47 results match your criteria tad pilus

AFM force-clamp spectroscopy captures the nanomechanics of the Tad pilus retraction.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 06;6(6):489-496

Louvain Institute of Biomolecular Science and Technology, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud, 4-5, bte, L7.07.07, Louvain-la-Neuve B-1348, Belgium.

Motorization of bacterial pili is key to generate traction forces to achieve cellular function. The Tad (or Type IVc) pilus from Caulobacter crescentus is a widespread motorized nanomachine crucial for bacterial survival, evolution and virulence. An unusual bifunctional ATPase motor drives Tad pilus retraction, which helps the bacteria to land on target surfaces. Read More

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AFM Unravels the Unique Adhesion Properties of the Type IVc Pilus Nanomachine.

Nano Lett 2021 04 23;21(7):3075-3082. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Louvain Institute of Biomolecular Science and Technology, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud, 4-5, bte, L7.07.07., B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Bacterial pili are proteinaceous motorized nanomachines that play various functional roles including surface adherence, bacterial motion, and virulence. The surface-contact sensor type IVc (or Tad) pilus is widely distributed in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In , this nanofilament, though crucial for surface colonization, has never been thoroughly investigated at the molecular level. Read More

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Characterization and Phylogenetic Distribution of Extracellular Matrix Components in the Model Rhizobacteria F113 and Other Pseudomonads.

Microorganisms 2020 Nov 6;8(11). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, c/Darwin 2, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Biofilms are complex structures that are crucial during host-bacteria interaction and colonization. Bacteria within biofilms are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) typically composed of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and DNA. Pseudomonads contain a variety of ECM components, some of which have been extensively characterized. Read More

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November 2020

Distinctive gene and protein characteristics of extremely piezophilic Colwellia.

BMC Genomics 2020 Oct 6;21(1):692. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0202, USA.

Background: The deep ocean is characterized by low temperatures, high hydrostatic pressures, and low concentrations of organic matter. While these conditions likely select for distinct genomic characteristics within prokaryotes, the attributes facilitating adaptation to the deep ocean are relatively unexplored. In this study, we compared the genomes of seven strains within the genus Colwellia, including some of the most piezophilic microbes known, to identify genomic features that enable life in the deep sea. Read More

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October 2020

Transcriptome profiling of EPS under different growth conditions reveals regulatory and structural novelty in biofilm formation.

Access Microbiol 2020 3;2(6):acmi000121. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Biology Department, California State University San Bernardino, San Bernardino, CA, USA.

We used transcriptome analysis by paired-end strand-specific RNA-seq to evaluate the specific changes in gene expression associated with the transition to static biofilm growth in the rhizosphere plant growth-promoting bacterium EPS. Triplicate biological samples of exponential growth, stationary phase and static biofilm samples were examined. DESeq2 and Rockhopper were used to identify robust and widespread shifts in gene expression specific to each growth phase. Read More

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Genetic Variants of the DSF Quorum Sensing System in Influence Virulence and Resistance Phenotypes Among Genotypically Diverse Clinical Isolates.

Front Microbiol 2020 3;11:1160. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain.

The pathogenicity of is regulated in part by its quorum sensing (QS) system. The main QS signaling molecule in is known as diffusible signal factor (DSF), and the gene cluster is responsible for its synthesis and perception. Two cluster variants have been previously described, -1 and -2, which differ basically in the conditions under which DSF is produced. Read More

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Immunopotentiation of the engineered low-molecular-weight pilin targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A combination of immunoinformatics investigation and active immunization.

Mol Immunol 2020 08 12;124:70-82. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Several vaccine candidates have been introduced for immunization against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Despite extensive efforts in recent decades, there is no accurate immunogenic candidate against this pathogen in the market yet. Due to the rapid increase in several drug-resistant strains, P. Read More

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A bifunctional ATPase drives tad pilus extension and retraction.

Sci Adv 2019 12 18;5(12):eaay2591. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E. 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

A widespread class of prokaryotic motors powered by secretion motor adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) drives the dynamic extension and retraction of extracellular fibers, such as type IV pili (T4P). Among these, the tight adherence (tad) pili are critical for surface sensing and biofilm formation. As for most other motors belonging to this class, how tad pili retract despite lacking a dedicated retraction motor ATPase has remained a mystery. Read More

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December 2019

Comparative genomic analysis of the Hafnia genus reveals an explicit evolutionary relationship between the species alvei and paralvei and provides insights into pathogenicity.

BMC Genomics 2019 Oct 23;20(1):768. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology of the Ministry of Education, TEDA College, Nankai University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Background: The Hafnia genus is an opportunistic pathogen that has been implicated in both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Although Hafnia is fairly often isolated from clinical material, its taxonomy has remained an unsolved riddle, and the involvement and importance of Hafnia in human disease is also uncertain. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis to define the taxonomy of Hafnia, identify species-specific genes that may be the result of ecological and pathogenic specialization, and reveal virulence-related genetic profiles that may contribute to pathogenesis. Read More

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October 2019

Comparative genomics of Aeromonas veronii: Identification of a pathotype impacting aquaculture globally.

