400 results match your criteria tank scenario

[Vehicle Air Pollutant Emission Inventory and Characterization in Henan Province from 2016 to 2019].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3663-3675

College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Based on the collected urban motor vehicle activity ownership and traffic flow of highways, combined with the mileage and source profiles of VOCs, using the emission factor method, we established high-resolution emission inventories from 2016 to 2019 for urban and 2016-based highway motor vehicles, respectively, in Henan Province, China. The results showed that gasoline vehicles, particularly minibuses and ordinary motorcycles, were the main contributors of CO, VOCs, and NH, whereas heavy-duty and light-duty diesel trucks emitted SO, NO, and PM. Vehicles with China 1, China 3, and China 4 emission standards contributed significantly to pollutant emissions in the fleet. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A vision of immuno-oncology: the Siena think tank of the Italian network for tumor biotherapy (NIBIT) foundation.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 23;40(1):240. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Earle A. Chiles Research Institute at the Robert W. Franz Cancer Center, 4805 NE Glisan St. Suite 2N35, Portland, OR, 97213, USA.

Background: The yearly Think Tank Meeting of the Italian Network for Tumor Biotherapy (NIBIT) Foundation, brings together in Siena, Tuscany (Italy), experts in immuno-oncology to review the learnings from current immunotherapy treatments, and to propose new pre-clinical and clinical investigations in selected research areas. MAIN: While immunotherapies in non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma led to practice changing therapies, the same therapies had only modest benefit for patients with other malignancies, such as mesothelioma and glioblastoma. One way to improve on current immunotherapies is to alter the sequence of each combination agent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seasonal fluctuation of aerosolization ratio of bioaerosols and quantitative microbial risk assessment in a wastewater treatment plant.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan, 430074, People's Republic of China.

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a vital role in public health because it can emit a large quantity of bioaerosols. Exposure to bioaerosols from WWTPs is a potential health risk to WWTP workers and surrounding residents. In this study, the seasonal fluctuation of aerosolization ratios of several bioaerosols and quantitative health risks of the WWTP workers and the surrounding residents exposed to total coliform, fecal coliform, and enterococcal bioaerosols were analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Work intensification in the road transport industry: An approach to new working scenarios with automated vehicles.

Work 2021 ;69(3):847-857

Center for Psychology at University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background: The deployment of automated vehicles is causing transport systems to undergo a transition period. Notwithstanding such technology advancements, the work activity in road transport remains severe in terms of working conditions, given an ever-increasing work intensification scenario.

Objective: To analyze the drivers' point of view over factors that determine the intensification of their work, to take preventive measures for future working conditions with automated vehicles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of different mechanical chest compression devices in the alpine rescue setting: a randomized triple crossover experiment.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2021 Jun 29;29(1):84. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, 1090, Wien, Austria.

Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mountain environment is challenging. Continuous chest compressions during transport or hoist rescue are almost impossible without mechanical chest compression devices. Current evidence is predominantly based on studies conducted by urbane ambulance service. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Extending the Heston model to forecast motor vehicle collision rates.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jun 17;159:106250. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Transport Research Institute, Edinburgh Napier University, UK.

We present an alternative approach to the forecasting of motor vehicle collision rates. We adopt an oft-used tool in mathematical finance, the Heston Stochastic Volatility model, to forecast the short-term and long-term evolution of motor vehicle collision rates. We incorporate a number of extensions to the Heston model to make it fit for modelling motor vehicle collision rates. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Respirators, face masks, and their risk reductions via multiple transmission routes for first responders within an ambulance.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2021 07 15;18(7):345-360. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Community, Environment, and Policy, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

