153,092 results match your criteria tasks

MG-BERT: leveraging unsupervised atomic representation learning for molecular property prediction.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, China.

Motivation: Accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties is one of the fundamental issues in drug design and discovery pipelines. Traditional feature engineering-based approaches require extensive expertise in the feature design and selection process. With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, data-driven methods exhibit unparalleled advantages over the feature engineering-based methods in various domains. Read More

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Study Protocol Modeling Evoked Pain in Older African Americans with Knee Osteoarthritis.

Nurs Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Florida College of Nursing, Gainesville, FL University of Connecticut School of Nursing, Storrs, CT University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL.

Background: African American (AA) older adults with knee osteoarthritis experience more severe chronic pain and advanced physical disability. One of the most prominent stimuli that provoke knee pain is movement. Research suggests that compared to White Americans, AAs report significantly higher movement-evoked pain (MEP) in the knee. Read More

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Working memory task induced neural activation: a simultaneous PET/fMRI study.

Neuroimage 2021 May 2:118131. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; TUM-Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Martinsried, Germany.

Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) with [F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a powerful method for mapping cerebral glucose metabolism as a proxy of neural activity, assuming a steady-state during the recording interval. We asked if a clinical FDG-PET imaging protocol might also capture changes in neural activity associated with performance of a working memory (WM) task .

Methods: To test this concept, we examined hybrid PET/MR data for FDG-PET and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. Read More

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Aging reduces EEG markers of recognition despite intact performance: Implications for forensic memory detection.

Cortex 2021 Apr 24;140:80-97. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

School of Psychology, University of Kent, UK. Electronic address:

ERP-based forensic memory detection is based on the logic that guilty suspects will hold incriminating knowledge about crimes they have committed, and therefore should show parietal ERP positivities related to recognition when presented with reminders of their crimes. We predicted that such forensic memory detection might however be inaccurate in older adults, because of changes to recognition-related brain activity that occurs with aging. We measured both ERPs and EEG oscillations associated with episodic old/new recognition and forensic memory detection in 30 younger (age < 30) and 30 older (age > 65) adults. Read More

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Task-induced brain functional connectivity as a representation of schema for mediating unsupervised and supervised learning dynamics in language acquisition.

Brain Behav 2021 May 5:e02157. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jissen Women's University, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Based on the schema theory advanced by Rumelhart and Norman, we shed light on the individual variability in brain dynamics induced by hybridization of learning methodologies, particularly alternating unsupervised learning and supervised learning in language acquisition. The concept of "schema" implies a latent knowledge structure that a learner holds and updates as intrinsic to his or her cognitive space for guiding the processing of newly arriving information.

Methods: We replicated the cognitive experiment of Onnis and Thiessen on implicit statistical learning ability in language acquisition but included additional factors of prosodic variables and explicit supervised learning. Read More

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Structural correlates of sensorimotor dysfunction in heavy cannabis users.

Addict Biol 2021 May 5:e13032. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Sensorimotor dysfunction has been previously reported in persons with cannabis dependence. Such individuals can exhibit increased levels of neurological soft signs (NSS), particularly involving motor coordination and sensorimotor integration. Whether such abnormalities may also apply to non-dependent individuals with heavy cannabis use (HCU) is unknown, as much as the neural correlates underlying such deficits. Read More

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Both frontal and temporal cortex exhibit phonological and semantic specialization during spoken language processing in 7- to 8-year-old children.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study by Weiss et al. (Weiss et al., Human Brain Mapping, 2018, 39, 4334-4348) examined brain specialization for phonological and semantic processing of spoken words in young children who were 5 to 6 years old and found evidence for specialization in the temporal but not the frontal lobe. Read More

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Acute alcohol intoxication modulates the temporal dynamics of resting electroencephalography networks.

Addict Biol 2021 May 5:e13034. Epub 2021 May 5.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

This study aimed to provide a currently missing link between general intoxication-induced changes in overall brain activity and the multiple cognitive control deficits typically observed during acute alcohol intoxication. For that purpose, we analyzed the effects of acute alcohol intoxication (1.1‰) on the four archetypal electroencephalography (EEG) resting networks (i. Read More

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Artificial supramolecular pumps powered by light.

Chemistry 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Bologna: Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale "Toso Montanari", Viale del Risorgimento 4, 40136, Bologna, ITALY.

The development of artificial nanoscale motors that can use energy from a source to perform tasks requires systems capable of performing directionally controlled molecular movements and operating away from chemical equilibrium. Here we describe the design, synthesis and properties of pseudorotaxanes in which a photon input triggers the unidirectional motion of a macrocyclic ring with respect to a non-symmetric molecular axle. The photoinduced energy ratcheting at the basis of the pumping mechanism is validated by measuring the relevant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. Read More

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Validation of Oxford Cognitive Screen: Executive Function (OCS-EF), a tablet-based executive function assessment tool amongst adolescent females in rural South Africa.