PLoS One 2019 29;14(8):e0221018. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

Aeromonas veronii is a gram-negative species abundant in aquatic environments that causes disease in humans as well as terrestrial and aquatic animals. In the current study, 41 publicly available A. veronii genomes were compared to investigate distribution of putative virulence genes, global dissemination of pathotypes, and potential mechanisms of virulence. Read More

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A stealth adhesion factor contributes to Vibrio vulnificus pathogenicity: Flp pili play roles in host invasion, survival in the blood stream and resistance to complement activation.

PLoS Pathog 2019 08 22;15(8):e1007767. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun-gun, Jeonnam, Republic of Korea.

The tad operons encode the machinery required for adhesive Flp (fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein) pili biogenesis. Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic pathogen, harbors three distinct tad loci. Among them, only tad1 locus was highly upregulated in in vivo growing bacteria compared to in vitro culture condition. Read More

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Calcium-dependent site-switching regulates expression of the atypical iam pilus locus in Vibrio vulnificus.

Environ Microbiol 2020 10 16;22(10):4167-4182. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Biology, Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

The opportunistic human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus inhabits warm coastal waters and asymptomatically colonizes seafood, most commonly oysters. We previously characterized an isolate that exhibited greater biofilm formation, aggregation and oyster colonization than its parent. This was due, in part, to the production of a Type IV Tad pilus (Iam). Read More

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October 2020

Diversification of the type IV filament superfamily into machines for adhesion, protein secretion, DNA uptake, and motility.

PLoS Biol 2019 07 19;17(7):e3000390. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Microbial Evolutionary Genomics, Institut Pasteur, CNRS, UMR3525, Paris, France.

Processes of molecular innovation require tinkering and shifting in the function of existing genes. How this occurs in terms of molecular evolution at long evolutionary scales remains poorly understood. Here, we analyse the natural history of a vast group of membrane-associated molecular systems in Bacteria and Archaea-the type IV filament (TFF) superfamily-that diversified in systems involved in flagellar or twitching motility, adhesion, protein secretion, and DNA uptake. Read More

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Tad Pili Play a Dynamic Role in Caulobacter crescentus Surface Colonization.

mBio 2019 06 18;10(3). Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Bacterial surface attachment is mediated by filamentous appendages called pili. Here, we describe the role of Tad pili during surface colonization of Using an optical trap and microfluidic controlled flow conditions to mimic natural environments, we demonstrated that Tad pili undergo repeated dynamic cycles of extension and retraction. Within seconds after establishing surface contact, pilus retraction reorients cells into an upright position, promoting walking-like movements against the medium flow. Read More

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The Tad Pilus Apparatus of ' Liberibacter asiaticus' and Its Regulation by VisNR.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2019 Sep 31;32(9):1175-1187. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC), Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL 33850, U.S.A.

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus plants. ' Liberibacter asiaticus', an uncultivated α-proteobacteria, is the most widely spread causal agent of HLB and is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid . '. Read More

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September 2019

The Dynamic Structures of the Type IV Pilus.

Microbiol Spectr 2019 03;7(2)

Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.

Type IV pilus (T4P)-like systems have been identified in almost every major phylum of prokaryotic life. They include the type IVa pilus (T4aP), type II secretion system (T2SS), type IVb pilus (T4bP), Tad/Flp pilus, Com pilus, and archaeal flagellum (archaellum). These systems are used for adhesion, natural competence, phage adsorption, folded-protein secretion, surface sensing, swimming motility, and twitching motility. Read More

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The roles of flp1 and tadD in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pilus biosynthesis and pathogenicity.

Microb Pathog 2019 Jan 10;126:310-317. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China; Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine in Hubei Province, The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China; Key Laboratory of Development of Veterinary Diagnostic Products, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China; International Research Center for Animal Disease, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Pili have been demonstrated to contribute to the pathogenicity of many bacterial pathogens. Flp pilus encoded by the tad locus belongs to the type IVb pilus. Our previous study has revealed that the intact tad locus is essential for Flp pilus formation in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a very important porcine respiratory pathogen. Read More

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January 2019

A Bifidobacterial pilus-associated protein promotes colonic epithelial proliferation.

Mol Microbiol 2019 01 2;111(1):287-301. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

APC Microbiome Ireland, National University of Ireland, Western Road, Cork, Ireland.

Development of the human gut microbiota commences at birth, with certain bifidobacterial species representing dominant and early colonisers of the newborn gastrointestinal tract. The molecular basis of Bifidobacterium colonisation, persistence and presumed communication with the host has remained obscure. We previously identified tight adherence (Tad) pili from Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 as an essential colonisation factor. Read More

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January 2019

Staying alive: growth and survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 10;102(24):10645-10663. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

APC Microbiome Ireland and School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork, Ireland.