First responders may have high SARS-CoV-2 infection risks due to working with potentially infected patients in enclosed spaces. The study objective was to estimate infection risks per transport for first responders and quantify how first responder use of N95 respirators and patient use of cloth masks can reduce these risks. A model was developed for two Scenarios: an ambulance transport with a patient actively emitting a virus in small aerosols that could lead to airborne transmission (Scenario 1) and a subsequent transport with the same respirator or mask use conditions, an uninfected patient; and remaining airborne SARS-CoV-2 and contaminated surfaces due to aerosol deposition from the previous transport (Scenario 2). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Study on bisphenol F, a bisphenol A analogue, at a dairy company: Health hazard and risk assessment.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Aug 10;154:112334. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples, Via F. Delpino, 1, 80137, Napoli, Italy. Electronic address:

The occurrence of analogues of bisphenol A (BPA), including bisphenol F(BPF) in milk is still not well known. BPF may enter the milk chain at the farm and during milk processing at the dairy company. This study identified the main BPF contamination pathways using a monitoring model based on the identification of the hazard at three stages along the dairy chain: raw milk from the storage tank, pasteurized milk from the storage tank, and cardboard packaged milk. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exposure to hazmat road accidents - Toxic release simulation and GIS-based assessment method.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 4;293:112941. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department of Environmental Engineering and Occupational Safety and Health, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000, Novi Sad, Serbia.

Industrial demand has intensified production, utilization, and transport of hazardous materials (hazmat). As the production and use of hazardous materials are frequently carried out at different locations, accidents during the transport of hazmats constantly occur. The most critical points on the hazmat routs within inhabited urban or rural areas are centres where the population with increased vulnerability reside. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Engineering of a robust Escherichia coli chassis and exploitation for large-scale production processes.

Metab Eng 2021 Jun 4;67:75-87. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

University of Stuttgart - Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Allmandring 31, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address:

In large-scale bioprocesses microbes are exposed to heterogeneous substrate availability reducing the overall process performance. A series of deletion strains was constructed from E. coli MG1655 aiming for a robust phenotype in heterogeneous fermentations with transient starvation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Emission characteristics and control scenario analysis of VOCs from heavy-duty diesel trucks.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 2;293:112915. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Urban Planning and Design, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, SAR, Hong Kong, China.

Vehicle exhaust substantially contributes to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that imperil environmental and human health. The quantitative characterization of VOCs derived from heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) at a high spatiotemporal resolution is an important prerequisite of atmospheric quality management. However, there is little knowledge about VOC emission characteristics and accurate control policies of HDDTs owing to limited fine-grained traffic activity data. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Effectiveness of containment strategies and local cognition to control vehicular traffic volume in Dhaka, Bangladesh during COVID-19 pandemic: Use of Google Map based real-time traffic data.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0252228. Epub 2021 May 27.

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: To prevent the viral transmission from higher infected to lower infected area, controlling the vehicular traffic, consequently public movement on roads is crucial. Containment strategies and local cognition regarding pandemic might be helpful to control vehicular movement. This study aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of containment strategies and local cognition for controlling traffic volume during COVID-19 pandemic in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

LCA and economic study on the local oxygen supply in Central Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 29;786:147401. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Department of Coal Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:

Medical oxygen is the key to survival for COVID-19 patients. To meet the pandemic-driven oxygen demand spike, local hospitals began searching for a suitable medical oxygen delivery system. Among the studies published on the impact of COVID-19 on a range of aspects, including the global economy and the environment, no study has been conducted on the environmental impact of medical oxygen supply to hospitals under epidemic conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Cell culture-based production and in vivo characterization of purely clonal defective interfering influenza virus particles.

BMC Biol 2021 May 3;19(1):91. Epub 2021 May 3.

Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Chair of Bioprocess Engineering, Magdeburg, Germany.

Background: Infections with influenza A virus (IAV) cause high morbidity and mortality in humans. Additional to vaccination, antiviral drugs are a treatment option. Besides FDA-approved drugs such as oseltamivir or zanamivir, virus-derived defective interfering (DI) particles (DIPs) are considered promising new agents. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reuse and recycle: Integrating aquaculture and agricultural systems to increase production and reduce nutrient pollution.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 20;785:146859. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5131, USA.