Int J Psychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Short, reliable, easily administered executive function (EF) assessment tools are needed to measure EF in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa given the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder. We administered Oxford Cognitive Screen-Executive Function (OCS-EF) to 932 rural South African females (mean age 19.7 years). Read More

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Deep-Masking Generative Network: A Unified Framework for Background Restoration from Superimposed Images.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 May 5;PP. Epub 2021 May 5.

Restoring the clean background from the superim-posed images containing a noisy layer is the common crux of a classical category of tasks on image restoration such as image reflection removal, image deraining and image dehazing. These tasks are typically formulated and tackled individually due to diverse and complicated appearance patterns of noise layers within the image. In this work we present the Deep-Masking Generative Network (DMGN), which is a unified framework for background restoration from the superimposed images and is able to cope with different types of noise. Read More

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Adaptive Spatio-Temporal Graph Enhanced Vision-Language Representation for Video QA.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 May 5;PP. Epub 2021 May 5.

Vision-language research has become very popular, which focuses on understanding of visual contents, language semantics and relationships between them. Video question answering (Video QA) is one of the typical tasks. Recently, several BERT style pre-training methods have been proposed and shown effectiveness on various vision-language tasks. Read More

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[Far beyond nutrients: experiences and connections with autistic children based on cooking and sharing meals].

Cad Saude Publica 2021 30;37(4):e00132020. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, Brasil.

This study examined ways to expand the analysis of diet in autistic children, widely considered inadequate according to food selectivity and/or difficulty interacting at mealtimes, attributed to alterations in sensorial processing and social, communicative, and cognitive difficulties. From an ethnographic perspective, a participant observational study was performed with field diary records and cooking workshops with autistic children and adolescents, aimed at analyzing the relations established by the children with the food and utensils, physical space, and between each other and the adults. The records were analyzed based on Bondía's notion of experience and Actor-Network Theory. Read More

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Extracting Drug Names and Associated Attributes From Discharge Summaries: Text Mining Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 May 5;9(5):e24678. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Background: Drug prescriptions are often recorded in free-text clinical narratives; making this information available in a structured form is important to support many health-related tasks. Although several natural language processing (NLP) methods have been proposed to extract such information, many challenges remain.

Objective: This study evaluates the feasibility of using NLP and deep learning approaches for extracting and linking drug names and associated attributes identified in clinical free-text notes and presents an extensive error analysis of different methods. Read More

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Home health aides' experiences of their occupational health: a qualitative meta-synthesis.

Home Health Care Serv Q 2021 May 5:1-29. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Home health aides (HHA) have high sickness absence while the need for home care services is rapidly growing. The aim of this study was to derive new conceptual understandings by identifying, describing and interpreting key concepts across qualitative studies on how HHA experience their occupational health related to their working conditions.A qualitative ethnographic meta-synthesis was used as a method to analyze 27 articles included from systematic searches in CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Read More

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What we learned from the Covid-19 first wave: a survey from Young Pediatric Urology Committee (YPUC) from ESPU.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pediatric Urology, UMC Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The Corona virus still has a big impact on medical work. All medical specialties have been called to confront this unexpected event, even pediatric surgery. The objective of this study is to highlight the effect of pandemic on daily work of young pediatric surgeons during the Covid-19 first wave. Read More

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Factors Associated With Missed Nursing Care in Nursing Homes: A Multicentre Cross-sectional Study.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Background: Despite its association with patient safety, few studies on missed nursing care have been conducted in nursing homes. We aimed to describe individual and environmental factors in a sample of registered nurses (RNs) reporting missed nursing care in nursing homes, and to explore the association between these factors and missed nursing care.

Methods: In the present, multicentre cross-sectional study, 217 RNs from 43 nursing homes in Northern Italy reported all episodes of missed nursing care (ie, any aspect of required care that was omitted or delayed) that occurred in the 20 most dependent residents (according to RNs' judgement; 860 residents in total) over 3 consecutive days. Read More

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Effective behavior change techniques to promote physical activity in adults with overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2021 May 5:e13258. Epub 2021 May 5.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Department of Nutrition, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Multicomponent behavior change interventions are typically used in weight management, but results are largely heterogeneous and modest. Determining which techniques (behavior change technique [BCTs]) are more effective in changing behavior is thus required. This study aimed to identify the most effective BCTs for increasing physical activity (PA) in digital and face-to-face behavior change interventions in adults with overweight/obesity. Read More

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Detecting the Inverted-U in fMRI Studies of Schizophrenia: A Comparison of Three Analysis Methods.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2021 May 5:1-12. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Objective: Cognitive tasks are used to probe neuronal activity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect signs of aberrant cognitive functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ). However, nonlinear (inverted-U-shaped) associations between neuronal activity and task difficulty can lead to misinterpretation of group differences between patients and healthy comparison subjects (HCs). In this paper, we evaluated a novel method for correcting these misinterpretations based on conditional performance analysis. Read More

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Cognition-immune interactions between executive function and working memory, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) in bipolar disorder.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 5:1-35. Epub 2021 May 5.

