculation of temperatures and turbulent heat flux is important. Particle Image Velocimetry, spontaneous rotational Raman scattering spectroscopy, and Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) have been previously used to acquire measurements of the mean and root-mean-square (rms) velocities, the mean and rms gas temperatures, and density gradients in subsonic jet flows and film cooling flows. Read More

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Group Theory Analysis to Study Phase Transitions of Quasi-2D SrHfO.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

IFIMUP, Institute of Physics for Advanced Materials, Nanotechnology and Photonics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

We present an study performed in the framework of density functional theory, group-subgroup symmetry analysis and lattice dynamics, to probe the octahedral distortions, which occur during the structural phase transitions of the quasi-2D layered perovskite SrHfO compound. Such a system is characterized by a high-temperature centrosymmetric structure and a ground-state ferroelectric phase. We have probed potential candidate polymorphs that may form the → transition pathways, namely , , and . Read More

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The Thermo-Mechanical Coupling Effect in Selective Laser Melting of Aluminum Alloy Powder.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;14(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Suzhou Research Institute, National University of Singapore (NUS), Suzhou 234000, China.

In the selective laser melting process, metal powder melted by the laser heat source generates large instantaneous energy, resulting in transient high temperature and complex stress distribution. Different temperature gradients and anisotropy finally determine the microstructure after melting and affect the build quality and mechanical properties as a result. It is important to monitor and investigate the temperature and stress distribution evolution. Read More

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Guiding Chart for Initial Layer Choice with Nanoimprint Lithography.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Electrical, Information and Media Engineering, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany.

When nanoimprint serves as a lithography process, it is most attractive for the ability to overcome the typical residual layer remaining without the need for etching. Then, 'partial cavity filling' is an efficient strategy to provide a negligible residual layer. However, this strategy requires an adequate choice of the initial layer thickness to work without defects. Read More

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Photofermentative biohydrogen generation from organic acids by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001: Computational fluid dynamics modeling of hydrodynamics and temperature.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India.

Hydrogen gas is a clean-burning fuel suitable for powering public vehicles. Hydrogen fuel has the highest energy density (143 MJ kg ). This research paper emphasizes three-dimensional hydrodynamics and temperature distribution during photobiohydrogen generation by Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain O. Read More

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Temperature, emergence phenology, and consumption drive seasonal shifts in fish growth and production across riverscapes.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Changes in biophysical conditions through time generate spatial and temporal variability in habitat quality across landscapes. For river ecosystems, researchers are increasingly able to characterize spatial and temporal patterns in habitat conditions, referred to as shifting habitat mosaics, yet rarely demonstrate how this translates into corresponding biological processes such as organism growth and production. We assessed spatial patterns and processes determining seasonal changes in juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) size, growth, and production over 30-40 km in two NE Oregon subbasins. Read More

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Examining Use of Dual Point Temperature Display in Servo-Control With Early Preterm Infants.

Adv Neonatal Care 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Columbia (Drs Dail and Tavakoli); and Department of Neonatology, Pediatrics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina (Mss Moseley and Bergstedt and Drs Kuehn and Chang).

Background: Previously, we recorded periods of time with foot higher than abdominal temperatures in association with infection in preterm infants. Monitoring dual temperatures may be an important tool to assess infant instability. Currently, incubators cannot measure and display dual temperatures in servo-control mode. Read More

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Divergent morphological responses to millennia of climate change in two species of bats from Hall's Cave, Texas, USA.

PeerJ 2021 15;9:e10856. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States of America.

How species will respond to ongoing and future climate change is one of the most important questions facing biodiversity scientists today. The fossil record provides unparalleled insight into past ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change, but the resource remains virtually untapped for many organisms. We use geometric morphometrics and a 25,000 year fossil record to quantify changes in body size and mandible shape through time and across climate regimes for two bat species present in Quaternary paleontological deposits of central Texas: , a bat distributed throughout the Southwestern US and Mexico that is still found in central Texas today, and , a bat widely distributed throughout North America that has been extirpated in central Texas. Read More

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Divergent Patterns of Bacterial Community Structure and Function in Response to Estuarine Output in the Middle of the Bohai Sea.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:630741. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Key Laboratory of Coastal Biology and Bioresource Utilization, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, China.

Understanding environment-community relationships under shifting environmental conditions helps uncover mechanisms by which environmental microbial communities manage to improve ecosystem functioning. This study investigated the microbial community and structure near the Yellow Sea River estuary in 12 stations across the middle of the Bohai Sea for over two seasons to elucidate the influence of estuarine output on them. We found that the dominant phyla in all stations were Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Read More

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Latitudinal clines in sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism, and sex-specific genetic dispersal during a poleward range expansion.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, United Kingdom.

1. Range expansions can be shaped by sex differences in behaviours and other phenotypic traits affecting dispersal and reproduction. 2. Read More

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Imaging the transmembrane and transendothelial sodium gradients in gliomas.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 23;11(1):6710. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, N143 TAC (MRRC), 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.

Under normal conditions, high sodium (Na) in extracellular (Na) and blood (Na) compartments and low Na in intracellular milieu (Na) produce strong transmembrane (ΔNa) and weak transendothelial (ΔNa) gradients respectively, and these manifest the cell membrane potential (V) as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. We developed a sodium (Na) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) method using an intravenously-administered paramagnetic polyanionic agent to measure ΔNa and ΔNa. In vitro Na-MRSI established that the Na signal is intensely shifted by the agent compared to other biological factors (e. Read More

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Indium(III) in the "Periodic Table" of Di(2-pyridyl) Ketone: An Unprecedented Transformation of the Ligand and Solid-State In NMR Spectroscopy as a Valuable Structural Tool.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 21;60(7):4829-4840. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 26504, Greece.