Integrated agriculture and aquaculture systems (IAAS) allow nutrients, energy, and water to flow throughout the components of the system, increasing the efficiency with which inputs are converted to food. Yet effectively designing an IAAS requires understanding how nutrients accumulate and alter the system's productivity. Here we developed a mechanistic model for nitrogen transport and utilization and parameterized it using the IAAS in He'eia, Hawai'i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Antibiotic use and potential economic impact of implementing selective dry cow therapy in large US dairies.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Aug 30;104(8):8931-8946. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Business Economics Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, 6700 EW the Netherlands.

In this study, our objectives were to evaluate the economic feasibility of implementing selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) in large US herds and to estimate the potential reduction in antibiotic use around the dry period if SDCT management is adopted. Cow-level data were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association (AgriTech, Visalia, CA) and individual dairy herds in California. Logistic regression models were used to predict the incidence risk of subclinical and clinical mastitis in the subsequent lactation for 96 last test-day somatic cell score categories. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Health and Climate Incentives for the Deployment of Cleaner On-Road Vehicle Technologies.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 30;55(10):6602-6612. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 1A4, Ontario, Canada.

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of private passenger vehicles, transit buses, and commercial vehicles with newer technology can improve air quality, and, subsequently, population exposure and public health. For the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, we estimated the burden of each vehicle fleet on population health in the units of years of life lost and premature deaths. We then assessed the separate health benefits of electrifying private vehicles, transit buses, and replacing the oldest commercial vehicles with newer trucks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reliability and financial feasibility assessment of a community rainwater harvesting system considering precipitation variability due to climate change.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 8;289:112507. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

This study proposes a community rainwater harvesting (RWH) system as an alternative water supply solution for Paikgacha, a water-scarce coastal urban area in Bangladesh. Although individual household-based RWH systems have been implemented in many areas in Bangladesh, to date, no study has been conducted designing a community RWH system and assessing its reliability and financial feasibility. This study employs historical observed and available climate model predicted future rainfall data into stormwater management model (SWMM) for rainfall-runoff simulation of the community RWH, and compares SWMM's performance with rational formula based estimation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by light and heavy duty vehicles with battery-electric, fuel cell-electric and catenary trucks.

Environ Int 2021 07 9;152:106474. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Electrochemical Process Engineering (IEK-14), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen-Str., 52428 Jülich, Germany.

The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the greatest global challenges through 2050. Besides greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, such as nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions, has gained increasing attention in agglomerated areas with transport vehicles being one of the main sources thereof. Alternative fuels that fulfill the greenhouse gas reduction goals also offer the possibility of solving the challenge of rising urban pollution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Field testing the applicability of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) during pre-crash avoidance maneuver.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 12;22(3):246-251. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Objective: Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is a promising technology for crash avoidance or pre-crash impact speed reduction through the automatic application of braking force. Implementation of AEB technology on motorcycles (MAEB) is still problematic as its interaction with the rider may compromise the safety. In previous studies, MAEB interventions at low decelerations were shown to be easily manageable by common riders in straight line condition, but they were not previously tested in lateral maneuvers such as lane change and swerving, which are common in pre-crash situations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mitigation potential of black carbon emissions from on-road vehicles in China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 13;278:116746. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing, 100084, China; Beijing Laboratory of Environmental Frontier Technologies, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, PR China. Electronic address:

Black carbon (BC) is the most potent light-absorbing component of particulate matter and can have a significant warming impact. On-road vehicles are a major source of BC and a significant contributor to global warming. This paper establishes an updated inventory to quantify the mitigation potential of efforts to control BC emissions from on-road transportation in China. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Carbon Emission Calculation Model for Roadside Parking.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 16;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China.