Londrina State University, Health Sciences Graduate Program, Londrina, Brazil.

Objectives: This study examined cognition-immune interactions, specifically executive function, working memory, peripheral levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors-1 and -2 (sTNFR1 and 2) levels in patients in comparison with controls.

Methods: Thirty-one BD participants and twenty-seven controls participated in the study. The neurocognitive assessment was performed through three of CogState Research Battery tasks for executive function and working memory. Read More

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Self-Sorting in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries Leads to the Co-Existence of Foldamers and Self-Replicators.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Systems Chemistry, Stratingh Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, Netherlands.

Nature segregates fundamental tasks such as information storage/transmission and catalysis between two different compound classes (e.g. polynucleotides for replication and folded polyamides for catalysis). Read More

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Poor sleep is associated with small hippocampal subfields in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

J Sleep Res 2021 May 5:e13362. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Recent studies demonstrated reduced hippocampal volumes in elderly healthy individuals who are cognitively normal but poor sleepers. The association between sleep quality and the pattern of volume loss across hippocampal subfields (HSs) is not well known. Thus, it is the focus of the present study. Read More

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Prefrontal Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Neurons Impair Sustained Attention via Distal Transmitter Release.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) supports cognitive processes critical for goal-directed behavior. Although the PFC contains a high density of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons, their role in cognition has been largely unexplored. We recently demonstrated that CRF neurons in the caudal dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) of rats act to impair working memory via activation of local CRF receptors. Read More

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Comparing the consistency of electrocardiogram interval measurements by resting ECG versus 12-lead Holter.

Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2021 May 4:e12851. Epub 2021 May 4.

Richmond Pharmacology Ltd., London, UK.

In clinical trials, traditionally only a limited number of 12-lead resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) can be recorded and, thus, long intervals may elapse between assessment timepoints and valuable information may be missed during times when patients' cardiac electrical activity is not being monitored. These limitations have led to the increasing use of Holter recorders which provide continuous data registrations while reducing the burden on patients and freeing up time for clinical trial staff to perform other tasks. However, there is a shortage of data comparing the two approaches. Read More

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Evaluation of the Octreotide Acetate Pen Injector and its Instructions for Use in a Formative Human Factors Study.

Adv Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Device Development, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Tandalja, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Introduction: Octreotide acetate subcutaneous injection is indicated to treat acromegaly and the symptoms of carcinoid tumors and vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors (VIPomas). This formative human factors study assessed the octreotide acetate pen injector and accompanying instructions for use (IFU) with self-trained participants.

Methods: The study enrolled patients with diagnoses of acromegaly, carcinoid tumors, or VIPomas and healthcare practitioners (HCPs) who treat patients with these diagnoses. Read More

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A revised instrument for the assessment of empathy and Theory of Mind in adolescents: Introducing the EmpaToM-Y.

Behav Res Methods 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Leibniz-University Hanover, Schloßwender Straße 1, D-30159, Hanover, Germany.

Empathy and Theory of Mind (ToM) are two core components of social understanding. The EmpaToM is a validated social video task that allows for independent manipulation and assessment of the two capacities. First applications revealed that empathy and ToM are dissociable constructs on a neuronal as well as on a behavioral level. Read More

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Adjustments of selective attention to response conflict - controlling for perceptual conflict, target-distractor identity, and congruency level sequence pertaining to the congruency sequence effect.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, Experimental Psychology Unit, Helmut-Schmidt-University/University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Holstenhofweg 85, 22043, Hamburg, Germany.

The congruency sequence effect (CSE) describes the performance difference of congruent trials (in which target and distractor stimuli are associated with the same response) compared to incongruent trials (in which target and distractor stimuli are associated with different responses) as a function of the preceding congruency level (congruent trials relative to incongruent trials). The CSE is commonly interpreted as a measure of conflict-induced attentional adjustment. Although previous research has made substantial progress aiming at controlling for alternative explanations of the CSE, both task-specific and fundamental confounds have remained. Read More

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Visual Detection and Decoding Skills of Aerial Photography by Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, Faculty of Life Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Despite challenges in social communication skills people with ASD often display strengths in visual processing. Aerial photography analysis is an occupation reliant on strong visual processing skills that matches this unique profile. We investigated basic-vision and "real-life" visual tasks in 20 cognitively-able young adults with ASD and 20 typically-developed (TD) "gamers". Read More

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Psychophysical data to study the brain network mechanisms involved in reorienting attention to salient events during goal-directed visual discrimination and search tasks.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 31;36:107020. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Cognitive Brain Dynamics Laboratory, National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, NH-8, Gurugram, Haryana 122052, India.

This article presents behavior and EEG dataset collected from 19 healthy human volunteers (10 females) in the age group of 21-29 (mean = 26.9, SD = ±2.15) years at National Brain Research Centre, India during a psychophysical paradigm customized to characterize the brain network interactions during saliency processing. Read More

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