Members of the Bifidobacterium genus are widely used as probiotics in fermented milk products. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis CNCM I-4602 grows and survives poorly in reconstituted skimmed milk (RSM). Read More

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December 2018

Pleiotropic control of antibiotic biosynthesis, flagellar operon expression, biofilm formation, and carbon source utilization by RpoN in Pseudomonas protegens H78.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Nov 21;102(22):9719-9730. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Laboratory on Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens H78 biosynthesizes a number of antibiotic compounds, including pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, and pyrrolnitrin. Here, we investigated the global regulatory function of the nitrogen metabolism-related sigma factor RpoN in P. protegens H78 through RNA-seq and phenotypic analysis. Read More

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November 2018

Function and Regulation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Cell Surface Structures that Promote Attachment.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018;418:143-184

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens attaches stably to plant host tissues and abiotic surfaces. During pathogenesis, physical attachment to the site of infection is a prerequisite to infection and horizontal gene transfer to the plant. Virulent and avirulent strains may also attach to plant tissue in more benign plant associations, and as with other soil microbes, to soil surfaces in the terrestrial environment. Read More

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A Tad pilus promotes the establishment and resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance.

NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2018 23;4:10. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

1Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University of Bloomington, Bloomington, IN USA.

is autochthonous to estuaries and warm coastal waters. Infection occurs via open wounds or ingestion, where its asymptomatic colonization of seafood, most infamously oysters, provides a gateway into the human food chain. Colonization begins with initial surface contact, which is often mediated by bacterial surface appendages called pili. Read More

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A conserved tad pilus promotes Vibrio vulnificus oyster colonization.

Environ Microbiol 2018 02 29;20(2):828-841. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University Bloomington, IN, USA.

Vibrio vulnificus has the highest death rate (>35%) and per-case economic burden ($3.3 million) of any foodborne pathogen in the United States. Infections occur via open wounds or following ingestion of contaminated seafood, most infamously oysters. Read More

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February 2018

More than a Tad: spatiotemporal control of Caulobacter pili.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 04 21;42:79-86. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

The Type IV pilus (T4P) is a powerful and sophisticated bacterial nanomachine involved in numerous cellular processes, including adhesion, DNA uptake and motility. Aside from the well-described subtype T4aP of the Gram-negative genera, including Myxococcus, Pseudomonas and Neisseria, the Tad (tight adherence) pilus secretion system re-shuffles homologous parts from other secretion systems along with uncharacterized components into a new type of protein translocation apparatus. A representative of the Tad apparatus, the Caulobacter crescentus pilus assembly (Cpa) machine is built exclusively at the newborn cell pole once per cell cycle. Read More

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Identification and Characterization of Differentially-Regulated Type IVb Pilin Genes Necessary for Predation in Obligate Bacterial Predators.

Sci Rep 2017 04 21;7(1):1013. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an obligate predator of bacteria that grows and divides within the periplasm of its prey. Functions involved in the early steps of predation have been identified and characterized, but mediators of prey invasion are still poorly detailed. By combining omics data available for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALO's), we identified 43 genes expressed in B. Read More

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B Infecting Murine Macrophages Reveals New Mechanisms of Extracellular and Intracellular Survival.

Infect Immun 2015 Jul 20;83(7):2672-85. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California, USA

Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. Read More

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Novel Flp pilus biogenesis-dependent natural transformation.

Front Microbiol 2015 10;6:84. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Lehrstuhl für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität München Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

Natural transformation has been described in bacterial species spread through nearly all major taxonomic groups. However, the current understanding of the structural components and the regulation of competence development is derived from only a few model organisms. Although natural transformation was discovered in members of the Actinobacteria (high GC Gram-positive bacteria) more than four decades ago, the structural components or the regulation of the competence system have not been studied in any representative of the entire phylum. Read More

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February 2015

The Ctp type IVb pilus locus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens directs formation of the common pili and contributes to reversible surface attachment.

J Bacteriol 2014 Aug 9;196(16):2979-88. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

Agrobacterium tumefaciens can adhere to plant tissues and abiotic surfaces and forms biofilms. Cell surface appendages called pili play an important role in adhesion and biofilm formation in diverse bacterial systems. The A. Read More

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Role and regulation of the Flp/Tad pilus in the virulence of Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 and Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

PLoS One 2013 9;8(9):e73718. Epub 2013 Sep 9.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

In this study, we characterized a putative Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster, and we examined its regulation at the transcriptional level and its role in the virulence of potato pathogenic enterobacteria of the genus Pectobacterium. The Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene clusters in Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium wasabiae and Pectobacterium aroidearum were compared to previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters, including that of the well-studied Flp/Tad pilus model organism Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, in which this pilus is a major virulence determinant. Comparative analyses revealed substantial protein sequence similarity and open reading frame synteny between the previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters and the cluster in Pectobacterium, suggesting that the predicted flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium encodes a Flp/Tad pilus-like structure. Read More

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa twitching motility: type IV pili in action.

Lori L Burrows

Annu Rev Microbiol 2012 2;66:493-520. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Type IV pili (T4P) are one of the most common forms of bacterial and archaeal surface structures, involved in adherence, motility, competence for DNA uptake, and pathogenesis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as one of the key model systems for the investigation of T4P structure and function. Although its reputation as a serious nosocomial and opportunistic pathogen is well deserved, its facile growth requirements and the ready availability of molecular tools have allowed for rapid advances in our understanding of how T4P are assembled; their contributions to motility, biofilm formation and virulence; and their complex regulation. Read More

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January 2013