With the sustained and rapid development of China's national economy, the number of motor vehicles owned by families in cities is rapidly growing. Consequently, problems of traffic congestion and air pollution have also appeared in these cities. Roadside parking traffic has also become an important part of the transportation system in cities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Automated vehicle crash sequences: Patterns and potential uses in safety testing.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 9;153:106017. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Traffic Operations and Safety Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Address: 1415 Engineering Dr, Madison, WI, 53706, United States. Electronic address:

With safety being one of the primary motivations for developing automated vehicles (AVs), extensive field and simulation tests are being carried out to ensure AVs can operate safely on roadways. Since 2014, the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) has been collecting AV collision and disengagement reports, which are valuable data sources for studying AV crash patterns. A crash sequence of events describes the AV's interactions with other road users before a collision in a temporal manner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Private versus Shared, Automated Electric Vehicles for U.S. Personal Mobility: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Grid Integration, and Cost Impacts.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 03 10;55(5):3229-3239. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099, United States.

Transportation is the fastest-growing source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption globally. While the convergence of shared mobility, vehicle automation, and electrification has the potential to drastically reduce transportation impacts, it requires careful integration with rapidly evolving electricity systems. Here, we examine these interactions using a U. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Defining crash configurations for Powered Two-Wheelers: Comparing ISO 13232 to recent in-depth crash data from Germany, India and China.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Mar 30;151:105957. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmersplatsen 4, 412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The motorcyclist safety standard ISO 13232, based on crash data from Europe and the USA from the 1970s, still sets the direction for the development and evaluation of protective measures today. However, it is unclear how relevant the crash configurations in the standard are to present-day motorcycle crashes in Europe, the USA and other parts of the world. We analyzed recent in-depth crash data from Germany, India and China, examining powered two-wheeler (PTW) crash configurations in which at least one police-reported serious injury was present. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Contamination Transport in the Coastal Unconfined Aquifer under the Influences of Seawater Intrusion and Inland Freshwater Recharge-Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 18;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China.

The coupled effect of seawater intrusion and inland freshwater recharge plays an important role in contamination transport in coastal heterogeneous aquifer. In this study, the effects of seawater intrusion and inland recharge on contamination transport were investigated by conducting laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. The laboratory tests were conducted in a sand tank considering two scenarios, namely the conditions of landward and seaward hydraulic gradients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Design and Implementation of Intelligent Agent Training Systems for Virtual Vehicles.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 12;21(2). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Ecuador 3519, Estación Central, Santiago 9170124, Chile.

This paper presents the results of the design, simulation, and implementation of a virtual vehicle. Such a process employs the Unity videogame platform and its Machine Learning-Agents library. The virtual vehicle is implemented in Unity considering mechanisms that represent accurately the dynamics of a real automobile, such as motor torque curve, suspension system, differential, and anti-roll bar, among others. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Deriving functional safety (ISO 26262) S-parameters for vulnerable road users from national crash data.

J Krampe M Junge

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Feb 21;150:105884. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany.

Currently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and automated vehicles (AV) are designed for use in the existing road infrastructure. These partially and fully automated vehicles will be operated in a shared space not only with other vehicles but also with vulnerable road users (VRU). Even though crashes between ADAS equipped vehicles or AV and VRU seem inevitable in such a scenario, functional safety, i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Optimal storage sizing for indoor arena rainwater harvesting: Hydraulic simulation and economic assessment.

J Environ Manage 2021 Feb 23;280:111847. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Water Innovation & Research Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom; KWR Water Research Institute, PO Box 1072, 3430, BB, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

This study demonstrates a large roof (30,000 m) rainwater harvesting (RWH) system in an indoor arena by considering three water demand scenarios (toilet flushing, irrigation and combined demand) via hydraulic and economic assessments. The water saving efficiency (WSE) of the RWH system for each scenario was estimated by a simulation model using historical daily rainfall data (1968-2018). Depending on the water demand, the WSE was found to be independent of tank size when the tank size exceeded 1000 m. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Research of fatal car-to-pedestrian precrash scenarios for the testing of the active safety system in China.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Feb 5;150:105857. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Chongqing Jiaotong University, College of Traffic & Transportation, 400074, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Road safety remains a challenge with numerous Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) suffering from injuries and death every year. Pedestrian protection using active safety systems, such as Automated Emergency Braking (AEB), is an effective measure to combat the situation. Furthermore, the perception of precrash scenarios plays an important role in active safety research. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021