Reactions of di(2-pyridyl) ketone, (py)CO, with indium(III) halides in CHNO have been studied, and a new transformation of the ligand has been revealed. In the presence of In, the C═O bond of (py)CO is subjected to nucleophilic attack by the carbanion :CHNO, yielding the dinuclear complexes [InX{(py)C(CHNO)(O)}] (X = Cl, ; X = Br, ; X = I, ) in moderate to good yields. The alkoxo oxygens of the two η:η:η-(py)C(CHNO)(O) ligands doubly bridge the In centers and create a {In(μ-OR)} core. Read More

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High-elevational occurrence of two tick species, Ixodes ricinus and I. trianguliceps, at their northern distribution range.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Mar 18;14(1):161. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Nature, Health and the Environment, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.

Background: During the last decades a northward and upward range shift has been observed among many organisms across different taxa. In the northern hemisphere, ticks have been observed to have increased their latitudinal and altitudinal range limit. However, the elevational expansion at its northern distribution range remains largely unstudied. Read More

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Factors controlling sizes and stabilities of subsoil organic carbon pools in tropical volcanic soils.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 2;769:144842. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Soil organic carbon (SOC) in the subsoil may not be so resistant to decomposition as previously assumed, while the mechanisms controlling C dynamics in subsoils are not yet known. This study aimed to (1) identify the factors that control SOC pools in subsoil and (2) compare the differences in SOC pools and controlling factors between the subsoil and topsoil. Subsoils (20-40 cm) were sampled along elevational gradients from two volcanic regions with less-disturbed vegetation each from Tanzania (11 sites) and Indonesia (12 sites). Read More

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Molecular origin of the heterogeneity in the nematic and smectic liquid crystals: Elastic constants, gradients of order parameters, and visualization of small objects.

Phys Rev E 2021 Feb;103(2-1):022709

Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia.

The formation of heterogeneous nematic and smectic liquid crystals in the general case of an arbitrary geometry is investigated in the framework of molecular-statistical approach [Emelyanenko and Khokhlov, J. Chem. Phys. Read More

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February 2021

The GenTree Platform: growth traits and tree-level environmental data in 12 European forest tree species.

Lars Opgenoorth Benjamin Dauphin Raquel Benavides Katrin Heer Paraskevi Alizoti Elisabet Martínez-Sancho Ricardo Alía Olivier Ambrosio Albet Audrey Francisco Auñón Camilla Avanzi Evangelia Avramidou Francesca Bagnoli Evangelos Barbas Cristina C Bastias Catherine Bastien Eduardo Ballesteros Giorgia Beffa Frédéric Bernier Henri Bignalet Guillaume Bodineau Damien Bouic Sabine Brodbeck William Brunetto Jurata Buchovska Melanie Buy Ana M Cabanillas-Saldaña Bárbara Carvalho Nicolas Cheval José M Climent Marianne Correard Eva Cremer Darius Danusevičius Fernando Del Caño Jean-Luc Denou Nicolas di Gerardi Bernard Dokhelar Alexis Ducousso Anne Eskild Nilsen Anna-Maria Farsakoglou Patrick Fonti Ioannis Ganopoulos José M García Del Barrio Olivier Gilg Santiago C González-Martínez René Graf Alan Gray Delphine Grivet Felix Gugerli Christoph Hartleitner Enja Hollenbach Agathe Hurel Bernard Issehut Florence Jean Veronique Jorge Arnaud Jouineau Jan-Philipp Kappner Katri Kärkkäinen Robert Kesälahti Florian Knutzen Sonja T Kujala Timo A Kumpula Mariaceleste Labriola Celine Lalanne Johannes Lambertz Martin Lascoux Vincent Lejeune Gregoire Le-Provost Joseph Levillain Mirko Liesebach David López-Quiroga Benjamin Meier Ermioni Malliarou Jérémy Marchon Nicolas Mariotte Antonio Mas Silvia Matesanz Helge Meischner Célia Michotey Pascal Milesi Sandro Morganti Daniel Nievergelt Eduardo Notivol Geir Ostreng Birte Pakull Annika Perry Andrea Piotti Christophe Plomion Nicolas Poinot Mehdi Pringarbe Luc Puzos Tanja Pyhäjärvi Annie Raffin José A Ramírez-Valiente Christian Rellstab Dourthe Remi Sebastian Richter Juan J Robledo-Arnuncio Sergio San Segundo Outi Savolainen Silvio Schueler Volker Schneck Ivan Scotti Vladimir Semerikov Lenka Slámová Jørn Henrik Sønstebø Ilaria Spanu Jean Thevenet Mari Mette Tollefsrud Norbert Turion Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin Marc Villar Georg von Arx Johan Westin Bruno Fady Tor Myking Fernando Valladares Filippos A Aravanopoulos Stephen Cavers

Gigascience 2021 Mar;10(3)

UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate Penicuik, EH26 0QB, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Progress in the field of evolutionary forest ecology has been hampered by the huge challenge of phenotyping trees across their ranges in their natural environments, and the limitation in high-resolution environmental information.

Findings: The GenTree Platform contains phenotypic and environmental data from 4,959 trees from 12 ecologically and economically important European forest tree species: Abies alba Mill. (silver fir), Betula pendula Roth. Read More

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Depth Profile of Nitrifying Archaeal and Bacterial Communities in the Remote Oligotrophic Waters of the North Pacific.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:624071. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), University of Porto, Matosinhos, Portugal.

Nitrification is a vital ecosystem function in the open ocean that regenerates inorganic nitrogen and promotes primary production. Recent studies have shown that the ecology and physiology of nitrifying organisms is more complex than previously postulated. The distribution of these organisms in the remote oligotrophic ocean and their interactions with the physicochemical environment are relatively understudied. Read More

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February 2021